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tion whereby the Tá, or Zenghis' clansmen came to be called tá-tá, vel tlıá-thá (men pre-eminently, quasi Allemanni) is a normal sample of one of the chief constructive principles of these tongues.

Wherefore I would abide by that mediaval designation by which all the races beyond the confines of Europe have been known to Europe in modern times, and which from and after the middle ages superseded the classical term Scythian-a term of as wide import as the other and so far equally fitting, but now laid aside, and never so etymologically just as Tartar, the very r of which word, though carped at by half-informed critics, is in fact thoroughly in accordance with the jus et norma of Tartaric speech, everywhere from Oceanic to the Caucasian region. shi roots for man, the former reiterated. In Múrmi we have the mi root reiter. ated in different phases (mú and mi). In Burma we have a third phase of the same root (má) with the bá root and synonym preceding it; and lest this etymo. logy should startle my readers, I will add that this very word barma means man in the Magar tongue, that is, in one of those Himalayan tongues whose close affinity to the Burmese language I have lately shown.



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Pénjúr of Lhassa, 30 years old.
Total height,
Length of head,
Girth of head,
Crown of head to hip,
Hip to heel,
Breadth of chest only,
Sh. point to sh. point,
Arm and hand,
Girth of chest,
Girth of arm,
Girth of forearm,
Girth of thigh,
Girth of calf,
Length of foot,
Breadth of foot,
Length of head,
Breadth of head,

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A fine young man, but low in flesh from sickness, and the muscles flaccid. Colour a clear ruddy brownish or brunette rather deep hued, as dark as any of the Cis-Himálayans and as most high-caste Hindus. No red on cheeks, which are sunk and hollow. Hair moderately coarse, black, copious, straight, shining, worn long and loose, divided from the top of head. Moustache very small, black. No symptom of beard nor any hair on chest; sufficient on mons martis, where it is black, and on armpits also. No whiskers. Face moderately

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large, sub-ovoid, widest between angles of jaws, less between cheek-bones, which are prominent, but not very.

Forehead rather low and narrowing somewhat upwards; narrowed also transversely, and much less wide than the back of head. Frontal sinus large, and brows heavy. Hair of eyebrows and lashes sufficient. Former not arched, but obliquely descendant towards the base of nose. Eyes of good size and shape, but the inner angle decidedly dipped or inclined downwards, though the outer not curved up. Iris a fine deep, clear, chestnut brown. Eyes wide apart, but well and distinctly separated by the basal ridge of nose; not well opened, cavity being filled with flesh. Nose sufficiently long and well raised even at base, straight, thick, and fleshy towards the end, with large wide nares nearly round. Zygomæ large and salient, but moderately

Angles of the jaws prominent, more so than zygomæ, and face widest below the ears. Mouth moderate, well formed, with well-made closed lips hiding the fine, regular, and no way prominent teeth. Upper lip long. Chin rather small, round, well formed, not retiring. Vertical line of the face very good, not at all bulging at the mouth, nor retiring below, and not much above, but more so there towards the roots of the hair. Jaws large. Ears moderate, well made, and not starting from the head. Head well formed and round, but larger à parte post than à parte ante or in the frontal region, which is somewhat contracted crosswise, and somewhat narrowed pyramidally upwards. Body well made and well proportioned. Head well set on the neck, neither too short nor too thick. Chest vide, deep, well arched. Shoulders falling, fine. Trunk not in excess of proportionate length compared with the extremities, nor they compared with the trunk and whole stature. Arms rather long, within four inches of knees. Legs and arms deficient in muscular development from sickness. Hands and feet small and well formed, with instep hollow and heel moderate. Toes not spread, nor splay foot. Mongolian cast of features decided, but not extremely so, and expression intelligent and amiable.

DARJEELING, 30th April 1848.



At the close of last year I had the honour to submit to the Society a summary view of the affinities of the sub-Himálayan aborigines. I have now the honour to submit a similar view of the affinities of the aborigines of Central India. The extra copies of the former paper which were sent to me by the Society I forwarded to Colonels Ouseley and Sleeman, to Major Napleton, Mr. Elliot of Madras, and other gentlemen, with a request that they would get the vocabulary filled up from the languages of the several aborigines of their respective neighbourhoods. The three former gentlemen have obligingly attended to my wishes, and I am assured that Mr. Elliot also is busy with the work. Of the seven languages which I now forward the comparative vocabulary of, the three first came from Chyebossa, where Colonel Ouseley's assistant, Captain Haughton, prepared them; the fourth and fifth direct from Colonel Ouseley himself at Chota Nagpur; the sixth from Bhaugalpur, prepared by the Rev. Mr. Hurder; and the seventh from Jabbalpur, where Colonel Sleeman's principal assistant drew it up for me.

The affinities of these tongues are very striking, so much so that the five first may be safely denominated dialects of the great Kól language; and through the U'ráon speech we trace without difficulty the further connection of the language of the Kóles with that of the “ hill men” of the Rajmahal and Bhaugalpur ranges. Nor are there wanting obvious links between the several tongues above enumerated-all which we may class under the head Kol-and that of the Gónds of the Vindhia, whose speech again has been lately shown by Mr. Elliot to have much resemblance both in vocables and structure to the cultivated tongues of the Deccan. Thus we are already rapidly approaching to the realisation of the hypothesis put forth in my essay on the Koch, Bódó, and Dhimál, to wit, that all the

VOL. 11.

Tamulians of India have a common fountain and origin, like all the Arians; and that the innumerable diversities of spoken language characterising the former race are but the more or less superficial effects of their long and utter dispersion and segregation, owing to the savage tyranny of the latter race in days when the rights of conquest were synonymous with a license to destroy, spoil, and enslave. That the Arian population of India descended into it about 3000 years ago from the northwest as conquerors, and that they completely subdued all the open and cultivated parts of Hindostan, Bengal, and the most adjacent tracts of the Deccan,* but failed to extend their effective sway and colonisation further south, are quasi-historical deductions † confirmed daily more and more by the results of ethnological research. And we thus find an easy and natural explanation of the facts that in the Deccan, where the original tenants of the soil have been able to hold together in possession of it, the aboriginal languages exhibit a deal of integrity and refinement, whilst in the north, where the pristine population has been hunted into jungly and malarious recesses, the aboriginal tongues are broken into innumerable rude and shapeless fragments. Nevertheless those fragments may yet be brought together by large and careful induction; for modern ethnology has actually accomplished elsewhere yet more brilliant feats than this, throwing upon the great antehistoric movements of nations a light as splendid as useful. But if I hold forth, beforehand, the probable result of this investigation in the shape of a striking hypothesis in order to stimulate the painstaking accumulator of facts, and even intimate that our present materials already offer the most encouraging earnest of success, I trust that the whole tenor and substance of my essay on the Koch, Bódó, and Dhimal will suffice to assure all candid persons that I am no advocate for sweeping conclusions from insufficient premises, and that I desire to see the ethnology of India conducted upon the most extended scale, with careful weighing of every available item of evidence that is calculated to demonstrate the unity, or otherwise, of the Tamulian race.

• Telingána, Gujernt, and Maharashtra, or the Maratta country.

+ Brachmanes nomen gentis ditfusissimæ cujus maxima pars in montibus (Ariana Cabul) degit, reliqui circa Gangem. Cellarius, Geogr.

This unity can, of course, only touch the grander classifications of language, and he analogous to that which aggregates, for example, Sanscrit, Greek, Teutonic, and Celtic.

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