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five gross elements,' says Vāliśikhāyani, “the earth, wind, ether, water, light. These are united with each other. Again, the others, the small ones, are united with the gross elements. This is the union of all elements. He who knows thus this union is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (21.)
• The whole of speech is Brahman,' says Lauhikya. Whatever sounds there are, let him know to be speech. This a Rşi declares :-2
"I with the Rudras and the Vasus fare.' This speech is all sounds. He who knows thus this union is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. And even as Brahman(n.) can change form at will and move at will, so among all beings can he change form and move at will who knows thus. (22.)
Adhyāya VIII. Om. "Breath is the beam,' says Sthavira Śākalya. “Just as all the other beams rest on the main-beam, so the whole self rests on this breath. Of this self breath is the symbol of the sibilants, the bones of the mutes, the marrow of the vowels, the flesh and blood, the fourth element, of the semi-vowels.' 3 But
pp. 5–20), and the tanmātra conception has no necessary connection with the fundamental view of either system, while the Vedānta adopts it in the physiology of the self. The mistake of Garbe's view of the Paurāņic Sāmkhya (pp. 53 seq.) and of the Bhagavadgītā (cf. his trans., Leipzig, 1905, and Hopkins' review, J.R.A.S., 1905, pp. 384-9) seems to me to lie in not recognising the great part played in all Vedic and Hindu religion by Bhakti, which is accompanied by a quasi-theistic, quasi-pantheistic, conception of philosophy, such as is made explicit in the Srībhāsya of Rāmānuja, see J.R.A.S., 1906, pp. 490 seq. ; Grierson, ibid., 1908, p. 361. The issue is not so much between pantheism and theism, which indeed tend to blend into each other, but between atheism as in the Sāņkhya and Buddhism, Advaitism as in Sankara, and the Dvaitism of the Bhāgavatas, Pāśupatas, etc., who de facto are pantheists, since in a sense all is in God, theists since God is the object of devotion and individual souls seek Him, yet are not merged in or identical with Him, and who believe in the real existence of the world. Cf. Vijñānabhikṣu's Sāmkhya-pravacanabhāşya (Garbe, op. cit., pp. 75–7, 115); Thibaut, S.B.E., xxxiv, pp. xcvii seq.
Perhaps Lauhitya, cf. J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 372, n. 1; Jaiminiya Brāhmana Upanişad, iii, 42, 1 (a Vamsa).
? RV., x, 125, 1.
3 The parallel version, Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 2, 1, has antasthārūpam, and this gives the sense.
we have heard of a triad only,' says Hrasva Māņdūkeya. Of this triad, on one side there are three hundred and sixty joinings, on the other the same; these make up seven hundred and twenty. Seven hundred and twenty, indeed, are the days and nights of the year. Thus he obtains the days and nights of the year. This is the self, commensurate with the year, composed of the eye, the ear, the metres, the mind, speech. He who knows thus this self, commensurate with the year, composed of the eye, the ear, the metres, the mind, speech, wins union, and communion with the year, residence in the same world, and similarity of form. He becomes rich in sons and cattle. He lives all his days. So taught Āruņikeya. (1.)
Then follows (the teaching of) Kauņtharavya. There are three hundred and sixty letters, three hundred and sixty sibilants, three hundred and sixty unions. What we have called letters, they are the days. What we have called sībilants, they are the nights. What we have called unions, they are the unions of days and nights. So far as regards the deities. Now as regards the self. What we have called letters as regards the deities, these are bones as regards the self. What we have called sibilants as regards the deities, these are marrow as regards the self. This indeed is the chief breath, marrow. This is seed. Without breath, indeed, seed cannot be won. If without breath seed were effused, 4 it would decay, it would not be productive. What we have called unions as regards the deities, these are joints 5 as regards the self. Of this triad,6 bones, marrow, joints, on this side there are five hundred and forty unions, on that side the same; this makes a thousand and eighty. One thousand and eighty Bịhati verses the singers ? produce on this day as the (hymn
i Cf. J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 371. For asya, cf. vii, 2, note. 2 Cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 2, 3.
3 Perhaps 'vowels.' 4 Sicyeta seems most probable, as sicyet is very irregular. Sicyāt, a precative form, is just possible, but not likely.
5 It would probably be a mistake to press this word for any very definite sense.
* Trayasya must be supplied in sense, probably also textually ; iti is here summing up; cf. Böhtlingk, Dict., i, 202 ; ii, 1; vi, 19; viii, 1 and 9.
? Vārkalino is, I think, irregular Sandhi for vā(i) arkalino, cf. Weber, Ind. Stud., xvii, 380.' It is, of course, curious that there is the v.l. vāşkalinaḥ.
of the) day. This is the self, commensurate with the day, composed of the eye, the ear, the metres, the mind, speech. He who knows thus this self, commensurate with the day, composed of the eye, the ear, the metres, the mind, speech, wins union and communion with the days, residence in the same world, and similarity of form. He becomes rich in cows and cattle. He lives all his days. (2.)
• There are four persons,' says Vātsya, 'the person of the body, the person of the metres, the person of the Vedas, the great person.' What we have called the person of the body is the corporeal self. Of it the essence is this incorporeal intelligent self. What we have called the person of the metres is the alphabet. Of it the letter a is the essence. What we have called the person of the Vedas is that by which one knows the Vedas, the Ķgveda, the Yajurveda, the Sāmaveda. Of it the Brahman(n.) is the essence. Therefore one should take as priest a Brahman priest fullest of Brahman, who can know the unusual 3 in the sacrifice. What we have called the great person is the year. Of it yonder sun is the
The incorporeal intelligent self here and yonder sun are the same, so one should know. This is declared in a Rc.—4 (3.) * The brilliant presence of the gods has risen, the eye of
Mitra, Varuņa, and Agni.
filled the air and earth and heaven.' • Thus do I deem the union duly made,' says Vātsya. Him the Bahvịcas seek in the Mahad Uktha, him the Adhvaryus in the fire, him the Chandogas in the Mahāvrata, him on earth, him in the atmosphere, him in the heaven, him in the fire, him in the wind, him in the moon, him in the Nakşatras,
Cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 2, 3; Ind. Stud., xvii, 197. The Berlin MS. has vātsaḥ.
* This is apparently the earliest occurrence of akşarasamāmnāya as alphabet.'
3 So probably ulbaṇam, in accordance with the real duties of the Brahman priest ; S.B.E., xlii, pp. lix seq. The Sadasya is accorded this function by Paingya, Kauşītaki Brāhmaṇa, xxvi, 4.
4 RV., i, 115, 1.
him in the waters, him in the plants, him in all beings, him in the letters,' him they worship as Brahman. This is declared in a Rc.- 2 (4.) * Looking upon the loftier light above the darkness we
have come To Sūrya, god among the gods, the light that is most
excellent.' This is the self, commensurate with the letters, composed of the eye, the ear, the metres, the mind, speech. He who thus this self, commensurate with the letters, composed of the eye, the ear, the metres, the mind, speech, recites to another, his Vedas lose their savour, he has no part in speech, no part in what is studied. This is declared in a Ķc.— 4
.(5.) No part in speech hath he who hath abandoned his own dear
friend who knows the truth of friendship. Even if he hears him, still in vain he listens; naught knows
he of the path of righteous action.' In his study there is no part of speech, so he says. Therefore one should not recite (the litany of) that day for another, nor pile up the fire, nor celebrate the Mahāvrata, lest he be torn away from his self.
• This incorporeal self here and yonder sun are one,' we have said. When these two are seen apart,6 (6.)
The sun appears like the moon, its rays do not shine forth, the sky is leaden like madder, the anus is gaping, the self in on the point of death, it will not live long,' so one should
| This sentence_the Berlin MS. omits, and it is not in the parallel version, Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 2, 3.
? RV., i, 50, 10.
5 The Sảman as opposed to the Sastras. Cf. i, 1, and note on Aitareya Āranyaka, v, 3, 3.
6 For 6 and 7, cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 2, 4;: 5, and notes; infra, xi, 3; 4. Some of the predictions, if not all, can be paralleled to-day, even in Europe. In Mbh., vi, 112, 12, we have the moon, avāksiras, as a portent, but it is, I think, significant of the early date of the Upanişad that the Grahas do not appear here; in the epic they are prominent, Hopkins, J.A.O.S., xxiv, 38 seq. See also Weber, Omina und Portenta ; Konow, Sāmavidhāna Brāhmaṇa ; Auśanasādbhutāni, J.A.0.S.,
XV, 207-20 ; Z.D.M.G., xxxii, 573 seq.
know. Whatever he considers should be done, he should do. Again, if he sees himself in a mirror or water with a crooked head or without a head, or cannot see himself, he should know that it is so. Again, if his shadow is pierced, or he throws no shadow, he should know that it is so. Again, if the sun appears pierced like the nave of a chariot wheel, he should know that it is so. Again, if the fire appears black like the neck of a peacock, or if amid a large cloud he should see as it were brightness, or when there is no cloud see lightning, or in cloudy weather see it not, he should know that it is so. Again, if closing his eyes he does not see motes, as it were, he should know that it
Again, if he shut his ears and listen, and does not then hear a noise as of burning fire or the sound of a chariot, he should know that it is so. Again, if the pupils of the eyes appear inverted or doubly crooked, or cannot be seen, he should know that it is so. • The unheard, unthought, unknown, unseen, undirected, soundless hearer, thinker, knower, seer, director, sounder, the inner self of all beings, he is my soul,' so should one know. He departing enters into this incorporeal intelligent self, and abandons the other corporeal self. This is the Upanişad of speech as a whole. All these, indeed, are Upanişads of speech as a whole, but this one they call so especially. (7.)
The mutesl are the form of earth, the sibilants of the atmosphere, the vowels of the heaven. The mutes are the form of Agni, the sibilants of Vāyu, and the vowels of Āditya. The mutes are the form of the Rgveda, the sibilants of the Yajurveda, the vowels of the Sāmaveda. The mutes the form of the Rathantara, the sibilants of the Vāmadevya, the vowels of the Bịhat. The mutes are the form of expiration, the sibilants of inspiration, the vowels of Vyāna.? The mutes are the form of expiration, the sibilants of inspiration, the vowels of mind. "The mutes are the form of expiration, the sibilants of inspiration, the vowels of Udāna,' says
! For 8 and 9, cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 2, 5.
2 For these Prāņas, cf. Jacob, Concordance, s.vv. ; Deussen, Phil. of the Upanishads, pp. 264 seq. ; Z.D.M.G., lvi, 556.