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man's servant, for his looking after the nag I have talked of the harılship upon the fire and brushing the shoes of the whuat mer to pay suci heaps of taxes. The barilgrower; upon the dog, whose teeth are ne- ship consists wholly in the trouble, and the cessary to protect the wheat grower's | torment, and the humiliation : for the barns; upon the stamps of the wheat- farmer does, and must get the amount of grower's lease, his receipts, and his notes the taxes back again from the bread-cute;'. of land; upon the sugar, the coifee, the He may not do it for one year, or for two tca, the

the candles,


thio years ; but, upon an average, he must. salt, the very drugs, and a score of other The tax pursues the commodity to the things, used in the house of the wheat- mouth, as necessarily rivers find their grewer; upon the malt that makes the beer way to the sea. I view the wheat-grower necessary to keep his nerves steady amidst as a collector of money to be paid over to the bewildering of such an accumulation : the agents of the Government ; and, if if the tax be collected upon all these, mast others did the saine, I am of opinion that it not be paid, at last, by those who eat the we should hear piuch less about the grasploof, made out of the wheat? And if the ing disposition of the landholders and their wheat-grower gets little money for his tenants. I dislike tlie talk about that crop, is it not evident that he can have lit-" valuable class of men, the agriculturists, tle money to pay to the Goverumaut in any as the farmers are now cailed. I do not shape whatever? Is it not, in other see any peculiar claim that they have words, evident, that if wheat, (generally to such an appellation. They till the the regulator of all other commodities) con- land for gain, just as a shoe-maker makes tinue to be of the prezent price, the inte- shoes for gain, and as a merchant, or marest of the debt cannot be paid ?- Mind, nufacturer, carries on his business for reader, I am no advocate for law that is gain. I see no obligation that the comnow pending. I know, that the thing will, munity is under to the growers of wheat, and must, regulate itself. If, by inporta- who sell it as dear as they can. They tions from countries where the land is are entitled to no special mark of legislamore fertile and less taxed than ours, tive favour, but, as they are the grand wheat were to become too cheap to make vehicle for the taxes, it is the height of it profitable to grow it here in the present stupidity to express wishes to make them average quantity, less would be grown an unproductive vehicle.—As very closely here, the capital, tie labour, the means connected with this view of the corn sub

; of all sorts, now used for the raising of corn,ject, I will here notice what has been said would, in part, be used for other purposes; abont bringing round our CURRENCY and some of those who are now farmers to the standard of 1796 ; that is to say, would turn their hands to other employ- when gold was in free and general circuments. I ses no harm in this. But the lation. How such an idea came into the thing is impossible. No such effort, it ap- head of any one accounted sane, I am at pears to me, can be prosluced by importa- loss to discover. We were told, that tions from abroad, the quantity being too peace, upon a firm foundation, would do small to be of any consequence. I think, the thing of itself. It is notorious that a that Mr. Coke, and the other advocates of light guinca will sell now for 26 or 27 the Bill, procece upon erroneous notions of shillings in paper. But the worst, the the effect of importation. But, at the most foolish part of the conduct of those same time, they are by no means charge- who entertain the notion of restoring our able with injustice. Their endeavours, in currency to the standard of 1796, is, that fact, tend to the protection, not of the they allow, at the same time, that the pafarmer but of the fund-holder, and of per money is depreciated; and (now obthose who depend on the Civil List. serve) that this depreciation has had tije Their endeavours, they being landhold-cffect of raising prices.-Very well. It ers, are very disinterested, secing that is depreciated, and it has raised prices.their inevitable tendency is to enable Keep this in mind, and then ask these the grower of wheat to draw money

wliat would be the effect of “refrom the caters of bread, and to pay storing the currency to its former healthy it over to the Government.--I do not state.”—These gentlemen, in their anxious know how it has happened, but no one ap- desire to restore guinens, overlook the intepears to me to have viewed the matter restof the debt. But, is it not manifest, that in this its natural light. Some porsons they ought to have this object continually

wise men,

in their view, when they are talking upon the present paper-money. To pay these the subject of restoring guineas and lower- people their interest, therefore, in specie, ing prices.? And is it not also manifest, would be to give them one-third more that, in whatever degree prices be lowered than is really their due; and, in the same for a permanency, the interest of the debt degree, it would be to do wrong to must, in reality, though not nominally, be those who have to pay that interest.augmented ?--Now, then, what is the an- The same may be said with regard to all neal interest of this debt? I will not offices, pensions, grants, rent-charges, &c. plaguc the reader with any miserable de- which have originated since 1796.-But, tail about funded and untunded, and re- as I said before, the thing is impossible.-deemed and unredeemed; but will state, The Chancellor of the Exchequer is reportin round numbers, that the debt re- ed to have sais), that it was probable, that quires taxes to be paid to the amount the Government would not call upon the of about forty millions a year.- Pank to pay in specie in six months after Suppose then, that wheat (to take that the signature of the definitive treaty of article as an instance) be now upon an peace. His answer was wise. It is really average of years, 277. a load, of five quar- very probable indeed, that the Bank will ters; the paper-money has, at the rate of not be so called upon.-Oh, dear! What exchange with Paris, depreciated one third curious things this glorious event in France below gold; and, of course, has raised will bring to light, and bring about ! Very prices one-third. Bring the currency back probable indeed, that the Bank will not be to the standard of 1796, and the conse- called upon to pay in specie! This peace' quence is, that wheat will be upon an ave- will put many an one to his trumps ! rage of years, 15l. a load. Well, then, farmer Stiles, whose share of payment of

DANGER SEEN IN TIME. interest of the debt is 277. a-year, and who,

Mr. COBBETT.-Thus, then, ends the liof course, used to pay a load of wheat, beriy and independence of nations. Nora-year, must, upon the restoration of gui- way is to be free and independent, under neas, pay a load and a half of wheat a-year. the blessed domination of Bernadotte.-

This would make the farmer scratch his Poland is to be free and independent, unhead, I believe! It is as clear as day- der the happy auspices of Alexander, the light, that the restoration of guineas would, liberator. The knewt will free the misein reality, make the debt cost sixty mil rable peasants, as, by the wholesome exerlions a-year instead of forty millions a-year. cise of dancing to it, their matted hair But, this is not all. The Civil List, offi- will be impelled to untwist. Italy is to cers of all kinds, pay, pensions, annuities, be free and independent, under German fixed stipends of every sort, leases, ground- legislation, the profundity of whose matchrents, rent-charges, must all become more less regulations has long astonished the expensive by one-third to those who have world. Saxony, the garden of Germany, to pay them. What a revolution would be is to be fire and independent, under the: here? What smashing, what work for measured discipline of Prussia and the sa.. lawyers and bill-framers! Besides, as to gacious policy of Austria. France is to be the justice of the thing, I am so certain free and independent, under the hereditary that it is impossible for it to take place rule of an erudite Bourbon, and the without the utter destruction of the paper, wholesome restraints of a Constitution, and the debt along with the paper, that it coming into life under the fostering ausdoes seem to me superfluous to talk abou: pices of 200,000 barone's, wicided by the justice or the policy of it; but, for the congenial berocs, issuing from all the resake of those who may not be of my opi- gions, from the Adour to the Rhine.--nion as to this point, I will say a word or Spain is to be free an indapendent, under two as to the justice of such a measure, if Ferdinand the Seventh and the Spanish it were practicable. The greater part, Constitution, both enlightened by the wisor, at least, a very considerable part, of dom of ages and experience. Every exthe debt has been contracted since 1796; 1 pectation is answered, at least, every reathat is to say, since the bank ceased to sonable expectation. The people of Eu. pay their bills in specie. Of course, those rope, to whom the appeal has been so who have lent the Government this purt of loudly made, are become all that they the

money, have lent them paper-moncy of could expect to be; all that it was meant the same, or nearly the same value, with that they should be." They are content."?


mon Sense.


-Be it so. If they are, they deserve no land and Saxony, and all Germany and more than is actually accorded to them.- Italy, are behind you, who might, ii they The question is, however, are they con- have foolishly expected any thing from you, tent? It is very possible that it may be that you have not granted, or any thing highly unreasonable in them not to rest except your own paternal sway over them; satisfied, for all that they could hope for if they have unreasonably looked for any will be given them. If they hoped for thing that has been left unaccomplished more, they must have been void of con- who might, in that case, form the diabo

Unless they were the merest lical design of intercepting the return of children, it is for this thcy shed their your armies, in the certainty that their Llood; it is for this they must have known unholy designs would have no military that they were sherlding it. But, how- force, after that, to combat. I tremble ever that may be, they may have enter- for you. A start of the maddened people tained unreasonable expectations, or they destroys your sacred authority in one mo22:14, lly this time, lepent of their mode- ment, which would have nothing more left

Tie monent is critical. They with which to support itself. Methinks may conceive it not too late to retrace I hear the cursed word liveriy profaned by their steps, or to manifest their repen- vulgar tongues, and darting like lightning tance. The purpose of this paper is to from one end of the heaven to the other, alarm the Allied Sovereigns, as to the pos- and penetrating even your consecratei leture of affairs, and to shew them how gions. Down, in a moment, are tumbled auspicious the crisis is to that spirit of in- crowns, and coronets, and mitres, and a subordination, formerly miscalled the spi-sound sweeps from the face of the earth rit of freedom, shonld the madness of the all that ages have venerated and canonized. people still lead them to dream of liberty Such a moment never before existed! The and independence. In all the countries of work of the giants is accomplished by Europe, from the Ural mountains to the children! The force of Europe being conAtlantic, there are no forces of any conse- centrated in the heart of France, is shiquence to maintain the different regions in vered to atoms with a breath! Do not rely their happy possession of the liberty and on the newly restored Monarch, for, either indepenilence for which they have so pro- he may, which is not certainly very likely fusely shed their blood, except in the heart for a long while, identify himself with his of France. Thinse troops which are left conntry, and foolishly imagine what you behind my not be depended upon, as the well know is mere madness, that the inmness of misunderstood liberty and incle- terests of hi.nself and of the French people pendence may, like a contagion, spread are the same ; or, which is more likely, and from the people into their ranks. A shoe- which may be expected from his wisdom, maker in Germany may raise the cry, and purchased by so much experience, he may it may

be echoed from the Danube to the more profoundly penetrate into the true Dwina. An infuriate Jacobin in France nature of things, and clearly see that may kindle the tarcle of discord, and occu- France is his own, and made for him, and patioa suficient may be given to the for him to rule. But, in either care, he can 200,000 regenerators of Europe in that do you little service. Of the first supcountry, which, to render all things safe, position it is idle to speak, as then liis they must not only conquer, as thou have first wish and resolution must be to drive dme, but fosily crush. The cry of union, you out of his territories. The second which infatuates the Italians, may lead supposition makes him indeed your's ; but them to chase the forrestieres, the stra!- he enters your camp alone, and leaves gers, over the Alps, to their Teutonic France in array against you and himself, abo les,' Alas! if such a noment as this while the world behind you is ready to were seized to unde the German nane, to intercept your retreat.

I tremble for you, anriginate the Italian population, to rouse august Potentates! Save yourselves before the French spirit of revenge, what can be the mad project be conceived. Dispatch opposed to the mighty torrent that might the instruments of your mild sovereignty thus inundate the States from the Baltic to the several countries to which you

have to the Mediterranean ? Sovereigns, save restored libor! and independence, by grathe troops which you have assembled so ciously conceding to them the boon of your successfully to restore liberty and indepen- parental sway. Restrain the madness of dence to the world. See you uct that Po- the people, who can be po judges of liberty



and independence, and who must be igning off in their gains, which threatens very norant what is for their advantage, since shortly to destroy the source which has you know well how extensive the sway of so long afforded them an abundant harignorance is over the face of this obstinate vest, from which they have for so many globe, whose inhabitants will know nothing years derived the wages of prostitution. ia spite of every effort to instruct them. A Their object, therefore, is to revive the wholesome vigour is necessary : break system, to give life to the horrid and down their obstinacy; crush their mad- abominablc traffic, by which they were ness ; make them love and revere you by enriched, at tire expence of all that is dcar the seasonable severity of your primitive to humanity.-It is gratifying, however, justice? Do not you see your danger? Is to observe, that the acts of the present it not imminent? Flee to meet it, or you government of France promise to secure are undone! You are on a hideous preci- to the French nation a long and uninterpice, and will not, I fear, see it in time. rupted repose ; and that all the attempts Your enemies will be quicker of sight, if which have been made to injure that galyou are not prompt to take advice. You | lant people, will have no other effect than will have no excuse for delay, as you are to overwhelm with confusion these who forewarned. See, the torch is going to be have so ba-ely and enviously attempted to lighted! The cry is on the tip of the destroy and to degrade them.-The foltongue of the misled people! You will not lowing declaration of the King of France, know whom to trust in your greatest need. rece

ecently published, sufficiently shews, that The fire may seize your camp; the whosp he considers his own interests inseparable may be raised by your practised batta- from those of his people, and justifies the opilions : people, refrain, refrain; take thank- nion, that the French, under his reign, may fully your liberty and independence. What long enjoy a considerable portion of happido you want more? you have all that you ness.---"Louis, hy the grace of God, King of deserve, if you expected more, or if “ France and Navarre, to all those to you once had no further expectations. In " whom these presents shall come, greetthe one case, how unreasonable not to be “ ing:--On ascending the 'Throne of our content with the completion of

your lopes!

ancestors, we have found our rights in In the other case, how could you be 30 your love, and have given up our whole idiotic? Expect more! Alas, alas, ye 66 heart to that sentiment manifested of old were mere beasts, and should be contented by Louis XII. the father of his people, to be treaied as such. Down on your “ and by the goed King Henry IV. Their marrow-bones to ask a blessins, or a par- incessant application to the happiness of

“ don of the anointed of God.-HORTATOR. “ France shall mark our reign also; and

- it is our most ardent wish that it


in PROGRESS OF THE FRENCH REVOLU- “ its turn leave bchind rc collections worthy TION.--If we are to believe the prosti- “ of being associated with the memory of tuted press of this country, France is again those Sovereigns, whose first and noblest on the eve of being involved in all those “ virtue was paternal affection. Amidst scones of anarchy and bloocl, which afflicted “ acclamation, so unanimous and so soothher during the predominance of discordant “ing to our heart, with which we were fretions-even while the Paris Journals accompanied from the frontiers of our are altogether silent as to the pretended “ Kingdom to the bosom of our capital, convulsions in that and other cities, the “ we have never ceased to consider the sipublic attention here is occupied with pri- " tuation of our provinces and of our brave vate letters from the French capital, in “armies. The oppression which crushed which are given minute details of alleged " France has left behind it many evils, by insurrections, of disturbances which ended " which we are keenly touched; our conin lvloodshed, and of symptoms in the state cern on account of them is profonnd, but of political opinion, which indicate the “ their weight will be daily diminished; approach of some terrible revolutionary “ all our care shall be directed to this point, conmction. It is easy to divine the mo- “ and our highest pleasure will increase tives which give rise to these alarming“ with the felicity of our people. Already reports. The newspapers engaged in pro- “ an armistice, concluded in conformity pagating them, find, since the fever of “ with the views of an enlightened and 110war, and the férvor of political strife sub- " derate policy, dispenses its benefits as

“ sided, that there has been a dreadful fall- “ the forerunners of peace; and the


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66 all the corps.


Treaty, which is to establish it in a du- | directed his particular attention to the “rable manner, is the most constant, as proper organization of the army, and to " well as the most important, object of our the just rewards wliich are due to men “ thoughts. In a short time, the clive, who have procured so much glory to their “ the pledge of the repose of Europe, will country: In furtherance of the intentions “ be displayed to the nations that require of his Majesty towards these brave sol

The allied armies are beginning diers, the following has been made public: " to move towards our frontiers, and the “ VAR DEPARTMENT.-ORDER OF THE

angust Sovereigns, whose principles “ DAY.----Paris, MAY 15, 1814.-His “ have been so generous in regard to “Majesty has just determined on the orga

us, are nobly desirous of closely unit-" nization of his army. After having heard

ing themselves with us by the ties of a “ the Council of War, he has issued an or“ mutual friendship and confidence that " denance of the most favourable nature “ shall never be broken. We know that “ possible, for establishing the new Mili

individual abuses have been com- tary Constitution; and he has less con“ mitted, and that contributions have " sulted the finances of the State, than his “ been levied upon the departments of our justice, in rewarding honourable services,

“ kingdom since the conclusion of the armis- " and his affection for his brave troops.-“ tice, but the just and liberal declarations" Inspectors General, furnished with in" which the Allie Sovereigns have made “structions from the Ministers of War, “ to us respecting these abuses, authorise" will depart to form the amalgamation of us to forbid our subjects to comply with

It is important that all “ such requisitions as are illegal and con- “ such officers, who have rights to claim or “ trary to the Treaty, which has stipulated “ rewards to solicit, should appear

under “ “ for the general suspension of hostilities. their respective banners: the absence of

Nevertheless, our gratitude, and the these oflicers, during this operation, will

“ usage of war, require us to order all“ lead to serious and irreparable inconve" the Civil and Military Authorities in our “ niences. It is consequently necessary, “ dominions to redouble their care and at- “ that every military officer, of whatever tention, that the valiant armies of the Al- rank, should

appear without delay, with “ lied Sovereigns may be regularly and abun-" the corps to which he belongs, in order

dantly supplied with all that is necessary for to lay thc state of his services before 6 the subsistence and wants of the troops. “the Inspectors-General, and to obtain “ All demands not comprehended in these “ either lis continuation in active service,

objects shall therefore be of no eliect, “ the preservation of his full appointments, " and the sacrifices of the people will be the enjoyment of half-pay at home until “ diminished. Frenchmen! you hear the replaced; or, finally, to be permitted to “King, and he wished, in his turn, that “ retire in consequence of the rights he your voice may

reach him, and express may have acquired by new services since nd your desires ;

his shall " the month of January, 1314.-Those of“ always attest the love which he bears “ ficers, who do not belong to any corps,

to his people. The largest cities, and 6 those of the staff without appointments, 66 the most obscure hamlets, all parts of his " and those who wish to be placed in res “ kingdom, are equally objects of his care, gimcuts, shall present themselves, ac“ and he presses all his subjects at one and cording to their choice, in the chief places " the same time to his heart. He does not “ of the divisions or departments in which “think that he can indulge feelings too " there are Inspectors-General, to make

paternal for people whose valour, loyalty, representations of their services; those " and devotion to their Sovereigns, have who prefer half-pay may retire to their for ages

constituted their glory and pros- “ homes. - Every officer who, without ex“perity.”

Louis. press permission, shall remain at Paris Several ordonances have likewise been eight days after the publication of the published in France, all tending, like the present order, shall be held to have re.

.. above proclamation, to promote tranquilli- "nounced his right.-The soldiers who do ty, and to prepare the people for the enjoynot belong to the corps of the garrison ment of the blessings of peace.

Aware “ of Paris shall be immediately marched, also, that France can never be great and 56 under the immediate direction of the powerful unless her troops are put upon a

“ Commander of the place, to their rerespectable footing, the King seems to have" spective corps, or to one of the nearest

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