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ANIMAL CREATION-FISH, MOLLUSCS, INSECTS, &c or taming him; his vast size, his impenetrable scales, his LIZARD. The word, about the meaning of shieb flashing

eyes, his snorting, and his immense strength, there is no question, occurs only in LT. ii. S. The Being the animal of the Nile, it was the symbol of number of lizards in Palestine is immense, and more Egypt (Isa. li. 9). The crocodile is not only still found in than 20 species are known there. great numbers in the Upper Nile, but also in Palestine. TORTOISE. Both land and water tortoises are es! I obtained one from the Zerka marsh, under Mount Car: tremely common. The word occurs in Ler. uitat mel, where it was killeri by some Arab shepherds, and I the original is supposed to espress some kind of haar bare often seen its footmarks.

perhaps the Dabb (Cromastic spinipis).

No distinction of fishes, beyond good and bad, is given in the Bible. They were studied by Solomon (1 King iv. 33), and were artificially preserved (Cant. vii. 4; Isa. xix. 10). The quantity of fish in the lake of Galee is still marvellous, the shoals forming dense masses. All the fishes of that lake, and of the Jordan, are distades from the fishes of the rivers which flow into the Mediterranean.

INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS. ANT. Pror. vi. 8; XIX. 25. The ants of Palestine, 1 HORSE-LEECH. Prof. IX. 15. Both horse-led especially Atta structor and Pheidole megacephala, are, and medicinal leech are very common in every weil and unlike the species of northern Europe, accustomed to lay stream, and often attach themselves to the nostrils and up stores of corn for winter use. The habit was well lips of animals, causing much pain known to the ancient Jews, and to modern observers. LICE. Only mentioned

in reference to the Egyptian BALD-LOCUST. Lev. xi. 22. A class of insects plague. This vermin is one of the pests of the East, and allied to the locust, called by naturalists Trualis. its existence on the person rendered an Egyptian ere

BEE. Honey bees, wild and hived, abound in Pales- monially polluted. tine, a land flowing with honey. Its dry climate, its rich LOCUŚT. Continually referred to and in its difeest variety and abundance of aromatic flowers, and its lime- species and stages describei ly at least nine different stone rocks (P3. Ixxxi. 16), render it peculiarly adapted words. They are the worst scourge of the Fec sod for bees. Honey was an article of export (Gen. xliii. 11; | unlike beetles and other insects, are equally Tornais Ezek. xxvii. 17). Not only in rocks, but in hollow trees every stage of their existence. There are very s (1 Sam. xiv. 25), or in dried carcases (Judg. xiv. 8), do different species. They always come in their class with bees hive Jewish domestic hires are of clay for cool an east wind, and nothing checks them tol they are Dess.

The Word of God is compared to honey for its driven by the wind into the sea (Exod ... sweetness (Ps. xix. 10). Deborah (bee) was a favourite MOTH. The clothes' moth is the only insect of this woman's name. The bee of Palestine is Apis fasciata. class mentioned.

BEETLE. Lev. xi. 22, where it is described as “hav. ONYCHA. Exod. 1 34. The shield or opere ing legs above its feet to leap withal". Some species of of many kinds of sbell fish burnt to form an mga ei locust is therefore meant,

in frankincense, as it has a strong pungent sinell CANKERWORM. Joel i. 4; ii. 25; Xah. iii. 15. &c. PALMERWÓRM. Joel i. 4; 1; Amos iv 9 tai The locust in its larva or caterpillar state, in which, be in a vague sense for the locust, probably in its larva daie fore it has acquired wings, it is most destructive.

PEARL. Job xxvii. 18; Matt. vii. 6; xii. 45. &c. CATERPILLAR. Ps. lxxviii. 45; Isa. xxxiii. 4, &c. Found in the shells of the pearl oyster in the Red Probably the locust in general. The Hebrew word signi Sea and Persian Gulf, and always a highly priad fies the consumer".

gem. CORAL. Job xxviii. 18; Ezek. xxvii. 16. The coral PURPLE. The dye used to produce a bright scarlet of the commerce of Tyre was that of the Red Sea, the and prepared from several shell-tish which abound on finest in the world. There is in the Hebrew a peculiar the Syrian coast, Murex and Purpur. force in the expression in Job translated "the price of SCORPION. Deut. viii. 13 : Ezech. ii. 6; Labe I 19; wisdom". It is literally the drawing up of wisdom". Rev. ix. 5, &c. Very common in all hot, dry, stoly plaas

CRIMSON WORM. Isa i. 18; Lam. iv. 5; Xeh. ii. It is of the shape of a lobster, and is often 6 incha bez 3; and "scarlet" (Exod. xxv. 4, &c.), 'worm" being Its habit

is to hide under stones, and on being distorted omitted in our translation, is the cochineal (Coccus. it will sting sererely with the sharp claw at the end ! ilicis), an homopterous insect very common on the the tail, which secretes an acrid poison Syrian holm-oak, from the female of which the crimson SNAIL, Ps. Iviii. &. Snails, in our cold climate, tister! dye is prepareul.

nate in winter. In Palestine, on the contrary, they sleep FLEA. 1 Sam. xxiv. 14 ; xxvi. 20, where this pest is in summer, as they are unable to bear the evaporation of spoken of as the most insigniticant of vermin.

the dry, bot season. The allusion of the Psalmist is te FLY. Two woris are thus translated. 'Ainh (Exod. the fact that, very commonly, when tbey bare secured viii., &c.), in the plague of flies, is probably the common themselves in some chink of the rocks for tbeir summer house fly; zebub (Eccles. x. 1; Isa. vii. 18) is the gad-fy, sleep, they are still exposed to the sun's rays, wish the tsetse of Africa, a fearful scourge to cattie.

gradually evaporate and dry up the whole of the body, GNAT (Matt. xxii. 21), i.e. the mosquito, one of the till the animal is shrivelled to a thread. and, as it vera smallest, but the inost irritating of insect plagues,

melted away. Myriads of snails may be found tha3 GRASSHOPPER. Lev. xi. 22; Eccles. xii. 5, &c. The baked away, still glued to the rock. smaller species of the locust tribe, of which there are WORM. Several Hebrew words are this reddere innuinerable kindls.

Sas (Isa. li. 8) is the caterpillar of the clothes both HORNET. Exod. xxiii. 28: Deut. vii. 20; Josh. xxiv. 12. Other words used elsewhere may mean earthworms o Very common, and of several species. When disturbed, the maggots of insects; but it is impossible to detine each they attack horses and cattle, and drive them to madness. word exactly,


Late Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, and Lecturer on Hebrero and the Old Testament.

It is not less instructive than interesting to regard the in the background. The Old Testament writings have Old Testament writings from a literary as well as a reli- few of what we are accustomed to call the forms of poetry, gious point of view. The Old Testament is one of the -no metre, only a slight tendency to rhyme, and a standard literatures of the world; it expresses religious stronger but unequal tendency to alliteration. This de. emotion with a greater depth and purity than any other fect is compensated for by rhythm. Hebrew poetry, as we literature. How are we to account for its distinguishing have seen, is the poetry of emotion, and emotion, like the superiority in this respect ?--The ultimate reason is no sea, expresses itself, not in the onward rush of a single doubt the will of God, but so far as we can trace the gigantic breaker, but in the rise and fall of a succession method of the Divine operations, it is not His will to dis- of waves; or, to speak without figure, each verse of a regard the habits and modes of thought of His human Hebrew lyric consists of a couplet, a double couplet, or a instruments. Each nation has a special function to fulfil triplet (really a shortened form of the double couplet). in accordance with its gifts and capacities, and the func- For an example (a) of the simplest kind, take this halftion of the Jews was determined in advance by their verse of the psalm of Hezekiah :language and their social circumstances. The tongue "Mine eyes fail with looking upward: which they spoke is but ill-adapted for historical or O LORD, I am oppressed ; undertake for me." argumentative prose, owing to its vagueness in expressing

(1sat. XXXVill. 14.) the relations of time and the sequences of reasoning ; but Here the first line expresses the effort of continual exit can reproduce with a vividness, which is the despair of pectation; the second, its failure, and the appeal for help translators, the most delicate shades of feeling and to a higher power. The two lines are parallel, but the emotion. The circumstances of the Jews were equally

parallelism of the thoughts is incomplete. favourable to a literature of religious sentiment. They For specimens of complete parallelism, take the followwere not a nation of philosophers, nor had they a soul

ing:stirring political history to kindle the genius of their “When Israel went out of Egypt, narrators. They were a hot-blooded Eastern people, feel

The house of Jacob from a people of strange language;

Judah became his sanctuary, ing intensely about everything, and wholly absorbed in

Israel his dominion. each passing emotion. Hence we may account for the

The sea saw. and Aed :

Jordan was driven back. apparent want of connexion of so many passages in the

The mountains skipped like rams, Psalms and in the Prophecies. The connexion is in

The hills like the young of the flock. fluenced by the feelings of the writer, and how easily,

What ailed thee, O sea, that thou fleddest !

Thou Jordan, that thou wast driven back! not to say accidentally, does one emotion give place

Ye mountains, that ye skipped like rams? to another! Again, the Israelites were an agricultural

Ye little hills, like the young of the flock ?

Tremble, thou earth, at the presence of the LORD, people. Their occupation brought them into constant

At the presence of the God of Jacob; contact with nature, and we are therefore not surprised Who turned the bard rock into a standing water,

The fint into a fountain of waters,"

(Ps. exiv.] to find that images from nature contribute largely to their literary material. The Old Testament is well worthy Here we have what is called synonymous parallelism of stuciy from this point of view, as well as others. of (h) that is, the two lines express exactly the same idea. course, being such an emotional people, the Israelites do This is the most common type of parallelism. See also not love nature for its own sake, nor can they even de-Ps. vi. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10; viii. 3–8; Prov. iii. 1,8–25; Isa. scribe a beautiful scene in its totality:-they instinctively

liii. 1–5; 1x. 1-3.) limit themselves to that particular feature which in some

And these,

"The bows of the mighty men are broken, way illustrates the mood or temper of the moment. In

And they that stumbled are girded with strength. a word, they use nature as a magazine of symbols. The The full have hired themselves out for brend. reader should bear this in mind, as he will otherwise be

And the hungry keep holiday :

So that the barren hath borne seven, surprised at the confusion of imagery in Hebrew poetry.

And she that hath many children languisheth." The rapid transition from one figure to another is not

(1 Sam. IL 4,5) capricious nor accidental, but dictated by an overpower

"Faithful are the wounds of a friend,

But deceitful are the kisses of an enemy. ing desire for a more complete rendering of feeling and

The full soul loatheth an honeycomb. emotion. See especially 1 Kings xiv. 16; Isa. viii. 8; xi. But to the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweet." 10; xxviii. 1-6.

(Prov. xxvii. 6.7.1 Among such a people lyric poetry was sure to flourish; Here we have what is called antithetic parallelism (c), and even when God raised up those revealers of His will that is, the two lines correspond by an antithesis or oppoand nature-the prophets, it was inevitable that their sition of sentiments. (This type of parallelism abounds popular discourses should partake of a lyric character. in the Book of Proverbs, especially in chaps. X.-Xv. In Every here and there we meet in the prophecies with a the Psalms it is much less common ; see however Ps. verse or two which might well have belonged to a Psalm, xxxiv. 11; xxxvii. 9, 17, 21, 22 Isa. I. 3; liv. 7, 8, are and even with connected lyrical passages (see e.g. the also fine examples.) magnificent odes in Isa. xiv. 4-21; and Hab. iii.). A Sometimes, however (d), there is a bifurcation of a similar remark applies to the reflective poem on the cala- verse, without either complete or incomplete parallelism: mities of the righteous, which bears the name of Job. for instance, And even the narrative-writers, when they rise into a

* God looked down from heaven upon the children of men,

To see if there were any that did understand, that did seek God." higher tone, naturally and without an effort adopt the

[Pa xiv. 2) rhythmical forms of lyric poetry, e.g. Gen. i. 27; ix. 25--- "Moreover by them is thy servant warned: 27 ; xxiv. 60; xxvii. 27-29, 39, 40. One may fairly say that

In keeping of them there is great reward." (Ps. xix. 12.) a rigorous distinction between poetry and prose was un

* The LORD at thy right hand

Shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath." known to the Israelitish writers, as it still is to nations

(Ps. 1. 5.) on a low level of worldly culture. Such being the con. ditions under which the Jewish literature arose, we shall

• The later Hebrew poetry (since the 7th century AD.) has how.

ever availed itself of both rhyme and metre, following the example not be surprised to find the artistic element somewhat of the Araba

HEBREW POETRY. * Open thou mine eyes, that I may behold

of Solomon itonly occurs in a feeble, sporadie way. Asd * Wondrous things out of thy law."

[P's, cxix. 18)

we turn to the Jewish liturgical literature of the period "Let the wicked fall into their own nets, Whilst that I withal escape.

[Ps all. 19.) between Ezra and the Christian era, we obtain the same " And the shameful thing. hath devoured the gains of our fathers result, as the reader may easily see from Eock Ixfrom our youth.

24, which is, in fact, a liturgical formula of rery early Their flocks and their herds, their sons and their daughters."

date :

(Jer. ill. 24.) This merely rhythmic structure of the verse is fre

* Now therefore bless ye the God of all,

Which only dueth wondrous thinks everywhere, quently found in the prophecies, particularly in the Which exaiteth our days fruar the wa Books of Hosea and Jeremiah. Hosea is too much ab

Aud dewleth with us atuning to luis tuercy.

He grant us Joyfulness of heart, sorbed by passionate feeling, Jeremiah too much de

And that peace may be m vur dass in Israel for eve: pressed by melancholy, to give full play to æsthetic sensi That he would confirm hais met will os, bility. A careful attention to these four types of verse

And deliver us at his time! will unveil an unsuspected beauty in Hebrew poetry. If It is true the verses in this fragment fall into con the reader will only refer to some edition of the Bible in lets and quatrains, but parallelism, as descrita abre which the parallel lines are printed separately, he in its complete form does not exist. will soon see how much the Authorised Version gains therefore expect to find it in the New Testament, sei thereby in distinctness. He must not, as has been where it does exist, it is by accident The Sew Testacei already remarked, contine his search for parallelism is in the main didactic and historical, and not artist to those which are commonly called the poetical books, prose and pot poetry. nor even (it may now be added) to the Old Testa But the study of parallelism appeals to other interests ment. Sporadic instances of this form of elevated rhetoric than the asthetic. It will often enable us to est2.35a occur in the New Testament, especially in the Sermon the probability of competing interpretations of 5 on the Mount and the Book of the Revelation, such as cult passages. If, for instance, we find that ever the following :

synonymous or antithetic parallelisin prerais in a "Ask, and it shall be given unto you;

particular chapter or paragraph, there is a pesos Beek, und ve slall find;

tion against any interpretation which tea is to destra Knock, and it shall be opened unto you

its uniformity. In Gen. iv. 23, for example, the *** For every one who asketh. receiveth; And he who seeketh findeth;

Jewa built a romantic story on the mention
And to him who knocketh, it shall be orened.
For what man is there
among you, who, il his son ask for a loal, murdered by Lamech.

man" or "child” as well as a "man" as haring be will give him a stone!

But by the law of EDOC Or, if he ask a fish, will give him a serpent?

parallelism, only one person and one murier car de If ye, then, being evil, know how to rive good gifts to your intended. This remark is fruitful of application to the

children, How much more will your Father in heaven give good things prophetic writings. It may be added as a fresh prod to those who ask him."

(Mail vil 7-11) the adaptation of the Bible to its vorid-wide functio * And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great mill-stone, and that this peculiar poetical or rather rhetorica) fond cast it into the sea, saying:

parallelism exists in various degrees in the Patrioca Thus with violence shall be thrown down Babylon the grert Assyrian, Egyptian, Chinese, and other literatarss The And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and flute-players, deficiency of the Bible in assthetic respects is more tiss and trumpeters, shall be heard in thee no more:

counterbalanced by its engaging naturalness Had it And any craftsinan of any craft shall be found in thee no more:

been greater as a work of art, it could never hare became And the sound of a mill-stone shall be heard in thee no more :

the religious book of such widely different pations And the light of a lamp shall be seen in thee no more:

Rhythm and parallelism, however, are not toe ons And the voice of bridegroom and bride shall be heard in thee no more:

characteristics of Hebrew poetry. There are evideos Por thy inerchants were great ones of the earth:

enough that lyric poems are often arranged with a ver For by thy sorceries were all the nations deceived ; And in her hath been found the blood of prophets and saints,

to the symmetry of their parts. See, for instance, Praias And of all those wbo have been sain upon the earth

xlii. 5, 11 ; Iliii. 5; xlvi. 7, 11 : lvi. 4. 10.11; drü. &, 11; lik

[Rev. xviii. 21-21.) 6, 10, 14, 17; lxii 1, 2, 5, 6; lxvii. 3, 5; lxxx. 3,7.19: SOLL The latter passage is taken from a chapter which strik 3,9; cvii. 6, 13, 19, 28-8, 15, 21, 31; cxliv. 7 (atter part, ingly reminds us of Ezekiel; it is rhythmical, but not 8, 11. These passages present clear indications of refraise strictly parallelistic: the former is an independent repro- and consequently of something approaching to a strophie duction of the manner of the best proverbial poetry, and division, like that of the Greek choruses. It is Dos, is a good specimen of parallelism. With the latter we deed, equally clear that the strophes or stanzas indicatei may compare the Song of Mary (Luke i. 46-55), the song by these refrains are always of equal length (tbragt of Zacharias (Luke i. 67–79), and the Song of Symeon they are very nearly equal in Psalins xlii and xli (Luke ii. 28-32). These are all directly based on Old originally one Psalm; lxvii., xcix.). Sometimes indeed Testament models. It is much more difficult to produce the want of symmetry can be accounted for by the bike connected passages exemplifying genuine parallelism in racter of the poem. Thus in the lamentaton orer Sesi au unartificial manner. Bishop Jebb has indeed attempted and Jonathan (2 Sam. i. 19-97), which falls into five it, but the result has been universally rejected by Biblical stanzas or strophes (viz. I., vs. 19, 20; IL, 2, 3; III, scholars. The fact is that after the return from Babylon 24; IV., 3, 26; V., 27), the first three consist of d lines the older literary forms were only kept up by the zeal of each, the fourth of only five, the fifth of twa This enthusiastic students of the earlier scriptures, and their gradual diminution is evidently designed, and contri disappearance was only a question of time. Feclesias- butes to the effect of the poem. It is as if the voice ticus and the so-called Psalms of Solomon, both written of the speaker became fainter and fainter as his epotica originally in Hebrew, the one about 180 B.C., the other increased, till it died away in a sigh. The same phe after the murder of Pompeius, 48 B.C., are the last speci- nomenon will be observed in other similar mens of genuine parallelism. In the Apocryphal Wisdom in the elegy on Israel's princes in Eæk, sir stabus I

=vs. 2–9, stanza II. -rs. 10-14), and in that on Ert •The reader will observe an occasional deviation from the language in Ezek. xxxii. (stanza L=18. 1-10, stanza II.-n.llof the Authorized Version.

This is unavoidable in the exact study 16), and in the lamentation which forms the first speech has shame," where the literal rendering is the shame" or shame of Job (ch. iii., stauza I.-18. 9-10, stanza II-3 11ful thing'. 'The prophet is unwilling to apply the term "Baal" 19, stanza III. -18. 20—26). Joyous songs on the other

lord, master, to a false god, and substitutes the Bosheth." she hand, are sometimes marked by a gradual prolonga Ishbeheth and Exhbaal, which are interchanged. See List of tion of the stanzas. The poet begins calmis, but bs de Proper Names + See Paragraph Teacher's Bible (Nonpareil 16mo.). published

grees the stream of song widens. Thus in the marriage by Messrs. Eyre ani Spultiswoode.

psaim (v.), the first stanza is very short (r. 1, 9), the


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second is already a little longer (vs. 3—7), the third very poetess Deborah, with a new translation of which we may loog (rs. 8--17). The correctness of the division is shown fitly conclude this note. It will be at once seen that the by the choruses, which begin in each case with the song was intended to be sung partly by Deborah and word 'therefore.' One point more claims to be noticed Barak, partly by a chorus; also that here and there occurs before we leave this part of our subject. The fact that a peculiarly striking rhythm (sometimes combined with the existence of strophes can often be proved, and parallelism) which may be called the progressive, a phraso is sometimes reasonably burmised even where pot proved, in one line being repeated in the next with some addition, suggests a further possibility, viz that the Psalms were so as to form a kind of climax or progression if not in the sung antiphonally (somewhat as our own chants are ideas at any rate in the language; see especially vs. 3, 4, divided between the two halves of the choir), one strophé 19, 20, 27, 30. For other examples of the same rhythm being uttered in answer to another strophé. The refrain see P3. xxix., cxxi., cxxiv. was doubtless sung by the whole congregation ; compare

PART I. 2 Chron. vii. 3, "all the children of Israel ... praised

Prelude. the LORD, saying, For he is good, for his mercy endureth V.2 For the leaders' leading in Israel, forever"-the latter words being the refrain of Ps. cxxxvi.

For the sell-offering of the people, Compare also Ps. Ixviii, 26. It need hardly be added that

Bless ye the LORD!

1. the singing was accompanied with music (compare Ps. xxxiii. 2; Ixviii. 25 ; cxxxvii. 2; cl. 3-5); but the subject

Retrospect of the Exodus,

3. Hear, 0 ye kings! give enr. ye princes ! of Hebrew music demands separate consideration.

I, even I, will sing unto the LORD; On the single remaining style of Hebrew poetry pot

I will sing praises to the LORD. the God of Israel. much has to be said. A certain number of the Old Tes

4. LORD! when thou wentest out of seir,

When thou marchedst out of the country of Edom, tament poems have the peculiarity of being “acrostic" The earth trembled, and the beavens dropped, or "alpbabetic,” that is, they are arranged alphabeti

The clouds also dropped water;

5 Mountains melted before the LORD, cally by the initial Hebrew letters of the verses. These

Yonder Sinai, before the LORD, the God of Israel, are Psalms xxv., xxxiv., xxxvii., cxi., cxii., cxix., cxlv.;

2. Prov. xxxi. 10--31; Lam. i., ii., iii., iv. Psalms ix. and x. 6. In the days of Shamgar, the son of Anath, are also very imperfect specimens of this style. In Psalm

In the days of Jael the highways kept holiday, cxix. the Bible version makes the arrangement intel

And the travellers walked on crooked paths :

7. The rulers kept holiday in Israel, kept holiday, ligible to every one by placing the initial Hebrew letter

l'ntil that I, Deborah, arose, of each group of verses at the beginning of the group. It

That I arose a mother in Israel

& is probable that this kind of composition became more

Then was war at the gates (of the enemy); popular in the Babylonian and Persian periods of Jewish Was there a shield or spear seen among forty thousand in

Israel history. There is no reason why these like the other

3. Psalms should not have been sung in divine service.

Let Israel give thanks! The earliest Hebrew songs which we possess appear to 9. My heart (saith) to the governors of Israel, bare been called forth by passing events. A dark deed of

(To) those who offered themselves among the people :

Bless ye tbe LORD! revenge is commemorated in the song ascribed to Lamech

10. Ye that ride on white she-asses, (Gen. iv. 23. 24); the prowess of the confederate tribes in

Ye that sit on coverings, an ironical fragment (Num. xxi. 27—30), and, above all,

And ye that walk by the way, sing!

11. From the voice of archers betwoen the places of drawing in the song of Deborah (Judg. v.). The 'song of the

water, water-drawers' (Num. xxi. 17, 18) preserves a tradition

There let men rchcarse the righteous acts of the LORD,

The righteous acts of His rule in Israel! of the mutual trust between rulers and people which pre

Then did the people of the LORD go down against the gates, vailed in the prehistoric age of Israel. It is not impro

PART II. bably a song which the Hebrew women sang in the

Chorus. intervals of drawing water, as if to 'coax' the well to

12 Awake, awake. Deborah, 'spring up,' i.e. to yield water from its depths. The

Awake, awake.litter the song! triumphal ode ascribed to Moses (Ex. xv. 1–18) is, as we

Arise, tarak, lead forth thy captives, O son of Abinoam! should expect, more elaborate than the more popular

1. songs. It consists of a prelude (v. 1) and four stanzas, of

The gathering of the patriotic Israelites. which the first two and the fourth consist of twelve lines 12 Then there went down a remnant of the nobles (and) of each, the second of only six. The student will find it a

the people;

The LRD went down to my help among the heroes. useful exercise to verify this statement for himself by 14 From Ephraim (did they go), they whose root is in Amalek, writing out the several stanzas in parallel lines. The

Behind thee. O Benjamin, with thy tribesmen,

From Machir went down governory, whole concludes with the chorus, "The LORD shall reign

And from Zebulun they that hold the staff of the enroller, for ever and ever" (v. 18). "The Song of Deborah is a 15. And the princes in Isachar were like Deborala,

And Issachar even as Barak; glorious witness to the martial spirit of the Hebrews.

He was driven into the valley by his feet. But it allows us to see also how easily the aspirations of

2. the nation might have turned altogether to the glory of

The indifference of the rost. conquest and empire, and how much some gentler ipfiu

At the streams of Reuben there are great resolves! ence was needed to counteract the wild spirit of re

16. Why abodest thou between the shoepfolds-to hear the Venge." Such an influence was donbtless exerted by the

pipings of the Hocks? schools of the prophets, in which sacred minstrelsy

By the streams of Reuben there are great deliberations !

17. Gilead abides beyond Jordan, appears to have been cultivated (1 Sam. X. 5), and after

And Dan-why is he a stranger on shipboard : wards by the psalmists. Great doubt, however, exists as

Asher sits by the sea-shore,

And abides by his creeks. to the precise date of the religious lyrics or Psalms. In 18. Zebulun is a people that jeopards his life unto death, the heading; they are mostly ascribed to David, but these,

and Naplitali (that dwells) on the heights which are the only authority for so ascribing them, did

3. not arise till during or after the Captivity. They must

The battle, consequently be tested in each case by their agreement

19. The kings carne, they fought, with the contents of the Psalms, and with the informa

Then fought the king of Canaan,

At Taanach by the waters of Megiddo ; tion as to the state of religion in David's time given else

They took not a piece of silver : where in the sacred writings. Happily the beautiful

20. They fought from heaven,

The stars from their courses lamentation over Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. i. 19—27)

Fought against Sisera : has never had its Davidic origin questioned. But for

21. The torrent of Kishon swept them away, artistic skill and variety of contrast nothing in the Old

The onward rushing torrent, the torrent of Kishon.

Chorus Testament equals the song (or perhaps the songs) of the

Step on, my soul, with strength.


9. The wise ones of ber ladies ansvar her.

(But she keeps repeating her words to terrei 30. "Surely they are winning, they are divide key

man a dansel or two,
A prey of coloured stuffs, of erabroidery, for in
A coloured stuff, two pieces of embroidery, far Ey media la
be taken as a prey."

81. So shall all thine enemies perish, O Lom!

But they that love him are as the sun when he puta di

in his migbt

After the conflict. 22 Then stamped the hoofs of the horses

With the galloping, the galloping of their mighty ones. 2. “Curse ye Meroz" said the angel of the LORD,

"Curse ye bitterly the inhabitants thereof: Because they came not to the help of the LORD,

To the help of the LORD among the heroes! 24 Blessed above women be Jael,

The wife of Heber the Kenite :
Blessed above women in the tent!


The murder of Sisera. 25. He asked water, she gave him milk,

She offered curdled mik in a lordly dish ; 28. She put her hand to the tent.peg,

And her right hand to the workmen's hammer,
And with the hammer she smote Sisera, she smole in pieces

his head,

She wounded and pierced through his temples. 2. At her feet he bowed, he fell, he lay down,

At her feet he bowed, he fell;
Where he bowed, there he fell down dead.

The anxiety of the family of Sisera.
& Through the window she looked out and cried-

The mother of Sisera through the lattice; "Why is his chariot so long in coming!

Why tarry the wheels of his chariots ?"

NOTES.-Y. & The beginning of this verse has peshabber handed down in its original form. We have there are a lated. The latter part means that boss er sicuramentu were the only weapons used by the 10.000 volunteers - Les verings, or cloths, ie. either carpets or sodia-Ill the struction is suddenly changed in the second line Food expected, From the voice, kc, let praise resand Tk you those of the enemy, as in . 8.-7.12 Lend farta, ie, baru V. 13. Went down, ie, to the battle in the raller whose ancestral dwelling, is in Amalek, ic in that part deras called the hill country of the Amalekites Wade Sri la enruller, 1.e. the officer who kept the master al seeKina m 19). -v.15. By his feet : for the form of erpression. comp. 8 Resolves (comp. e. 16, endl Notice the troby: Print deeds. -V. 20. For the sympathy of the beascal bado wataan fortunes, comp. Job xxxviii. 7; In xxiv. 1 The ersten symbolical, and means the elements were hostile: the sit army-v. 21. The torrents of Palestine are smallest then rains.

- V. 24. Women in the tent, i.e, women of inte just nomad way of life, like the Badlawins -7.2. Her word, of terror and anxiety in e.


VERSION OF THE PSALMS. 1. AIJELETA SHAHAR, upon. The great Spanish Rabbi, bability. It is no doubt intended to secure Aben Ezra, who died about 1175 A.D., considers

particular kind of lyric poem, but what is Aijeleth or Aiyyeleth Shahar to be the first words of a popular song. Following him, we should ex

have no means of determining There is to like

the word in the cognate cualecte Vickton's plain the phrase, To (the tune of the song, begin- prefixed to six psalms, viz xvi., lvi. -IL. ning) Hind of the dawn' (the rising sun, called 10. MUTULABBEN, upon. If the text is currect and this gazelle by the Arabs). Ps. xxii, 1.

title only occurs once, so that we have no seas 2. ALAMOTI, upon. For soprano voices. Ps. xlvi. 1. The controlling the reading--the most plans de espiatka

Hebrew has “on virgin voices," ala'moth being the tion is, To the tune of “ Die for the son, these plural of almah, a virgin or young woman.

words being supposed to form the opening sus 3. AL-TASCHITu, upon. To the tune (of the song be- popular song. But it would be us wise LTN

ginning) . Do not destroy.' Ps. lvii. 1. lviii. 1. lix. 1, stress on this or any other interpretation. It lxxv. 1. (This is probably a vintage song, for the first fixed to Ps. ix. line of which see Isa. Ixv. 8:="As when vineyard 11. NEGINOTH, upon. With an accompanimente fruit is found in the cluster, one saith, 'Destroy it ed instruments. Pretised to Psalms is.

,, BT. not, for a blessing is in it.'")

Ixi., Ixviii.. lxxvi. 4. GITTITI, upon. For the musical instrument or tune called Gittith, either because brought from Gath, or

12. Nepilotu, upon. With an 2000mpanimesid tas

Ps. v. 1. because used at the vintage. Ps. viii. 1; lxxxiv. 1. 13. SELAH. Much useless ingenuity has been esperaba The custom of singing at the treading of the wine- on this word. All that is quite certain a tha press was well known to the Hebrews (comp. Isa. a musical note. Of ancient opinions the Ivi. 10; Jer. xlviii. 33). Of course the psalms which bear this heading were not themselves sung

worth mentioning is that of the Greek resist

the Psalms included in the Septuagint, far to me at the vintage, though the Septuagint suggests such sion of this book, though made in Epps sad po a view ; their contents would be very inappropriate to such an occasion. See the foregoing note.

sibly not older than the second centary BC

well have reproduced a genuine tradita la 6. HIGGAION, a peculiar kind of music, probably per- the word Selah is rendered by diaris XL formed on stringed instruments. Joined with

means either a musical interlude filling up a Selah (which see) Ps. ix. 17. 6. JONATH-ELEM-RECHOKIM, upon. Perhaps. To the

in the music, or a louder playing of the space

ment (the song, that is being contested tune of “The silent dove of those afar."

gives us two distinct views of the mesaing de tuagint and the Targum, or Western Aramaic and each of these has been defended by si translation, suppose the dove to be a figure for the modern critics. An eramination of the is Jewish people in captivity. In this case the word in which the word occurs seems to show to "upon" should rather be "concerning. But it is better to follow Aben Ezra, and suppose a quota

stands in some relation to the rebetiene af te tion of the initial words of some popular song. By

emotion described. Hence the apirios se

whole most plausible which regaris it as a day a slight alteration of the vowels (which form no tion for the orchestra to fall in, or for the 32 part of the text) we might render, To the tune of assume a maestoso or forte character. In A *. The dove of the far-off terebinths," which is certainly much more intelligible. Prefixed to Ps. Ivi.

16 Selah has prefixed to it the word liste 7. MAHALATH, upon. For (a peculiar kind of) stringed

ally, 'sounding,' that is, the musies

instruments: it is the word rendered see instrument. Others explain, To (the tune of the sound' in Ps. Icii. 3. Selah Octeurs 11 times in song beginning) Sickness--we may perhaps con- Psalms, and 3 times in Halakkuk a 1813. sickness of thy people heal, 0 Loud. Ps. liii. 1; 14. SABATXITA, upon. On the lower aetate de

more frequently in the Greek version & the Punisse Followed in one passage by Leannoth, i.e. perhaps, bass), or on the eighth tone Ps vil, til i 'for singing antiphonally.' Ps. Ixxxviii, 1.


This is generally supposed to 8. MASCHIL. A descriptive title of a peculiar kind of psalm= the didactic, or contemplative, or perhaps

song of irregular rhythm, and press skilful. Pretixed to Psalms xxxii., xlii., xliv., xlv.,

variety of moods; but the most caut cas

hesitate to accept this artificial explanaoa, lii., liii, liv., lv., Ixxiv., lxxviii., lxxxiii., lxxxix., cxlii.; also found in the Hebrew text of Ps. xlvii. 76

word occurs only in Ps. vii. 1, and in its plus

in Hab. iii. 1. which runs, "Sing ye a psalm to make one wise 16. SHOSHANNIŲ, upon. To (the tune caled) "Lie (or, a psalm of contemplation, or possibly, in skilful strains); literally. “Sing ye a Maschil."

Ps. xlv. 1, lxix. 1, XL 1. 9. MICITAM. None of the conjectures offered as to the

17. SHUSHAN-EDUTH, upon. Perhaps this w

To the tune of the song "Lily of testimoni meaning of this term have the least degree of pro

fixed to Ps. lx,

The Sep

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