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that we are destitute in the Pagan world of such persons, as in hard and difficult cases might supply us with good and wholesome advice; so we shall the more gratefully accept those sound instructions you shall be pleased to impart to us, for the better discharge of our trust: the blessed effect whereof is like to be, that the church planted in India will, as it were, from the first shooting of the blade, become truly Christian; and by the Divine grace, be happily preserved from such spots and defilements, as are apt to intrude into the best constitution.

"We congratulate you, most worthy gentlemen, on account of the translation of the New Testament into the Damulian tongue, designed for the use of the Heathen world. We have finished at last the impression of the four Evangelists, and of the Acts of the Apostles, and some copies are herewith sent to England: one whereof we present, with filial respect, to the most reverend President of the Society, Dr. Thomas Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury another to the University of Cambridge; and the rest to yourselves, and other benefactors to the Mission."

"Last year we gave you an account of the number of the Christians in Our Malabarick and Portuguese churches. God Almighty has added to them twenty-eight persons more, that have been catechised this year; though the opposition we have hitherto met with, has very much hindered the increase both of our

churches and schools. The mighty hand of the Lord, we hope, will at length remove those obstacles, together with our grief which is caused thereby."

pared in the knowledge of languages, and fitted for the design, the churches of Christ planted in the East Indies may reap from thence a considerable benefit for their daily increase*.”

"After all, we do, with a filial reverence, recommend to your care whatever may serve to advance the propagation of the Gospel of Christ in the eastern parts of the world; that by your help and support, your councils and prayers, the hearts of the unbelievers, destitute of heavenly life and spirit, be made the temples of the Lord, and become holy and living sacrifices, well pleasing to God!"

About this time a college was formed at Copenhagen, by the king of Denmark, for the purpose of facilitating and enlarging the work of the Mission in the East Indies. The members of it immediately communicated the circumstance to the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge. In the letter which they transmitted they observe, "We cannot forget that it is the first part of our office to publish this Royal Institution to the world, and most heartily to invite all who have a hearty concern for the salvation of the Heathen to join with us in promoting the same†." An abstract of the Instructions of the King of Denmark (Frederick IV.) to the Missionary College is con

It is much to be lamented that no means have yet been devised by our bishops for obviating the difficulties which stand in the way of employing missionaries of the Church of England. They refuse to grant

ordination, except under regulations which

may be

gland; but surely a different rule would very proper as they apply to Engbe expedient in the case of persons who engage in foreign missions.

+ It will be seen from this passage how strangely at variance were the views of the good Christians of that day, who gave this letter to the world, with those now asserted by certain advocates of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge; who praise the Society for not doing that which it was then

"Our thoughts concerning a Seminary for Missionaries, to be made up of students sent from Europe, and of Indians educated in our schools, are every day growing to a greater maturity. We hope that such young thought the first duty of such a Society to men, after they have been duly pre-do, viz. to publish itself to the world, and • A considerable benefaction had been heartily to invite others to join in forwarding E to the Missionaries from Cambridge. its objects.

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tained in the publication before me. They are highly creditable to that pious prince, as the following extract will shew.

"Every member is to think it his duty, after hearty prayers put up for that purpose, to lay to heart a work of so great a concern, and to employ what gifts Providence hath bestowed upon him for advancing so Christian a design, viz. That the Gospel of Christ be preached to the Gentiles, and thereby many souls be brought over to Jesus Christ; and particularly that the Mission designed by us for that purpose, be supported, furthered, and facilitated.

"You are to make it your particular care, to assist the Missionaries already employed in this work, viz. to afford them useful instructions, to correct in them what is amiss, to encourage them in the pursuit of the work, to contrive ways for their timely supply, that they may cheerfully prosecute so good a design, and readily attend the function they are engaged in.

"You ought seriously to consider of procuring more labourers to be sent on the same errand, after they have been sufficiently tried, and found duly qualified for that work, and fit to succeed the Missionaries, if need be, in so weighty a station.

"You ought to consider what methods may be taken with the Heathen, even after they have embraced the Christian religion, thereby to promote their spiritual and temporal interest, viz. How they and their children (besides the knowledge of the principles of Christianity), may be instructed in other useful arts and sciences, and how also they may be employed, according to their respective dispositions and capacities."

A few extracts from the Prospectus published by the College on its first formation, and dated Copenhagen, Jan. 19, 1715, may not be unacceptable to your readers.

"It must be acknowledged by all, who are sensible of the difference between a state of sin and wrath, and a state of grace, to have been an

inestimable blessing to these northern countries, when the Gospel of Christ was received by our forefathers about nine hundred years ago, and heathenism thereby in a great measure abolished, and expelled from these parts of the world.

"And it must be confessed, that this blessing was again renewed to us, under the happy reign of our pious King Frederick I. when Christianity, by means of Luther's Reformation, recovered much of its ancient lustre and glory.

"Praised be God, who, of his infinite mercy, has vouchsafed unto us, to enjoy that benefit, for the space of near two hundred years, which many others stand deprived of to this day!

"Praised be likewise the same most merciful God, who, of his abundant goodness, hath reserved this farther glory to our nation, that the same grace which was received by us (and that not altogether in vain), doth now again go forth from us, and spread itself in far distant countries, whereby Protestant Churches may at last see the possibility of that, which, by many, was deemed altogether impracticable.

"It is now sufficiently known to the world, what pious care his Majesty of Denmark, Frederick the Fourth, our most gracious king, has taken, ever since the year 1705, to have the Gospel of Christ preached to the Heathen in the East Indies, and a church gathered there to the Author of our most holy religion."

"Of what importance the institution of such a Mission is, and how great advantage may be expected from it, will be best understood by those who have obtained grace to work out their own salvation, and are endued with an ardent desire of rescuing also their fellow-creatures from a state of darkness and igno

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years among the Heathen; yet hereby is there abundant cause administered to glorify God on that behalf." "But any one that will seriously consider the signal and blessed sucCess with which God hath vouchsafed to crown the fervent zeal, and un-This is our most gracious will, wearied application of our Mission- which we expect you will observe aries, will be easily induced to be- with all deference, and such an aplieve, that He seems to be pleased plication of mind, as you will anwith this work, as tending so much swer the same here and hereafter, to his glory, and the salvation of before the great Judge and Lord of souls." "The Missionaries have not us all. Do ye therefore, on your only translated the whole New Tes- part, as becomes the faithful servants tament into Malabarick, but are of God, and of your king, that our now engaged in the translation of ardour and zeal may not be lost, nor the Old. It must be acknowledged your labour be in vain.” to be a very great blessing to the Malabar Heathen, to have the Gospel laid before them in their native tongue, whereby they have an opportunity to learn and embrace the counsel of God, and the offers of his grace, for their eternal happi

every thing relating to the right management of this important affair; and that with so much ardour and zeal, that we have reason to tremble at those important words wherewith he concludes his royal Instructions:


learnt how difficult a

"It is therefore our hearty and humble request to all sincere lovers of the salvation of men, that they would lay hold of this fair opportu nity which now offers itself unto them, in the happy beginning madein the East Indies, and in the charitable design upon Finmark, and also Northland; and by their advice, and their contributions, effectually assist us to rescue a multitude of precious and immortal souls from eternal ruin; especially when they see how wil ling we are to receive such advice as shall be communicated to us, and use of, as is most likely to obtain the shall be always ready to make such which we have entirely at heart. end for which it is designed, and their own language." And we humbly entreat, in a more gracious providence of God particular manner, all ecclesiastical in a short time, vouchsafed unto this persons, Bishops, Superintendants, Mission such success, as gives us a Provosts, and other Clergymen, as and a promising harvest to follow in our most gracious king, as in foreign fair prospect of its further progress, well in the dominions subject to due season, if it shall please Him to kingdoms and countries; that they

"Any one who is engaged in the great work of converting others, and has thereby experimentally matter it is to gain souls to Christ, will easily believe it to be no small success, that God has so far blessed the Missionaries, as to enable them to gather a congregation, and to erect a church, where the Heathen publicly and constantly may hear the word of God in

66 The

continue to the Missionaries, as we


He will, his divine support; to the advancement of so important not suffering them to be frustrated a work as the conversion of the Deain their undertaking by any disas- then is; and in their conversation hardships or obstacles which usually lic-spirited persons, consider of ways attend works of this nature: but all difficulties will the sooner be overcome, if the benefactors in Europe

and means to promote it, and then ciety, whatever they shall think communicate by letters to our So

shall continue to exert themselves proper for settling the said work on

on their behalf."

"His Majesty, in his most gracious

the most solid foundation."

"Private persons who make con

Instructions, has intrusted, us with science of daily addressing their

Heavenly Father in secret are entreated to remember this work, as a proper subject in their constant prayers. and supplications. The more fervent they are in their addresses to God, the more shall we be bound to recommend them to his divine favour and protection; and the greater also, we trust, will be the blessing of Almighty God upon the whole undertaking. Let us, therefore, with one accord, and with united hearts and hands, joyfully embrace the opportunity which now offers itself of doing what the good and gracious will of God enjoins, and the misery of so many nations requires. The harvest is verygreat. Oh! let us do good whilst we have time, that in due season we may reap the fruit thereof to all eternity. May the Lord himself, the eternal God, give the increase to our planting and watering, that the seed of his holy word, scattered among the Heathen, may spring up and bring forth a hundred-fold. Faithful is He that hath promised, who will also do it. To Him be all praise, honour and glory, from this time forth and for


It is most melancholy to reflect how little during a whole century has been done in this great work, notwithstanding such fair beginnings! How little especially has been done by the Church of England, notwithstanding her multiplied means and opportunities, and her peculiar obligations to exertion. May the Lord pardon our supineness and inactivity in his service, and enable us now to arise and shake ourselves from the dust, and take our proper station in leading the battles of the militant Church.

(To be continued.)

To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

THOUGH I have expressed my weariness of controversy, and though Talib, in his last letter, says little more than what he had already said, and what I had already answered, I

am yet unwilling to appear defi-·
cient in attention to a writer whom
I so much respect. The same re-
mark applies to another anonymous
opponent of mine, who has recently
published a second pamphlet by
way of answer to my reply to his
first; which reply appeared in one
of your former numbers. He writes
with the same excellent spirit that
was manifest in his first production,
but says little on the subject that is
new. I shall, however, notice what
I may deem to require notice in
both these writers.

I. Talib wishes to compute the
1260 years from an edict of Justi-
nian, and makes them expire A. D.
1792. He is, however, aware, that
the number mentioned in Dan. viii.
14, has a synchronical termination
with the 1260 years, and moreover
that that number plainly specifies
the whole duration of the vision of
the ram and the he-goat. Counting
back then 2300 years (the reading
of the common Hebrew) from A. D,
1792, he arrives at the year A. C.
508; which, therefore, in order that
his scheme may cohere, he has to
prove to be the true chronological
commencement of the vision. Now
the vision opens with a view of the
ram standing on the bank of the
river Ulai; and then Daniel says,
that he saw this ram in the act of
pushing. Concerning the import of
this pushing, Talib and I are per-
fectly agreed: we likewise agree
that it commenced about the year
508, though perhaps that is not quite
certain; let it however pass. The
point, wherein we disagree is, how
far the vision can properly be said
to commence with the ram's pushing,
and, consequently, with the year
A. C. 508. To myself it appears,
that Daniel beheld the ram in a
standing state anterior to his begin-
ning to push and, therefore, since
the vision opens before he began to
push, the number which specifies
the duration of the whole vision, must
of course also commence before he
began to push; that is to
the year A. C. 50s. If this point
say, before

be established, it is obvious that Talib's system falls to the ground: hence he naturally employs all his ingenuity, of which he possesses no small share, to prove that Daniel did not behold the ram in any state anterior to his pushing; but that the vision opens with his beginning to push, and consequently with the year 508. For this purpose he asserts (and with much truth), that the word does not necessarily signify to stand, but denotes likewise to subsist or exist; he adduces various instances to prove the point; and he says, that I beg the question by assuming that in Dan. viii. 3 the word imports to stand still. He adds, that, the next verse not beginning with a 1, the Hebrew idiom requires, that it should not be successire to the former verse, but synchronical with it.

1. I reply, that, even were Talib's instances more apposite than they are, they would just prove nothing in the matter before us. The Hebrew verb y, like the English verb to stand, has various cognate significations: what signification it bears in any particular passage must clearly be determined by the context of that passage. To adduce, therefore, instances of various usages of the word from other passages is just about as reasonable as to prove, that a bull stood for an office, because an anthor, in two different sentences of the same work, said a man stood and a bull stood. The meaning of the word must plainly be determined by the context of its own passage, not by that of the other. The question is not, how Daniel uses the word elsewhere, but how he uses it in one particular place. And I still think, as I heretofore thought, that in Dan. viii. 3, it can only denote standing still. On this point, I would readily submit the matter in dispute to any plain reader, who had no system to support. The Prophet says, I saw, and behold a ram stood before the river. I saw the Tam pushing. Now does not the context plainly shew, that Daniel

first saw the ram quietly standing still, and that afterwards he saw him beginning to push? Would not any plain reader suppose this to be the case? Would he ever imagine, that Daniel meant oddly to express himself, I saw a ram existing on the bank of the river. I saw him pushing? No: on the contrary he would say, "If Daniel meant what Talib ascribes to him, he would never tell us that he saw a ram existing before a river; because, if he saw him, he of course saw him existing. If the vision began with his pushing, the Prophet would naturally have said, I saw before the river a two-horned ram pushing westward, &c. On Talib's scheme, the word hy ought to have been quite omitted, for it serves no other end but to mislead us." Let us put a parallel case. Suppose a man were to tell his neighbour, "As I was taking a walk this morning, I saw a bull standing in a pasture. I saw the bull run at a person who was going through the pasture:" How would his neighbour understand him? Would he not suppose, that he had first seen the animal standing in contradistinction to running or couching, and that afterwards he saw him quit his standing attitude and run at the passenger? I doubt whether he would ever suppose, that his neighbour, by using the word standing, was merely anxious to work a thorough conviction in him, that the vicious bull was assuredly in a state of existence previous to his running.

2. But Talib says, that the Hebrew idiom requires his gloss, because ver. 4 does not commence with a . I must have some much more decisive proof than I expect ever to see, before I subscribe to this canon of criticism. In Dan. vii. neither ver. 8 nor ver. 9 begins with a 1; yet I presume Talib will scarcely say, that verses 7, 8, 9 are synchronical and not successive. So little does the conjunction and settle the point of chronology either one way or another, that in Rev. xi. 11,

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