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either be delivered to him, or obliged to quit his dominions. A second embassy was sent to his successor Justin;* and the prince of Sogdiana, vassal of Mokan, and employed by him on this occasion, was authorized to propose an alliance with Justin against Khosroes. Offers were also made for facilitating the commerce between the Byzantine empire and China; and it may have been in consequence of this treaty that the Turks menaced the Persian territories, just as hostilities were about to be renewed between Tiberius and Khosroes. Egypt, while it formed part of the Christian Greek Empire, continued to be one of the chief channels of trade for Eastern commodities; but Omar after his conquest of Persia in 632, also in a very few years subdued Syria, Phenicia, Palestine, and Egypt. Under the Khalifs, the trade between India and Egypt seems to have been but in a languid state. The government of the Khalifs in Egypt, ended under

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* Sometimes named Justinian II,

Adhad, who in 1169, having applied to Nurradin, king of Damascus, for assistance against the Christians, a large body of troops was accordingly sent to his aid, under the command of Saladin, a Curd soldier of fortune, who by his talents and services, had risen to great eminence, and gained the confidence of his sovereign. Saladin after defending Adhad deposed him, and proclaimed his master Nuraddin sovereign of Egypt: on the death of Adhad in 1171, Saladin assumed the government of Egypt in his own name, and on the death of Nuraddin, he also took possession of Damascus and all his other extensive territories. This Sultan, so well known in European history, for his victories over, and magnanimity towards, the Christians in the Holy Land, died at Damascus in 1193, at the age of 57 years, after a reign of 24. He was succeeded in the government of Syria by his eldest son Malek-Al-Afdhal, and in Egypt by his second son Malek-Al-Aziez. Saladin, soon after his taking possession of Egypt, had formed a chosen corps of

troops, of children of Christian captives, whom he caused to be educated in the Mohammedan religion. To this corps he gave the name of Mamluks, meaning, we believe, slaves. About a hundred About a hundred years after the death of Saladin, the Mamluks, now a very formidable body, placed an officer of their own to rule over Egypt, and this mode of electing a chief on the demise of the one formerly chosen, continued until the year 1516, when Campson Gaurie, the last Mamluk ruler, was overcome and put to death by Selim I., and Egypt annexed to the Othoman Empire.

The Othomans, after having stripped the Christian Emperors of all their possessions in Asia, carried their conquests in Europe under Amurath I., almost to the walls of Constantinople; which was finally taken in 1459, by Mohammed II., when the last Greek Emperor, Constantine Paleologus, perished in the assault.

The Venetians, in consequence of arrangements with the Greek Emperors, had, from about the middle of the sixth century,

sought to engross the supplying of the western parts of Europe, with the productions of the East: but in the republic of Genoa they found a formidable rival to contend with, both in maritime commerce, and for superiority of naval power. The Genoese not only frequented the ports of the Mediterranean, but even some on the Euxine sea, where the Greek Emperors, in reward for services rendered by them,* al

* In assisting to recover Constantinople from the Western Christians, who had kept possession of it fiftyseven years; and also for having relieved it when blockaded by a Venetian fleet.

The Croisaders took possession of Constantinople in 1204, and kept it until the 25th of July, 1261, when it was surprised and taken by Michael Paleologus. The chiefs, or, as they named themselves, Emperors, that governed Constantinople during those fifty-seven years were,

Baudouin, or Baldwin, Count of Flanders and Hainault, chosen in 1204.

His brother Henry, who succeeded him in 1206, and who was succeeded in 1216, by,

Peter de Courtenay, Count of Auvergne, who had espoused Iolanda, sister of the two former Emperors. Robert de Courtenay, son of Peter, chosen in 1218.

Baudoin

lowed them to form establishments at Asoph, Trebisond, or Trapezium, and Caffa, or Theodosia. We also find a gift made to them of the city of Smyrna,* and a grant by Andronicus Paleologus, of a piece of ground near Constantinople, on which they began to build houses and magazines,—the same spot that is now named Pera.-The decline of the Genoese power in the Adriatic and Levant may be ascribed in the first instance, and indeed principally, to the immense loss sustained by them in their unsuccessful attack on the city of Venice, in 1379; from that epoch their influence in

Baudouin, or Baldwin de Courtenay, (brother of Robert) chosen in 1228, who, after the taking of Constantinople, escaped into Italy, where he died in 1273.

The late family of Courtenay was descended from king Louis VI. surnamed Le Gros, by Peter, his seventh and youngest son, who, early in the 12th century, married Elizabeth, the eldest daughter and heiress of Renaud de Courtenay, Count of Edessa. The male line of Peter, son of Louis Le Gros, became extinct in France, in the person of Charles Roger de Courtenay, who died in 1780.

* Ann. 1261.

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