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to confer that right; but even in this case it must also be inferred, that they have not the right to conclude engagements affecting the Peishwah's supremacy. They are bound to pay allegiance to the Peishwah, and are to every intent officers and subjects of the Mahratta state, of which the Peishwah is the supreme executive authority." The principal chiefs of the Mahratta nation, are,


1. The Peishwah, whose capital and place of residence is the city of Poonal.

2. The Holkar family, whose capital is Indore, a city of Malwa.

3. The Scindiah family, whose capital, we believe, is now Oujein. The late Madha-jee Scindiah, who died at the beginning of 1794, extended his territories over a great part of the northern provinces of Hindūstān, got possession of Dehly and the person of the Mogul Emperor, in whose name he affected to act as first minister. He was succeeded by his nephew, Dowlat Row Scindiah, whom he had adopted as his son.

4. The Rajah of Berar, who does not indeed possess so great a military force as Scindiah had, though his government is more solidly established, and his person more respected. The province of Berar, as has been observed, formed part of the dominions of the Rajah of Satarah. Rago-jee Boosolah, the first Rajah of Berar, and from whom the present Rajah is descended, was of the Satarah family; and, though he has acted with the Peishwah

conquests which they might atchicve, one portion should belong to the Peishwah, and another portion to Holkar and Scindial respectively."-Note of the Marquis of Wellesley-History of the Mahratta War, Appendix, p. 9.

Marquis of Wellesley, ibid.

on many occasions, yet we do not believe that he ever acknowledged himself to be subordinate to him, or obliged to enter into his plans.

Besides these four principal chiefs, there are several other Rajahs of inferior note.*

Before the Mahrattas, like some of the other fudian powers, began to entertain Europeans in their service, and adopt and imitate the Europeau discipline and tactics, the strength of a Mahratta army consisted almost entirely of cavalry. Both horse and rider were inured to fatigue. Great bodies of cavalry have been known to march at the rate of fifty and sixty miles a day for some days successively. Some parts of the Mahratta countries abound with horses, and produce a breed, much esteemed, called the Bheemerteddy horse; but the common Mahratta warhorse is a large-boned ill-looking_auimal. The only weapon used by horsemen is a sabre, in the choice of which they are very curious and intelligent. They learn the use of it, and dexterity in the management of the horse, from their infancy. Their dress, in war, consists of a quilted jacket of cotton cloth, which is perhaps a better defence against cuts of the sword than any other light military dress; under it is a vest of linen, made to fit close to the body, and cross over the breast. The jacket is taken off when its warmth proves inconvenient. A pair of pantaloons, fastened round the middle, over the end of the vest, descends to the ankles. On the head a broad turban is worn, which descending behind, and on cach side of the head, nearly as low as the top of the shoulder, defends the head and neck both from the heat of the sun and from the

*For an account of them see the Marquis of Wellesley's History of the Mahratta War, Appendix, p. 27, et seq.

sword of the enemy. Food for the rider and his horse, to be had recourse to in case of emergency, is contained in a small bag tied tight upon the saddle. That for the rider consists in a few cakes, a small quantity of rice or flour, and some salt and spices: that of the horse, of a kind of black peas called gram, and balls made of the meal of those peas mixed with ghee and some hot herbs or spices. Those balls are given by way of cordial, to restore the vigour of the horse after extraordinary fatigue, and it is said that a small quantity of bang is sometimes added, a drug which, if taken moderately, exhilarates the spirits; but, if taken in large quantities, it produces a sort of furious intoxication. Tents, except a few for some of the principal officers, were rarely used. Their irruptions were frequently so sudden, and so rapidly executed, that the first intelligence of their hostile intentions was their appearance in the territories they designed to invade. In consequence of their frequent wars, there are few countries in Hindustan which are not perfectly known to them. Detached parties precede the main army; others scour the country on either flank, and the provisions they can collect are driven towards the spot where the main army is to halt. As hay is scarcely ever made in the southern parts of India, the horses are accustomed to eat grass dug up by the roots, which afford a considerable degree of nourishment, and correct the purgative quality of the blade. The rider having first provided for his horse, goes to his own temperate meal, which having finished, he lies down perfectly contented by his side, and on the first stroke of the nagar, or great drum, instantly mounts him again.

* A sort of clarified butter.

The Mahrattas relate strange accounts of the extraordinary sagacity of their horses; and indeed, from their being constantly with their riders, who are fond of caressing and talking to them, they acquire the intelligence and docility of small domestic animals.

If the intention of the Mahrattas in invading a country, be to resent some injury, force its sovereign to pay the choute, or comply with any other demand, their devastations are then terrible: they drive off the cattle, destroy the harvest, pillage and burn the villages, and maim and cut down all who may resist their requisitions, or attempt to conceal their effects. On the report of their approach, the frightened inhabitants fly for refuge to the hills, to the woods, and under the walls of fortified towns. The rapidity of their motions leaves but little chance of bringing them to a general action; and the mischief done by their incursions, has frequently induced the party menaced or attacked by them, to obtain peace or procure their departure by complying with their demands.

Such were their armies and mode of warfare, previous to the introduction of foreign innovations. Such were they under Seeva-jee and other leaders, and when they obliged Aurengzebe himself to enter into arrangements with them.

To conclude:-In referring to those times, and even to the epoch when the author left India, he may perhaps be authorised to repeat what he has said in another place. "If we only view the Mahrattas as engaged in warfare, they must necessarily sometimes appear as the most cruel of barbarians; but if we enter their country as travellers, and consider them in a state of peaceful society, we find them strictly adhering to the principles of their religion; in harmony among themselves, and ready to receive and

assist the stranger. The excesses they commit, therefore, cannot fairly be ascribed to a natural ferocity of character, but perhaps may be dictated by policy, or inspired by revenge: they may sometimes wish to obtain that by the dread of their invasions, which otherwise would only be effected by a tedious war; or sometimes to be provoked to retaliate on the Mohammedans the cruelties they have long exercised upon their countrymen."

Anquetil, in his preliminary discourse to the ZendaAvesta, says:

"The country of the Mahrattas is generally an open country. The people are cheerful, strong, and healthy, and reckon for their security on their courage and their arms. Their principal force is in their cavalry. Hospitality is their ruling virtue. Their country appeared to me, that of nature-I fancied myself, when speaking with the Mahrattas, to be conversing with men of the first ages of the world."


(Referred to, vol. ii. p. 83.)

Additional Remarks on the Astronomy of the Hindus by M. Delambre.

THE preceding observations on the astronomy of the Hindus having been submitted in manuscript to Mr. Delambre, he was pleased to address the following letter

* Sketches of the Hindus, vol. ii. pp. 307, 308.

+ Meaning the parts of it that he had visited.

Mr. Delambre has been long distinguished as an active member

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