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or some other. Sanscrit dictionaries are indeed numerous."-The learned auvery thor of this article, after mentioning several of them, adds: "the school of Benares now uses the Siddhanta caumudi, and other works of Bhattoji, as the same school formerly did the Casica Vritti.* The Pracriya caumudi, with its commentaries, maintains its ground among the learned of Mithila, or Tirhut. In both places, however, and indeed throughout India, the Mahābhāshya continues to be the standard of Sanscrit grammar. It is therefore studied by all who are ambitious of acquiring a critical knowledge of the language."+

* This grammatical treatise was printed at Serampore, in 1811, with Devanagari types, but without translation or notes.

+ On referring to the article in the Asiatic Researches, (vol. iv. p. 199, et. seq.) whence the preceding extract is taken, the reader will find many of these and other works on language mentioned and explained.

A printing press has been established at Calcutta, for the purpose of printing works in the Indian and Oriental languages in general. The printing Sanscrit, and

From what has been hinted respecting the proscription of the works of Amera Sinha, author of the Amera-cosha, it may be expected that the cause of that proscrip

other Hindu languages, was committed to the care of learned Pundits, who were furnished with complete founts of Deva-Nagari types in different sizes. Early in 1808, a Sanscrit Dictionary, composed from the best authorities, was printed. It contains the etymology of terms, with an interpretation of them, together with examples from classical writers; and afterwards another Dictionary in Sanscrit and English was composed, the Sanscrit after the text of the Amera Cosha, the English, an exact translation of it, with notes; both by Mr. Colebrooke.*

At the College of Calcutta the Sanscrit is studied as the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, in the Colleges of Europe; the Mahratta, Hindustanee, Bengalee, Persian, and Arabic, as the languages still in use. Disputations are held in all these; discourses are pronounced in them, and prizes annually bestowed on those, who may have been judged to have merited them. This noble and useful institution was originally instituted by the Marquis of Wellesley, when he was governor-general of India; and we earnestly hope that it will continue to be liberally supported and encouraged.

* See discourse of the Governor-General, Lord Minto, to the College of Calcutta, 2d March, 1808.

VOL. II.

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tion should be explained. It appears that he was an eminent poet, and one of nine who were called the gems of the court of Vicramaditya. Unfortunately, Amera held the tenets of a heterodox sect; and his poems are said to have perished in the persecutions fomented by intolerant philosophers* against the persons and writings of both the Jainas and Bauddhas."+

We understand that most of the alphabets of India, though they differ in the shape of their letters, agree in their numbers, powers, and systematical disposition, and are capable of expressing the Sanscrit as well as their own particular language; but the ancient writings, we believe, are chiefly in the character called Déva-nagari, so named by way of pre-eminence.‡

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* Instead of philosophers we presume priests are

meant.

See a farther account of this circumstance, in a note to Asiat. Res. vol. vii. p. 214.

See Catalogue of Sanscrit manuscripts presented to the Royal Society of London. (Sir W. Jones's Works, vol. xiii. p. 401, and seq.) The reader, on referring to

It affords much curious reflection, when we consider that the Sanscrit language must have existed in the copious and refined state that has been described, at a period so very remote from us. The nice and intimate knowledge which Sir William Jones possessed of the Greek and Latin languages and literature, is universally allowed by those who knew him, and who were competent to judge of the subject. His knowledge and taste as a scholar, were celebrated at Oxford, even in the early part of

that catalogue, may obtain much curious information. Examples will be found of several species of Indian literature. The manuscript No. 50, intituled Hasyarnava, or the sea of laughter, is a farce, by a poet named Jagadiswara: it is, says Jones, a bitter satire on kings and their servants, and on priests, who are represented as vicious hypocrites. To have written thus freely upon such very nice subjects, and especially to produce them on the stage, announces a degree of toleration that we should not have expected to have met with.—In a note on a poem in the Devanagari character, entitled Vrihatcatha, by an author named Somadeva, Sir Wm. Jones observes: "This poet resembles Ariosto, but even surpasses him in eloquence."

his life. We have had occasion to observe, that the Sanscrit language had become as easy and familiar to him as either of the two other languages we have here mentioned; and, when speaking of the Sanscrit, he observes, "Whatever be its antiquity, it is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a strong affinity both in the roots of verbs, and in the forms of grammar."--In his preface to the translation of the Sanscrit drama, named Sacontala, or the Fatal Ring, by the poet Calidasa, he further remarks: "I began with translating it verbally into Latin, which bears so great resemblance to the Sanscrit, that it is more convenient than any other modern language for a scrupulous interlineary version, I then turned it into English.

Mr. Halhed, in his preface to his translation of the Code of Hindu Laws, observes that the Sanscrit is at the same time copious and nervous, that it far exceeds the

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