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1 The bracketed dates are the revised dates of the Chronological Summary of Bile Fristars.

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apostleship, and to bear witness to Jesus' resurrection. On the oth day after the stres and 30th (Pentecost) after the Resurrection, Jerusalem being full of pilgrims to Feast of Firstfruits (or Weeks, see Calendar), the Holy Spirit descends about IEE morning sacrifice in tongues of fire, distributing themselves (not 'eloven', & ATJO assembled Apostles and disciples, and causes them to magnify God by ecstas. Bet in foreign languages (cp. ch. 11. 15 & 19. 6).

Peter, addressing the Jew's and foreign proselytes collected by the pers, decitres teiste the outpouring of God's Spirit predicted by Joel for the Messianie time thelade", and proves from this fact and from Jesus' resurrection (toretoid in Ps. 16. in 21 fact by the Apostles) that he must have been the Messiah. 300 hearers are baptizch sed by signs', the Church grows daily in numbers, devotion, and popularity.

Peter and John heal a well-known cripple a: the Beautiful Gate of the Tempit. Do the astonished worshippers assembled in Solomon's porch, Peter explains that futh is 192 the Christ caused the cure. He appeals to them as heirs of the promises to seept Caete fulfilment, and to repent His rejection and murder (see ch. 4. 12). The church Box ECO

The Sadducees, who said there was no resurrection, fearing the Apostics' info people, bring Peter and John and the healed beggar before the Sanhedrin, and der magic the miracle was done. Peter repeats his statement made in the Temple, and let av be silenced, and thus to obey man rather than God. The Apostles pray for botas mus opposition, and are answered by the descent of the Holy Ghost during an earthquake.

The wealthier converts, esp. Joseph surnamed Barna'a (son of counsel or at sich of prophecy, Heb.), a Levite of Cyprus, contribute to a common fund, which to tribute, partly in daily meals. Ananias and Sapphira contributing part es ibe whakal proceeding to falsehood, are successively struck dead. This and other great mirusia 0 the Apostles' teaching. Converts multiply and meet daily in Solomon's porch.

The Sadducees imprison the 12 Apostles, untried; but bring miraculously released, per tles resume at daybreak their teaching in the Temple. Tlwy are brought before the sea and civil body of elders (cp. Acts 22. 5), and are accused of trying to fix the chicles blood on the nation (sce Mat. 27. 25). They reassert Jesus' resurrection. The molestie Gamaliel, chief of the Pharisees, saves their lives ; but they are beaten with rods alta The Apostles, rejoicing to suffer for Christ, preach unceasingly in the Temple and privee

To appease discontent among the Greek-speaking i.e. foreign Jews (* Gran for invite the Church to choose 7 deacons, whom they ordain to distribute al09 food a tables'). The Apostles devote themselves to preaching and prayer. Eren priests in

The miracles and inspiration of the deacon Stephen prove irresistible. Hie Co., Libertines (1), Jews of Africa, proconsular Asia (2), and Saul's province Cilicia (3), ali suborned witnesses before the Sanhedrin of blasphemy against Moses and God, the Tape Law. In his defence, Stephen reviews Jewish history to shew that God's presence FE confined to Canaan and the Temple : reminds his hearers that Moses himself foretold te of another Prophet typified by himself, and that the prophets foretold the coming of JEST One', while the Jewish nation, by unbelief and apostacy, had ever oppoved the developer God's purposes ; 80 that the rejection and murder of Christ was but in accord with it history. Enraged by the charge that neither they nor their fathers had kept the Lord they professed themselves so zealous to defend, they interrupt and stone Stephes.

Saul, a Cilician Pharisee and pupil of Gamaliel (? a member of the Sanhedrin sa possibly as a Scribe'), was most proininent (after the witnesses, sce Deut. 17. i): EE? dom-and in the first gencral persecution which followed. Only the Apostles renare lem. The dispersed Christians carry the Gospel to Phænicia, Cyprus, and Antiach 131

Philip, another deacon, evangelises Samaria long infatuated by Simon Vague pretensi to divinity supported by magic (one of the 'false Christs, r. 20). Miracles attes Pus mission. The converts receive the Holy Ghost upon the prayers of Peter and JOA E sent from Jerusalem and continue Philip's work. Simon desiring to buy the As. mysterious power. Peter exposes the hollowness of his conversion.-Philip, sent by a toward Gaza, converts and baptizes an Ethiopian prosclyte, Q. Candace's treasurer, at in the cities of Philistia, from Azotus (Ashdod) to Cæsarea (where he is residing. ch.

Pontius Pilate, accused by the Jews of tyranny and cruelty, is sent prison ta * Vitellius prefect of Syria, who reduces the Jewish taxes, and deprsing Corporate Valerius Gratus the procurator had appointed, A.D. 25) makes Jonathan high priek

Tiberius dies. CALIGULA made Emperor. Vitellius abandons the defence of servir pui* against Arelas his father-in-law. king of Petra i.e. Nabathæan Arabis, (shose esas Antipas had divorced to marry IIerodias his half-brother Philip's vife : ep. Nat. It

Saul obtaing powers to bring any converts in Damascus-now held by dretas, A. Apaksbefore the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem. On the way, he is miraculously stopped, he sa Jesus (v. 17; cp. I Cor. 9. 1 & 13.8), and is blinded by His glory. He awaite God's toute Damascus. After 3 days of abstinence and prayer, Saul's sight is restored through Ada Jewish convert (ch. 22. 12) of Damascus, according to visions vouchsafed to both San! in

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(1) Libertines, i.e. Freedmen, prob, descendants of Jewish captives (B.C. 6, &c.) freed by Roman masters, having a PU SI apart --(2) Roman Asia, i.e. Mysia, Caria, Lydin. ----(3) Ronian Cilicia, i.e. Cilicia. Lycia, Pamphylia Fidia Thasad R.Cydnus (a 'free city', se governed by its owr. elected magistrates, cp. Acts 17.6 & 19,39), was the university it only te Alecs* Athens) of Aratus (quoted Acts 17. B) and other prominent Stoics; possibly of ss. Barnabas and Luke, cileiuri must have been marriet (prob. a widower: ep. 1 Cor.9.5) ---(5) ANTIOCH. On R. Orontes, the cradle and metropolis er tussen capital o: the Greek kingdom and Roman province of Syrin, and the eni porium of the East ; a 'free city : sich der



Acts 9. 18. tized, and immerliately preaches in the synagogues the faith he came to destroy : but soon re-
Gal. l. 13-17. tires into Arabia', i.e. the solitary region S. of Damascus, apparently for communion with

God. 31. Acts 9. 23. The Jews of Damascus, unable to answer Saul on his return with increased strength, threaten (39.)

his life (aided by Aretas' garrison, 2 Cor. 11. 32); let down the wall, he escapes to Jerusalem, 3

years after his conversion, to see Peter. His conversion being mistrusted, Barnabas introduces 26. him to Peter and James the Lord's brother'. He stays 15 days with Peter (Gal. l. 18-20). Saul Acts 22. 17--21. praying in the Temple falls into a trance, and receives from Christ Himself his commission to

the Gentiles; and is bidden to leave Jerusalem, because the Jews had rejected his message. At

the same time, the Grecians (foreign Jews) are conspiring to kill him ; aided by the brethren, he Acts 9. 30. escapes through Cæsarea to Targus, apparently gettling there for 6-7 years, in which he probably

evangelized Syria and Cilicia (Gal. 1.21-24). The Church prospers unpersecuted-as if the Jews' attention diverted by Caligula's attempt to desccrate the Temple with his image; Caligula's

death alone averts a rebellion. CLAUDIUS Emperor (mainly through H. Agrippa I.), A.D. 41. 39.

32. Gospel preached to the Gentiles (the uncircumcision'). Peter, during a circuit of Judæa, 41. Acts 10. 1. Galilee, and Samaria, cures Æneas of palsy at Lydda, and restores Tabitha (Dorcas) to life at

Joppa. There, while Peter ponders the vision of the shcet, messengers from Cornelius the Ro[13.) cp. Luke 21. 47. man centurion, an uncircumcised worshipper of the true God, summon him to Cæsarea, pur

suant to another vision. Going at the Spirit's bidding, and hearing Cornelius' vision, Peter Acts 10. 44. recognises the call to preach to Gentiles (ch. 13. 7). In presence of Peter and his 6 companions,

the Holy Ghost descends on Cornelius and his assembled friends in the gift of tongues

(ch. 11. 15 & cp. 19. 6), and Peter authorises the baptism of these firstfruits of the Gentiles. Acts 11. 1. Returning to Jerusalem, he is accused by the Jewish converts, jealous for Moses' Law, of

breaking it by intercourse with Gentiles; but his narrative convinces them that God had removed the barrier of special Jewisli privilege, by accounting all mankind clean through

Christ, and inviting all to enter Christ's fold by a saving repentance through the Holy Ghost. 20. About the same time, Jewish converts from Cyprus and Cyrene, exiled from Jerusalem by

the persecution following Stephen's death, begin to preach to other Gentileg (for Grecians' 42.

22. read 'Greeks ', v. 20) at Antioch in Syria, with great success. Barnabas, deputed from Jerusalem, 23. recognises it as God's work. Fetching Saul from Tarsus ( ? independent work, Gal. 1. 21-24),

they co-operate (1 year), and found the first Gentile Church (Christians), which shows faith and

brotherhood by collecting for the believers in Judæa, against the famine foretold by Agabus. Jos. Ant. 13.0, 7. IIEROD AGRIPPA I., 2 grandson of the Asmonean princess Mariamne, (made king of II. Philip's,

Lysanias' and H. Antipas' tetrarchies by Caligula), who had received Judæa and Samaria,

i.e. the rest of the kingdom of his grandfather Herod the Great, from Claudius, courted popuActs 12. 1. larity by lavish benevolence and splendour. A strict Jew, he begins a 2nd persecution by

executing James (Zebedee's son), and imprisoning Peter, purposing his execution after the 7. Passover (cp. Matt. 26. 4,5). Peter is released by an angel on the Church's prayers, and conceals 20. himself. Shortly after, Ilerod, elated by the submission of Tyre and Sidon, addresses the

Caesareans, and, accepting the Jews' impious homage, is stricken with a mysterious disease (like

Antiochus Epiphanes, 2 Macc. 9.5--9); and dies. The famine foretold by Agabus taking place in 25. Claudius' 4th year, Barnabas and Saul visit Jerusalem (St. Paul's and visit) with the collection

of the Church in Antioch, and return thither with John Mark. [Paul's rapture, &c., Lewin.)

Judæa again passes under Procurators (C. Fadus, A.D. 45).


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St. Paul's Ist Missionary Journey (with Barnabas and Mark).
Acts 13. 1. Barnabas and Saul sent forth by revelation-{Paul's rapture (2 Cor. 12. 2), followed by the

mysterious malady, the 'thorn in the flesh']-leave Antioch's seaport, SELEUCEIA, and

preaching first to the Jews in their synagogues, traverse CYPRUS (E. to W.) from SALAXIS to 6. PAPHOS. Here, the pro-consul (* deputy') Sergius Paulus is converted, notwithstanding the

perverting influence of Barjesus, a Jewish false prophet, self-styled Elymas i.e. the wise man

(Arabic) or Magus, who is struck blind. Saul is henceforth called Paul. 13. They cross into PAMPHYLIA, and from PERGA Mark returns to Jerusalem. They pass the

Taurus Range into the wild highlands of PISIDIA and LYCAONIA ( 15. 33), even beyond

the Roman pale. At ANTIOCI in PISIDIA the Gentiles eagerly believe ; but the Jews jealous 45. opposition obliges Pauland Barnabas to declare their commission to the Gentiles. Expelled, they Acts 14. 1. go to ICONIUM, and after a long stay escape to LYSTRA, where Paul heals a cripple, and the

8-19. simple people mistake him and Barnabas for Mercurius and Jupiter in huinan form. (? Timothy,

his mother Eunice and grandmother Lois, converted, 2 Tim. 1. 2,5). Their Jewish persecutors 2 Cor. 11. 25. from Antioch and Iconium excite the populace, and Paul is stoned, but revives. Paul and Acts 14. 20. Barnabas depart for DERBE, and found a church there ; then retrace their steps, encouraging

and organising their new converts, to PERGA. Sailing from ATTALEIA to ANTIOCII,

they report a door of faith opened to Gentiles. Jos. Ant. 20.5,3. Disturbances occur (a) in Juden-between the Jews, Romans, and Samaritans, (6) in Rome,

by the Jews' attacks on Christians ? (at Chrestus' instigation', Suetonius). Claudius makes

the licentious and avaricious Felix (brother of his favourite Pallas, and husband of lerod (51.)

Agrippa I.'s apostate daughter, Drusilla), procurator of Judæa, and expels the Jews from Rome. 51. Acts 15. 1. At Antioch, l'harigaic converts from Judæa revive the question settled 15 years before in Cor(30.)

nelius' case, and assert that, to be eaved, Gentile converts must join the Jewish Church by Gal. 2. 1-10. circumcision. Paul and Barnabas opposing are deputed (hy revelation), with Titus and

others, to consult the Apostles and Church of Jerusalem upon the controversy. (St. Paul's 3rd visit, 14 years after his conversion, in which he first meets St. John, Gal. 2. 9). In private conference, Paul explains his teaching to the chief Apostles, Peter, James, and John. They approve,

and recognise the distinct commissions of Peter and Paul, but urge collections for the poor at Acts 15. 13. Jerusalem on the Gentile churches). The Apostles and elders meet to consider the question, and

(advised by James the Lord's brother ') decide that Gentile converts need not be circumcised, thus making the Church formally and avowedly universal (1). But the Gentile converts are warned against those usages forbidden in the Mosaic Law which tended to idolatry, cp. 1 Cor. 8.

& 10 (being taught consideration for Jews, who were everywhere reminded in their synagogues (1) The earliest great controversy of the Church was, not whether Gentiles might be admitter at all, but whether they might be (admitted without passing through the door of Judaism. Hence the immense importance of this decision, and the joy.




of their obligations to keep the Law), and against the immorality of the aze 9.102:". Acts 15. 23. The inspired teachers ('prophets') Judas Barsabas and Silas (the Silvanus of the E,te

ing letters to this effect, accompany Barnabas and Paul to Antioch and sok tete ; B3 Gal. 2. 11-14. Later, at Antioch, Peter and even Barnabas surrender this Christian liberty to the

ernissaries from Jerusalem, whom Paul resists, openly rebuking Petez.

Second Missionary Journey of St. Paul (with Suas and Tierthy
Acts 15. 36.

Paul and Bamabas proposing to revisit the converts of their 1st journey disacre abstix (51.)

Mark. Barnabas and Mark revisit CYPRUS ; Paul and Siles, SYRLA and CILICIA
Acts 16. 1.

Passing through DERBE, Paul finds at LYSTRA Timothy, a onvert is bished desiring to satisfy the Jewish converts as to his scrupulous observance of Me Las

cises Timothy, because a Jew on the mother's side, before taking him es erantlist : 6.

They deliver the council's letters (ch. 15. 23). After founding churches yet furibe: X. PER

and GALATIA, where the mixed and emotional people received him as a gaib' Gal. 4. 13-15. (Paul is detained here by sickness), they pass through Mysia to ALEXANDRIA IT 15. Eer

Luke joins them (* we', v. 10). The Holy Spirit which had forbidden him to so

sular Asia (1) i.e. Mysia, Caria, Lydia, or to enter Bithynia, summons Paul into (53.) Acts 16. 11. After a rapid passage by the Id. of SAMOTURACE to NEAPOLIS, Paol rexio111771.

a Roman colonia (2) in Macedonia, and becomes the guest of Lydia, a Thyatirus ex: 16. proselyte converted by his preaching. Paul casts an oracular spirit out of a sale

owners accusing Paul and Silas of treasonable religious innovations, the mazistas e 25. and imprison them. While praying and singing at night, they are set free duris: 110 mandi,

save and baptize the governor of the prison, and are cared for by him, Ser: day, or
55–39. ing their Roman citizenship and demanding public reparation, they are isvized

Lake apparently remains in Philippi (until Acts 20. 6, xe ).
Acts 17. 1. Paul and Silas pass by the Via Egatia (the overland thoroughfare betren E.!**

through AMPHIPOLIS and APOLLONIA to THESSALONICA Salonkice f Xas 1 Thess. 2. 9. donia, where many Jews, proselytes, and women of position are converted. P. vekst Phil. f. 15, 16. living-every Jew was taught a trade--and the Philippian church sends l'aul A. Barthelemy Acts 17. 5. rouse the populace against them as asserters of Christ's Kingship, and follow the NC

whither they escape by night. The Berwans shew a noble spirit of enquiry. Ba The

lonian Jews excite the populace against Paul, and he goes to ATUENS by es

16. Timothy stay : while awaiting them, Paul declares to the Athenians their Cakuna exta34.

verting Dionysius the Areopagite and others. Acts 18. 1. Passing to CORINTH(3), Paul lodges and works at tent-making with Agtala od Praca

Jews exiled from Rome by Claudius' decree. Again the Philippians aid bim 5. Phil. 4. 15, 16). Silas and Timothy bring Paul news of the Macedonian churches : 136

appeal to the Jews, Paul leaves the synagogue and preaches henceforward to the en adjacent house of a proselyte, Justus, with great results. Encouraged by a

he stays 18 months, and meanwhile writes his Ist and 2nd Episties to the Thessa. 55.

12. The Corinthian Jews accuse Paul of heresy before Gallio, the new pro-meal, a

Pilate) refuses to interfere; they thus indirectly strengthen Paul's position. 'A good wom's
Paul sails with Silas and Timothy for EPHESUS, where Aquila and Priscilla stagi has

hastens by CÆSAREA to JERUSALEM for Pentecost, and returns to ANTICH. (54.) Jos. Ant. 20.7. Nero Emperor. Zealots and Sicarii (see Jewish Sects) infest Judra. Felis estem'4.

disperses 4000 Sicarii under an Egyptian (Acts 21. 38), a self-styled prophet and mine v 55. Acts 18. 24–28. Apollos, an eloquent and learned Alexandrian Jew, a disciple of John the Baptist ar3.178

missionary, arrives at Ephesus. Aquila and Priscilla instruct him further in Chris
(cp. ch. 19. 2–6.), and the Ephesian recommends him to the Corinthian church, ben de TO
the seed planted by Paul, proving the Messiahship of Jesus from the Old Testameat.

Third Missionary Journey of St. Paula Acts 18. 23. Meanwhile, Paul Again revisits PHRYGIA and GALATIA (* upper consti'ie. Establied (51.) Acts 19. 1. the interior). At EPHESUS he instructs 12 disciples of John, on whom the Hors listy

9. after baptism in Jesus' name. After 3 months, opposition forces him to leave the ENT" 58. 1 Cor. 16. 9. Tyrannus' school; but during 2 years, God atteste Paul's mission by extraordinary sick Acts 19, 13. by an evil spirit's confession ; and the practisers of magic publicly confess and bara ir bak

During Paul's stay at Ephesus he pays a visit to Corinth, unrecorded in 1951:Ca
where he found much that was painful (2 Cor. 2. 1), and was compelled to deal
transgressors (2 Cor. 13. 2, read, as when I was present the second line), but was te
made to mourn (2 Cor. 12. 21). Returning to Ephesus, (?) he addresses & letter to the
ians (now lost), warning them not to keep company with fornicators (1 Cor. i *

returns from Corinth to Ephesus at some time during the apostle's stay (1 Cor. 16. ISI 59.

21. Paul intending to pass through Macedonia and Achaia to Jerusalem, and thence risi R. Rom. 1. 13. Gentile metropolis, sends into Macedonia Timothy and Erastus : Timothy to visit Cet

15. 23-S. possible (Apollos declining, 1 Cor. 16. 10-12), and to recall Paul's teaching. Members of (57.)

of Chloe arrive in Ephesus with intelligence from Corinth, while other messengers (Steplats i
bring a letter of enquiry from the Corinthian church, and take back the Ist Epiget the items
in which Paul rebukes their party spirit (ch. I. 11, 12), tolerance of sin (c. 5), strife and a
(ch.6), abuses in celebrating the Lord's Supper (ch. 11), doubts as to the resurrection is
answers seriatim the questions they had proposed (ch. 7. 1, &c.): he bids then evidect for the

saints at Jerusalem, and states his plans (ch. 16. 1-9) -Titus is sent to learn its resal.
Acts 19. 21. Meanwhile, Demetrius, maker of silver models of the world-renowned temple of Disaster

ing Paul's successful attacks on idolatry), causes the Ephesian populace toxirc Aristathau.

35. Gaius. The town clerk (5) defends them and appeases the mob, referring Demetrios & Bio (1) Capital EPHESUS, on R. Cayster, the commercial meeting point of Asia and Europe by sex, and by the intend toe --* viå Sardis, NE to Galatia, Pontus, &c. or E via Iconium to the Euphrates-valley: a free city sith Jesit e for Diana's temple (one of the world's 7 wonders), and for magic (diviners, exorcists. &c. and dealers in an twritten amulets or Ephesian letters). --(2) A mill'ary colony-usually of veterans; a miniature Rome in a squired to (3) CORINTH, capital of Roman Achita,ie. Greece (S. of Epirus and Thessaly), on the maritime thoroughfare tetoa E ** a centre of traffic, pasanism, philosophy, and luxury--(4) Felix used the Sicarii, A.V. 'murderers te retore te and indulged in all crimes. His procuratorship was one series of disturbances false Messiahs, Sicarii and naber D contexts; See Jos. Ant. IX. 8, 5, 6, 7: Tacit. Hist. v. 9: Ann. xii. 54. 15) President for the year of the States Chics of Asia,' Gk. A siarchs, the managers and chief donors of the games,



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Acts 19. 10. proconsular court then sitting.Daring this 3-years stay, St. Paul in all probability founds

the Churches of proconsular Asia (cp. Rom. 15. 20); he summarises his work in ch. 20. 18–35. Acts 20. 1. Paul starts for MACEDONIA by A. TROAS. After awaiting in an agony of suspense (2 Cor.

2. 13) Titus' return from CORINTH, whither Paul had sent him instead of going himself (to ellow time for reform), Paul revisits MACEDONIA, and begins a collection for the converts at Jerusalem. At PHILIPPI, Titus reports the Corinthians' repentance and reform, and Paul,

cheered (2 Cor. 7. 4–18), sends the 2nd Epistie to the Corinthians by Titus and 2 others, Luke 2 Cor.9. probably one of them, enjoining on Achaia a similar collection. Gal. l. 1-16. Paul, surprised by news that'false,' i.e. Judaising, 'brethren' were inducing the Galatian con

verts to subject themselves to the Mosaic Law and questioning his commission, writes his Epistle to the Galatians, in which, appealing to the converts' history and his own, and to the Old Testament itself, he indignantly condemce these intruders, and repeats that the Gentiles are saved

by faith without conformity to the Law. Acts 20. 2. After evangelising GREECE to the Adriatic (Illyricum, Rom. 15. 19), Paul winters 3

months at CORINTH (cp. vs. 3,6 with 1 Cor. 16. 6, 7 and the ref. to the city', Rom. 16. 23),

and writes the Epistle to the Romans, ‘his master-exposition of Christian doctrine' sent by Rom. 15. 18-32. Phæbe of Cenchre(a ) (Rom. 16. 1). Regarding his work E. of the Adriatic as finished (1), he

now purposes visiting the West, esp. Spain, via Rome-after carrying the collections of the Gentile churches to the poor believers in Jerusalem, and he asks the prayers of the Roman

church for his deliverance from the unbelievers in Judæa. Acts 20. 3. The Jews conspiring to kill Paul,

he returns through MACEDONIA ; his companion, sail direct to TROAS, where Paul joins them (through PHILIPPI, rejoined here by Luke) after the 13. Passover, and raises Eutychus to life. Overtaking by land his companions' ship at ASSOS, Paul

sails to MITYLENE, CHIOS, TROGYLLIUM, and MILETUS, whither he summons the 17–38. elders of Ephesus, distant about 50 miles. By their memory of his unsparing and disinterested

labours (vs. 18-24, 31), he warns and encourages them against future false teachers and perseActs 21. 1. cutors, and bids them farewell. Paul &c. sail by the islands COUS and RHODES, and change

ships at PATARA in Lycia and at TYRE, where they seek the Christians and stay 7 days. 4. Unshaken by prophetic warnings of imprisonment at Jerusalem and entreaties here, at

PTOLEMAIS and CÆSAREA, Paul enters JERUSALEM with the collections from Macedonia Achaia and Galatia (1 Cor. 16. 1; Acts 24. 17), being bound in the spirit to preach the

gospel at all hazards (Acts 20. 22-24), and yearning for the salvation of his fellow Jews (Rom. 9. 20. 1-5 & 10. 1-4 & 11. 14, &c.). But to reassure the Jewish converts, who understood that Paul

taught the Jewish believers among the Gentiles to abandon Moses' law, Paul, by James' advice,

undertakes for 4 persons under a Nazarite vow the expenses of its discharge ; reputed by 27. the Jews e meritorious act. During the week, Jews of proconsular Asia provoke a riot by

asserting, as a proof of his anti-Mosaic teaching, that Paul had polluted the Temple by intro

ducing uncircumcised Gentiles (Trophimus). 31. Claudius Lysias, commander of the Roman garrison in Herod's eitadel Antonia overlooking

the Temple, descends to quell the riot, and saves Paul from summary execution, supposing him 37. the Egyptian ringleader of Sicarii (murderers, A. V.) dispersed by Felix (54). Undeceived, he Acts 22.1. gives Paul the long desired opportunity of vindicating his own teaching and loyalty as a Jew.

22. The mob interrupt Paul's narrative, at the statement of his miseion to the Gentiles by 24. revelation in the Temple, and renew the uproar. Lysias, unable to ascertain Paul's offence,

takes him into the castle for examination by torture; stopped by Paul's assertion of Roman

citizenship (which involved protection also), he brings him next day before the Sanhedrin. Acts 23. 1. Paul, despairing of a fair trial, appeals to his brother Pharisees, asserting the teaching of

6. their common tenet, the resurrection, to be his sole offence ; Lysias removes Paul, lest he be

torn in pieces between the contending Sadducees and Pharisees who incline to Paul (cp. ch.5. 11. 34, 39). That night, Paul is cheered by the revelation that his cherished wish to preach in Rome

will be fulfilled. 12. The night following, Lysias, warned of the plot of 40 Jews to kill Pavl, sends him to Felix

at Cæsarea for trial ; where (12 days after his arrival in Jerusalem) Ananias and the SanheActs 24. 2. drin accuse Paul through Tertullus (but, as Paul shews, wholly without evidence), of sedition

against Rome, and claim his surrender to their jurisdiction as a profaner of their Temple.




St. Paul, prisoner of the Romans.-Felix, though convinced of Paul's innocence, (to please the Jews, now desperate under his cruel rule). keeps him in prison 2 years, hoping for a bribe ; meanwhile, he and his adulteress-consort Drusilla (sister of H. Agrippa 11., and wife of Azizus king of Emesa) feign an interest in Christianity. St. Luke was apparently St. Paul's constant companion during his imprisonments (Acts 27.1; Col. 4. 14; 2 Tim. 4. 11). His Gospel (whether written now, during imprisonment at Rome, or after Jerusalem's destruction)

breathes St. Paul's spirit. Jos.B.J.2.17.9. Ananias posed by Felix, is murdered by the Sicarii (cp. Acts 23.3). Felix denounced to Nero,

esp. for openly supporting the foreigners of Caesarea in riots against the Jews, is recalled. Acts 25. 1. Festus, the new procurator, after unconsciously thwarting a plot against Paul's life, and

practically acquitting him (ch. 28. 18, 19), proposes a fresh trial at Jerusalem to please the

Jews : an unjust concession, which obliges Paul to claim to be tried before Nero himself.

13. Festus, unacquainted with Jewish law, invites AGRIPPA II. (governor of the Temple, and king Jos. Ant. 20.5.2. of Trachonitis and Abilene, A.D. 53)(2), during his congratulatory visit with his sister Bernice, Acts 26. 1. to help him frame Paul's indictment. Before Agrippa, Paul recalls his notoriously zealous

Pharisaism and persecution of Christiang, declares that his conversion and missionary work among the Gentiles were by direct rerelation, and that he taught only the outcome of the Law and Prophets, viz. Jesus, identified by His death and resurrection with the hope of Is

rael,' i.e. the long-promised Messiah, and deliverer of both Gentiles and Jews from Satan, sin, cp. Acta 25. 8. and death. Agrippa reports Paul innocent, but his appeal to Nero obliges his transfer to Rome. & 25. 11.

St. Paul's Voyage to Rome.
Acts 27. 1. Paul, Luke, and Aristarchus call, with the centurion Julius and other prisoners, in a coasting

vessel of Adramyttium to SIDON, and against adverse winds to MYRA in Lycia ; thenoe in an

(1) At the Peace of Brundusium, the 2nd Triumvirate "fixed Scodra (Scutari) in Myricum as the boundary of the West and East". (2) See the Table of the Herodian Family".





Alexandrian corn ship to CNIDUS (on S.W. Cape of Asia Minor), and the FAIR TAFENS IN Acts 27. 9. Crete. Here Paul predicts loss if the voyage be pursued so late ; but the centurion, preferring the opinion of the pilot and owner,

decides to run before a S. wind to Phenix, sed vib:e there? bu: the tempestuous E.S.E. wind Euroclydon

(Euraquilo) drives them south of Crete, pes: the island CLAUDA, and they drift 14 days in ADRIA , ne, the Mediterranean betreen Crete and 21. Sicily, N. of the African Syrtes ("quicksands'). Encouraged by the revelation to Paal sal

by his example, the soldiers sacrifice the boat to keep the ship's crew. They fail to breach the skin Acts 28. 1. on the Island of MELITA (Malta), but all (276 souls) are saved after shipwreck. The cases ('barbarous '=not Greek) treat them kindly. Paul is unhurt by a viper's Lite (ep. Mart IS

.. 8. While navigation is suspended (3 mths.), Paul cures the father of Publius the governor, and other 11.

sick persons. In the spring, they sail in the Castor and Pollux by SIRACUSE and RHEGITY (61.)

to PUTEOLI (in Bay of Naples); thence reaching Rome by the Appian Was, escorted by Rose

Christians from APPII FORUM (43 Rum. miles) and TRES TABERSAE = shops (SRL 16.

Paul is allowed to live by himself · in his own hired house', but in charge of the Imperial Guari (possibly within the precizicts of Vero's

palace, Phil. 1. 13(1)] and chained by cne arm to a soldier awaiting his accusers' arrival. Assembling the Jews, he explains his circumstances and argue that Jesus was the Messiah of the Law and Prophets. Some are convinced, the obstinate procacia

(Is. 6. 9) of others obliges him again to assert sadly (Rom. 9. 2 & cp. 10 1) his comitission to the 30.

Gentiles. During 2 years, (Luke, Timothy. Epaphras, Aristarchus, John Mark, Tyebicas, el Demas sharing his imprisonment), Paul teaches undisturbed, with much rucers Pail. I. 118) even among the Imperial Guard and in the palace (* Xero's house hold,' (1) Phil. 4.

1 64.

Meanwhile, he continues his care of all the churches' by the Epistle to the Colossus ( (62)

parently caused by Epaphras' report, Col. 4. 12, 19), and the Epistle to the Epson, both sent by Tychicus, who reports between the Apostle and these churches (Col. 41,8. The latter may possibly have been a circular or 'encyclical' letter (2) to the churches of proconsola As including Laodicea (Col. 4. 16). Paul's convert, Onesimus, a runaway siare, returns with Tychicus, bearing the reconciliatory Epistle to his master Philemon of Colossa. There Ezastles shew Paul expecting his release; and were probably

followed (either now, or at a somesha: ser period) by the Epistle to the Hebreus (3), written, if not by St. Paul himself, certainly enero influence, to the churches of Judæa (or, as some think, to Jewish converts genera iyi torů & ' full and final demonstration of the true relation of Judaism to Christianity', bevezy i2 view of the judgments impending on the nation and Jerusalem.

Mark's proposed movements from Rome to Asia (Philem. 24 ; Col. 4. 10). his presence with 1 Pet. 1. 1.

Timothy at Ephesus (2 Tim. 4. 11), and other evidence suggest that the lst Episi e of Peter,'his 1 Pet. 3. 12, 13. testimony to the truth of the Gospel taught by Paul', was addressed to the churches in Asis Vier:

(founded chiedy by Paul), and was sent from Babylon by Silvanus about this time.-Toraris

the 2 years' end, the Philippian church sends Pauls contribution by Epaphroditas, who are Phil. 2. 25–30. an illness due to devoted work, carries back the Epistle to the Philippians, which presents Pal

in strict custody and some danger, expecting anxiously a speedy sentence, and facing the win: Phil. l. 19-26. but seeking their prayers for his earlier restoration to them, and expecting it.

Interregnum in Judæa between the Procuratorships of Festus and Albinus. priest, murders • James the Lord's brother,' and the chief Christians in Jerusalem.

The 2 years' of the Acts of the Apostles (ch. 2. 30) ends. Paul is apparently tried (Nero's justice being notorious) and liberated. Henceforvard. Hier is traceable only by the Pastoral Epistles. He probably visited the churches of seedesis and

Asia Minor.-Philippi, Colossa, Laodicea, Hierapolis, and Ephesus, where be lesses Timxk. 1 Tim. 1. 3. Thence Paul starts for Macedonia, and during some detention writes the ls Epdm (67.) 1 Tim. 3. 4, 15. Timothy. He then visits Crete and Miletus. Ephesus (1 Tim. 4. 13 ; 2 Tim. 1. INT:sas.

Corinth (2 Tim. 4. 13, 20), and writes the Epistle to Titus from Asia Minor (?) on his way tester Tit. 3. 12. at Nicopolis, probably the city in Epirus which commemorated the battle of Actiun. Ther be

2 Tim. 2. 9 seems to have been arrested, sent to Rome, and treated as a criminal. His Asian frisos, 66. 2 Tim. 1. 15. except Onesiphorus, stand aloof. 'Only Luke is with him when,expecting death siter his en [63.1 2 Tim. 4.6–21. examination, he writes the 2nd Epistle to Timuthy. entreating him to come before vinse, and

bring Mark, as if to comfort his last hours and to witness his martyrdom (ep. Phil. OS

A doubtful tradition says that St. Paul visited Spain in accordance with his purpose, erase
Rom. 15. 24 (58); also that St. Paul was beheaded (as a Roman citizen) and St. Peter crocs
Rome in the Veronian persecution following the Great Fire. If so, the end Eperke en
would have been written just before his journey to Rome for there); for St. Pete writes, a.,

pecting death shortls (by revelation, 2 Pet. 1. 14), to warn the Christians against the reduction (cp. Rev. 1-3.) false teachers when the Apostles should be no more, and to encourage them to hold fast the

doctrines of the holy prophets and Apostles-giving a final endorement to St. Paul's Episties Furch. llist. The Jewish nation, frenzied at the oppressive ararice of Florus, rebels. A.D.G. The Zenicts

1 (67.) Ec. 50. 2. c. 24. (see Jewish Sects) lead. The Roman armies are expelled. - Vespasian and his son Titus congues

Galilee, and aided by Jewish disensions, close upon and besiege Jerusalem.
body, profiting by Christ's warnins (Mt. 24. 15-21), &c.), escapes to Pelle beyond Jordan, den

a suspension of the siege caused by Nero's death and the war of the Imperial fuera70.) Luke 13.43, 44. After 5 month's siege. (1,100.00) Jews are said to have perished by famide, fire and sunda

our Lord's worris, Mk. 13. 19; Lk. 17. 37), the Temple and city are destroyed in spite of Tias

efforts : 97,000 Jews are taken captive, and VESPASIAN, made Emperor by the army, celebrates (cp. John 11.48.) by a triumph at Rome, the final obliteration of the Jewish Holy Place and Nation'. (1) Dr. Merivale, St. Paul at Rome, p. 110 (S.P.C.K.); but 'the Guard', ie the pretorian regiments according to him likome plan the Epistle to the Philippians as eariy, and the other 3 Epistles as we, as possible ia this imprisonnient-Sede copies omit at Ephesu' (Eph. 1.1), as if a blank had been left for the names of the churches to which the letter sheet coin cession. -3) Comp. " Lebreues in the summary of the Books of the Bible, -which see also as to the other Episties and the Gospeis


Matt. 24. 15.

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