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ABKHz, a city on the confines of Gurjistan, and the whole territory is called by the name of Ábkház.
ÁBARDAH, a village in the district of Tús. * The Shaikh Behá a'ddin Omar derives the surname of Abardahi from this place.
ADDAKAN," a village in the province of Khurásán,' which gave a surname to Najem ad'din Muhammed Addakáni.8
ARRÁN, a tract of country situated between the provinces of Ázerbaíján, 10 Shírván," and Armeníah. To Arrán belong the cities of Ganjah,"3
them his white and black sheep. From him who obtained the white sheep descended the race of Ák Kuinlah, from the other son the tribe called Kará Kuinlah (al), for in the Turkí (or Tátár) language, Ák () signifies “white,” Kará "black," and Kuinlah (i) "sheep." The tribe of Ák Kuínlah are also denominated Báiandur ). This is one of the passages remarked by Sir Wm. Ouseley, in the Preface, as being not strictly geographical.
Berdâ,1 Bílkán, Karábágh, Maughan, and others.
ARTÚK, a city between Otrár and Samarkand: it is called by the Moghuls
Katligh Bálígh; a name of the same signification as Shahr mubarek in the Persian language, implying "the blessed, or fortunate, city."
ARHÍK,10 a considerable river in the Dasht-iKibchák.
ARKHANG," a region situated eastward of Bengál: this province is likewise denominated Rakhang. 12*
ÁRDEKAN,13 a village in the territory of Shíráz ; also the name of a place belonging to Yezd.15 ÁRDEN,16 a territory of Syria: the chief town of
* ARRACAN, or REKHAING, as we learn from Mr. Hamilton, in his "East India Gazetteer," is a maritime province of India beyond the Ganges, acquired by conquest from the Birman empire.
URDUBAD,1 a town in the province of Ázerbaí
ARAS, a considerable river in the province of Shírván it rises in the mountains of Armenia, and is a fortunate or blessed stream, for, of the animals that happen to fall into it, most are saved.* URÚS,3 a country bordering on the province of
ارد و باد :
* Sir William Ouseley describes his passage across this noble river, the Araxes, and notices many classical allusions to the ancient bridges which its impetuous current had destroyed. The words of Virgil, "pontem indignatus Araxes," (Æneid. lib. viii. v. 728.) will immediately occur to the reader. Sir William observed the remains of some bridges over this river, which, where he crossed it, (a few miles beyond Gargar,) divides Media from Armenia; but, adds he, 66 I shall not here attempt to inquire, whether on or near the site of these modern structures stood the ancient bridges which indignant Araxes' was compelled' to bear, by Xerxes, Alexander, and Augustus." And he illustrates this passage by the following note :"Quem pontibus nixus est Xerxes conscendere ; vel cui Alexander Magnus pontem fecit; quem fluminis incrementa ruperunt; quem postea Augustus firmiore ponte ligavit." See the Commentary of Servius on the line above cited of Virgil: to which Statius alludes, (in his Silv. lib. iv. v. 79.) "Patiens Latii jam pontis Araxes;" and Claudian, (lib. i.)" Pontemque pati cogitur Araxes." See Sir W. Ouseley's Travels, Vol. iii. P. 432.
Shírván and the Dasht-i-Kibchák; it is generally thought, and indeed can scarcely be doubted, that this is the same country as Rús.1
ARESH, a place in the province of Shírván.
ARGHANDÁB,3 a river between the provinces of Irák and Azerbaíján: from this river Khwájeh Ali derives the surname of Arghendábi.
ARMANÍAH, ARMEN,' and ARMINIAH, a celebrated and well-known country, which is divided into two portions; the Greater Armenia, and the Lesser. The Greater Armenia is considered as belonging to Irán or Persia, and in length extends from Arzenar'rúm 10 to Selmás," and in breadth from Ván 12 to the borders of Akhlát: in this division of Armenia are situated Akhlat,1 Alehtàk," Melázjerd, 15 Ván, Vustán, 16 Arjís," Takrít,18 and other places. The Lesser Armenia lies on the southward of Rúm, having on its west the sea of Rúm, and southward the country of Shám,1 and in this division is comprehended the Jezírehi-Kubrus.20
ASTA,' a fortress in the province of Rustemdár.
ISTÁJ,3 a town or city of Rúm, from which Adimák Kizlbásh 5* has received his surname of Istájlú.
ISTANBUL, the city of Kostantíniah. The word Istanbul in the Turkish language signifies, "you will find (there) whatever you wish."9†
• A Turkish compound, signifying "Red Head," (or "Red Cap,") the title by which certain soldiers in the Persian service were distinguished.
A more satisfactory derivation of the name "Istanbul" is offered in the following note, extracted from Sir Wm. Ouseley's Travels, (Vol. iii. p. 573.) "Isnicmid is formed of the Greek name Nikopedia, and the preposition es: thus Sarene from els Apηyny. (Gell's Itinerary of the Morea, p. 40.) We also find Isnic (eis Nikalav); and the venerable Athens metamorphosed into Setines (eus A0nvas). Many other names formed by the same process might be added; but I shall only notice as Constantinople is now generally called; although on gold and silver coins (of 1808) it still retains most of its Greek denomination, in the word Kostantiníah (bib). We may trace Istanbul with cer tainty (for some vague conjectures have been offered respecting this name) to Stenpolin of the modern Greeks, a corrup
(استنبول) Istambal or Istanbul