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ther he be home-born, or a stranger, the same reproacheth Jehovah; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people. "Because he hath despised the word of Jehovah, and hath broken his commandment, that soul shall utterly be cut off, his iniquity shall be
* And the sons of Israel were in the wilderness : and they found inan, WITH AN HIGH HAND,] That is, boldly, ye frustrate the commandment of God.' proudly and presumptuously, as the Gr, trans- Usually it is applied to the breaking of the lateth, with the hand of pride; and Thargum covenant' of God, as in Gen. xvii. 14; Jonathan, with pride, (or presumption ) This Lev. xv. 44, and often in the prophets; somephrase, when it is spoken of good works, mean- times of the law and commandments, Ps. eth boldness, courage and magnanimity, in cxix. 126; Ezra ix. 14; Heb. x. 28. SHALL heart and carriage; as, Israel went out of UTTERLY BE CUT OFF,] Or, shall be cut off Egypt. with an high hand, Num. xxxiii. 3; with cutting off: the doubling of the word, Exod. xiv. 8, but here of evil, it meaneth is for more certainty, and speed; and as the pride and presumption showing itself openly Heb, doctors gather from it, “ in this world, aud boldly; which Onkelos in Chald. ex. and in the world to come:" see tbe annot, on poundeth, " with an uncovered head," as Gen. xvii. 14. So R. Menachem here being not ashamed of the deed (for when saith, Although we find apostates (from men were ashamed, they used to cover their God) to live more than fifty years, and that heads,' Jer. xiv. 4.) Of like sort, is 'the they are not cut off from the life of this high arm,' in Job xxxvii, 15, where the Gr. world; yet know that their deserts hang upon also expoundeth it, the arm of the proud :) them in this world, and vengeance shall be and the high (or lofty) eyes,' Ps. xviii. 28; taken on them abundantly in the world to exxxi. 1. REPROACHETH,] Or, blasphemeth; come." His INIQUITY,] Or, the iniquity of which the Gr. and Chald, translate, provoketh it, (of the soul, that is, of the person) shall to anger. It meaneth a reproaching with be upon it; or, in it; or, with it. By ini. words, as 2 Kings xix. 6, 22, and is applied quity, understanding punishment for iniquity, here unto deeds, as also in Ezek. xx. 27, as in Gen, xix. 15, and as sin, is for the *yet in this your fathers have reproached (or punishment of sin, Lev. xxii. 9. Or, we blasphemed) me, in that they have trespassed may take iniquity properly ; as Sol. Jarchi a trespass against me.' So a presumptuous expoundeth it, “ when iniquity is in him, sinner is counted as a blasphemer of God, that he repenteth not." R. Menachem here and hath no sacrifice for his sin, but is to be allegeth an exposition of the ancients, “ that cut ofl. And this word Christ hath respect soul shall be cut off, and the iniquity thereof unto, in Luke xii. 10, unto him that blas- with it: as if he should say, the iniquity phemeth against the Holy Spirit, it shall not shall cleave unto it after it is cut off, to be be forgiven.' That soul,] In Chald, that punished for ever; according to that (in Is. ma, CUT OFF,] In Gr. and Chald. des- Ixvi. 24.) Their worm shall not die ; which troyed: which phrase the apostle useth in Jonathan (the Chald. paraphrast) expoundeth, Acts iii. 23, shall be destroyed from among Their soul shall not die. And our doctors the people. That word meaneth destruction have said, It shall be cut off in this world, it by the hand of God, as in 1 Cor. x. 10; shall be cut off from the world to come.” So Heb. xi. 28. So the Heb. doctors under- the Chald. on Moses, which goeth under the stand the cutting off, mentioned in the law name of Jonathan paraphraseth, “ that man of Moses: which sometimes is so explained, shall be destroyed in the world that is to as in Lev. xvii. 10. God saith, 'I will cut come, and shall give account of his sin at the him off from among his people.' But if great day of. judgment.” there were witnesses of the fact, the magis- Ver. 32.-WERE IN THE WILDERNESS,] trates punished them, either by death, or “ For so (saith Chazkuni) it was decreed conbeating: see the notes on Deut. xxv. 2. cerning them, that they should not come into
VER, 31,-DESPISED THE WORD,] Or, the land of Canaan.) In the former comcontemned, set it at nought, as vile; dis- mandments of the drink-offerings, and cake, honoured it. Hereupon is that proverb, 'He it was written, When ye be come into the that despiseth the word, shall be destroyed ; land, &c. to teach, that they were not to but he that feareth the commandment, shall practise them save in the land: but the Sab. be rewarded,' Prov. xiii. 13. BROKEN,] Or, bath was to be kept both within the land and disannulled, frustrated; made void: it is op- without, though it were in the wilderness ; posed unto establishing or confirming. This and therefore it is written concerning it, In word Christ useth in Mark vii. 9, . Full well the wilderness.
a man gathering sticks on the Sabbath day. * And they that found him gathering sticks, brought him near unto Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto all the congregation. 34 And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him.
* And Jelovah said unto Moses, The man shall be made to die the death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without
36 And all the congregation brought him forth without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died, as Jehovah commanded Moses.
3? And Jehovah said unto Moses, saying, 38 Speak unto the sons VER. 34.-IN WARD,] That is, in prison. the judgment-hall, as Sol. Jarchi noteth. So So they dealt with the blasphemer, in Lev. they dealt with Stephen, casting him out of xxiv. 12. IT WAS NOT DECLARED,] In Gr. the city, and stoning him, Acts vii. 58, jike. they had not judged, or determined. Where- wise with Naboth, 1 Kings xxi. 13, also with fore was it thus? seeing the law had twice the blasphemer, Lev. xxiv. 15, which was a said, that the breaker of the Sabbath should circumstance that aggravated the punishment, die, Exod. xxxi. 4; xxxv. 2. Sol. Jarchi being a kind of reproach,' as the apostle saith, " it was not declared what manner of noteth, Heb. xiii. 11–13. And this sedeath he should die: but they knew that he verity showeth of what weight the command. that profaned the Sabbath was to die." And ment touching the Sabbath is, the profanathe Chald. called Jonathan's paraphraseth tion whereof God would have thus to be thus ; “ This judgment was one of the four avenged. And it further signified the eter. judgments that came before Moses the pro- nal death of such as do not keep the Sabbath phet, which he judged according to the word of of Christ, entering into the rest of God by the holy (God.) Some of them were judgments faith, and ceasing from their own works, as of lesser moment, and some of them judgments God did from his, Heb. iv. 1-4, 10, 11. of life and death. In the judgments of Jes- VER. 37.-AND JEHOVAH SAID,] After ser moment (of pecuniary matters) Moses the violating of the Sabbath, and punishment was ready, but in judgments of life and for it, God giveth a law, and ordaineth a sign death he made delays. Aod both in the one of remembrance, to further the sanctification and in the other, Moses said, I have not of his people, that they might think upon his heard, (viz. what God would have done.) commandments, and do them. For to teach the heads (or chief) of the Syne- VER. 38.-Sons of Israel,] This law for drions (or assizes) that should rise up after fringes concerned Israel only, not other na. him, that they should be ready to dispatch in- tions; and as the Hebs. say, "men only ferior causes (or money matters) but not hasty were bound to wear them, not women. in matters of life and death. And that they Women and servants, and little children, are should not be ashamed to inquire, in causes not bound by the law to wear the fringe. that are too hard for them; seeing Moses But by the words of the scribes, every child who was the master of Israel, had need to that knoweth to clothe himself, is bound to say, I have not heard. Therefore he impri- wear the fringe, to the end he may be trained soned him ; because as yet it was not de- up in the commandments. And women and clared, what sentence should pass upon him.” servants that will wear them, may so do, but The four judgments which he speaketh of, they bless not [God, as men do when they were about the unclean that would keep the put them on:] and so all other commandpassover, Num. ix. 7, 8, and the daughters ments which women are not bound unto, if of Zelophehad that claimed possession in the they will do them, they do them without land, Num. xxvii. 4, 5, (these were the causes blessing first,” Maim, tom. i. in Zizith, (or of less importance:) about the blasphemer, treat. of Fringes) chap. iii. sect. 9. THAT Lev. xxiv., and the Sabbath-breaker here: THEY MAKE,] They themselves, and not heaboth which he kept in ward, till he had an thens for them: "a fringe which is made by answer from the Lord.
an heathen, is unlawful; as it is written, Ver. 35.-STONE HIM,] This was es. Speak to the sons of Israel, that they make teemed the heaviest of all the four kinds of unto them,” Maim. in Zizith, chap. i. sect. death that malefactors suffered in Israel: see 12. A FRINGE,] That is, fringes, as in Deut. the notes on Exod. xxi. 12. WITHOUT THE xxii. 12. Muses speaketh of many: and so CAMP, ] Hereupon they used to carry such out the Gr. and Chald. translate it here. A of the cities, and execute them far off from fringe is in Heb, called Tsitsith (or Zizith) of Israel, and say unto them; that they make unto them a fringe on the skirts of their clothes, throughout their generations; and that they put upon the fringe of the skirt, a ribband of blue. which in Ezek. viii. 3, is used for a lock of is meet to have the fringe, must put on the hair' of the head; and is here applied to a fringe, and then put the garment on; and if fringe, the threads whereof hang down as he put it on without the fringe, he breaketh locks of hair, And the Heb. doctors call it the commandment. But clothes meet to also Granaph, that is, a branch, because it have the fringe so long as a man puts them bangeth as branches or twigs of a tree. “The not on, but foldeth and layeth them up, they branch which they make upon the skirt of a are not bound to have the fringe: for it is not garment, is called Tsitsith, because it is like a duty in respect of the garment, but in resto (Tsitsith) a lock of the head, Ezek. viii. pect of the man which hath the garment,” 3. And this branch is called white, because Maim, in Zizith, chap. iii. sect. 145, 10. we are not commanded to dye (or colour) it. UPON THE PRINGE] Or, with the fringe. And for the threads of this branch, there is A RIBBAND,] Or, a thread, as the word is no set Dumber by the law. And they take a Englished in Judg. xvi. 9, or, a lace, as in thread of wool, which is died like the colour Exod. xxxix. 31, it hath the name of twistof the firmament, and tie it upon the branch ing or wreathing. The Gr. and Chald. (or fringe;) and this thread is called blue,” translate it, a thread : and so it is explained Maim. in Zizith, chap. i. sect. 1, 2. The by the Heb. doctors; who also say, “whefringe is called in Gr. craspeda, and this ther they were threads of white, or threads of word is used by the Holy Spirit in Matt. blue, if he would make them of twisted xxiii. 5, and of it, the Chald. also calleth it threads, he might so do ; and though the cruspedin. The word gedilim, used for thread were twisted of eight threads, and a fringes, in Deut. xxii. 12, were the thrums ribband made of them, it was counted but of the cloth which was woven: and Tsitsith one thread. The threads of the fringe, whethe fringe here spoken of, were threads tied ther white or blue, must be spun for the unto those thrums with knots. ON THE fringe by name," Maim. in Zizith, chap. i. SKIRTS,] Heb. on the wings. This is ex- sect. 11. OF BLUE,] Or, of sky-colour. pounded in Deut. xxii. 12, on the four The Hebs. say, “the blue spoken of in the skirts' (or wings.) The skirt end, or border law in every place, is wool dyed, and like the of a garment, is usually called a wing, as in clear firmament. And the blue for the Ruth iii. 9; 1 Sam. xv. 27; xxiv. 5, 11; fringe must be dyed in a known dye that will Deut. xxii. 30; Zach. viii, 23; Ezek. v. 3; continue in the fair colour and not change: Hag. ii. 12, so the four ends or corners of and whatsoever is not so dyed, is unlawful the earth, are called the 'four wings' thereof, for the fringe, though it be like the colour of Job xxxvii. 3; xxxviii, 13; Is. xi. 12; the firmament. The dye for this blue was Exek. vii. 2. “The garment which a man made (they say) with the blood of the Chalais bound to make the fringe on by the law, is zon, which is a fish of blue colour, and the à garment which hath four skirts, or more blood of it is black as ink, and it is found in than four: and it is a garment of woollen or the salt sea. And with that blood they mix of linen only. But & garment of other vermillion, &c. Also it must be dyed for the stuff, as of silk, or cotton, or camels' hair, or fringe by name,” Maim. in Zizith, chap. ii. the like, are not bound to have the fringe, sect. 1-3, and Talmud in Menachoth, chap. save by the words of our wise men, that men iv. As for the fringe (which they usually may be admonished to keep the precept of call the white, because it was not commanded the fringe. For all clothes spoken of in the to be dyed, it might be of any colour, as the law absolutely, are not, save of woollen and garment itself, except blue, whereof they linen only. When he maketh a fringe on a write thus; “ The garment which is all red, garment that has five or six skirts, he maketh or green, or of other dyed colours, they make it but on four of the skirts, as it is said, Upon the white threads (or fringe) thereof
, like the the four skirts, Deut. xxii. 12. A garment dyed colour thereof; green, if it be green ; thet is borrowed, is not bound to have the or red, if it be red. If it be all blue, then fringe for thirty days; after and thencefor- they make the white (the fringe) thereof ward it is bound. A garment of wool, they of other colours, any save black, for that will make the white thereof of threads of wool: turn and appear bluish: and they tie upon all, and a garment of flax (or linen) they make one thread of blue, like as they do in other the white thereof of threads of flax; and so fringes which are not dyed,” Maim. ibid. of every garment after the kind thereof, &c. chap. ii, sect. 8. By reason of this differEvery man that is bound to do this command- ent colour, they also say,
“ There are found ment, if he put upon him a garment which in this commandment (of the fringe) two
39 And it shall be unto you for a fringe ; that ye may see it, and remember all the commandments of Jehovah, and do them; and that ye seek not after your own heart, and after your own eyes, after commandments; that a man make on the the two cheeks,' &c. Deut. xviii. 3; if they skirt, a branch issuing out of it; and that he found a bird's nest, « Thou shalt send a way the tie upon the branch a thread of blue, (Num. dam,' Deut. xxii, 6, 7; if they caught wild xv. 38.) And the blue hindereth not the beast or fowl, “He shall pour out the blood white; neither doth the white hinder the thereof, and cover it with dust,' Lev. xvii. blue. As if a man have no blue, he maketh 13; if they planted, 'Ye shall count as uncir. the white alone, &c. Though one hindereth cumcised the uncircumcision thereof,' &c. not another, yet are they not two command- Lev. xix. 23; if they had a man-child born, ments, but one. Our former wise men have The fore-skin of his flesh shall be circumsaid (from these words,) And it shall be unto cised,' Lev. xii. 2; if they buried the dead, you for a fringe, Num. xv. 39, this teacheth *Ye shall not cut yourselves,' &c. Deut. xiv. that both of them are one commandment. 1; if they shaved themselves, ‘Ye shall not And the four fringes (on the four skirts) do round a corner of your head,' &c. Lev. xix. hinder one another (so that one may be with- 27; if they builded an house, 'Thou shalt out another] for they four are one command- make a battlement,' &c. Deut. xxi. 8; • And ment (Deut. xxii. 12.) And he that weareth thou shalt write them upon the posts,' &c. a garment wherein is the white (fringe) or Deut. vi. 9; if they clothed themselves, Ye the blue (ribband) or both of them together, shall make ye a frioge,'" &c. Chazkuni on he keepeth one commanding precept,” Maim.
AND REMEMBER ALL,] This was in Zizith, chap. i. sect. 3–5.
the spiritual use of this ordinance, that it VER. 39.- FOR A FRINGE,] By the insti- might lead them unto a continual rememtution of God it was made unto them a fringe, brance and practice of all the law; without and so a religious sign to help their memo- which the outward rite was vain. The ries, and to further their sanctification; where. many threads of the fringes on the four fore they used to sanctify this, as all other like skirts of their garment, signified the many divine ordinances, by prayer; and when they commandments of God which they should put on this garment, they “blessed the Lord put upon them, to be as it were clothed with their God, the King of the world, which them, and to walk in them: the heaven-colsanctified them by his commandments, and oured riband, taught them an heavenly afleccommanded them to array themselves with tion to all the law, and an holy conversation; frioges. And whensoever they clothed them. and led them spiritually to put on the “ wed. selves herewith in the day-time, they blessed ding garment,' Matt. xxii. 11; 'the Lord for them before they put them on.
Jesus Christ,' Rom. xiii. 14; the whole blessed not for the fringes at the time of the armour of God,' Eph. vi, 11; "and the new making of them, because the end of the com
which after God is created in righteous. mandment is, that they should be arrayed ness and holiness of truth,' Eph. iv. 24; herewith," Maim. in Zizith, chap. iii. sect. that their conversation might be in heaven,' 8. THAT YE MAY SEE IT,] Or, and ye
shall Phil. iii. 20. From these words, the Heb. see (or look upon) it; on yourselves, and on doctors say, “ A man should always be careone another.
Wherefore the Hebs, say, “A ful to array himself with such a garment as blind man was bound to wear the fringe: for was bound to have the fringe, that he might though he saw it not, others did see it," keep this commandment: and in the time of Maim. in Zizith, chap. iii. sect. 7. By prayer, he is to be warned hereof more espemany means of sundry sorts, God warned his cially. It is a great shame for wise men, people of old, to walk religiously and holily that they should pray, and not be arrayed before him; and it is observed by some of herewith. A man must for ever be warned themselves, “that the holy blessed God left of this commandment of the fringe, for the nothing in the world, wherein he gave not scripture maketh it of great weight, and all some commandment to Israel: if they went the commandments, every one depend upon out to plow, (he said) “Thou shalt not plow it,” Maim. in Zizith, chap. iii. sect. 11, 12. with an ox and an ass together,' Deut. xii. But they abused this, as other divine ordi10; if to sow, 'Thou shalt not sow with divers nances, to superstition and hypocrisy; and kinds,' Lev. xix. 19; if to reap, «Thou shalt were reproved by our Saviour for making not wholly reap the corner of thy field,' &c. their phylacteries' broad, and enlarging Lev. xix. 9; is to knead their dough, 'Of the the borders (or fringes) of their garments, first of your dough, ye shall otièr a cake,' Matt. xxiii. 5. And this their vanity (negNum. xv. 20; if they killed (a beast,) “They lecting the spiritual end) appeareth in their shall give unto the priest, the shoulder and writings; for unto the thrums or threads of
which you go a whoring. That ye may remember and do all my commandments, and be holy unto your God. “ I am Jehovah your God, which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to be unto you a God; I am Jehovah your God. the garment, " which were three inches, which is not of the Father, but of the world,' they fastened threads doubled in the midst, 1 Joho ii. 16. The Hebs. say, “ The heart whose length (they say) might not be less and the eyes are the spies of the body, and than four inches, but more than so they brokers to bring it into transgression; the eye might be, though a cubit, or two cubits," seeth, and the heart lusteth, and the body acteth Maim, in Zizith, chap. i. sect. 6. And for the transgression," Sol. Jarchi on Num. xv. the virtue hereof, they say, “Whoso dili. The Lord condemning the heart, which is gently keepeth this law of fringes, is made the most noble of all the inward parts, and worthy, and shall see the face of the majesty the eyes which are the most excellent of all of God;" (Baal hatturim on Num, xv.) " and the outward, teacheth that the whole man is when a man is clothed with the fringe, and corrupted throughout, and to be reformed by greth out therewith to the door of his habita- the law and Spirit of God. For, 'except a tion, he is safe, and God rejoiceth, and the man be born of water and of the Spirit, he destroying angel departeth from thence, and cannot enter into the kingdom of God,' John the man shall be delivered from all hurt, and iji. 5. You go A WHORING,] In Chald. you from all destruction,” &c. (R. Menachem on err (or go astray.) To go a whoring after Num. xv.) Thus easy it is for men to abuse other gods, is a usual phrase for idolatry, holy things, and to pervert the right use and Exod. xxxiv. 15; Deut. xxxi, 16; 1 Chron. end of them by their own inventions. See v. 25; Judg. ii. 17, the same is implied the annot. on Exod. xiii. 9. And although here, as God saith, 'I am broken with their they put so great religion in these fringes, wborish heart, which hath departed from me; yet as they have lost the spirit and life of and with their eyes, which go a whoring this commandment, so God hath deprived after their idols,' Ezek. vi. 9, but it meaneth them of the outward rite, that they have not also all other sins wbich men's unclean hearts at this day, (by their own confession) the and impure eyes carry them unto, with conblue or heaven-coloured riband; “ The blue sent and delight; see Lev. xx. 5, 6; Ps. (teceleth) is not found in our hands at this cvi, 39; Jam, iv. 4. The Hebs. say, “If day, because we know not to make the dye (or any man be drawn after the thoughts of his colour) of it: for every blue in wool is not heart, he will be found a waster of the world, called teceleth.
But the teceleth (or blue because of the slenderness (or shortness) of spoken of in the law,) it is known that it is his understanding As, sometimes he will impossible to make it at this day; and there- search after idolatry, and sometimes will fore we make the white only,” saith Rambam think peculiarly of the Creator, whether there (or Maim.) in his exposition on Talmud Bab. be any or none; what is above, and what beneath; in Menachoth, chap. ir. AND THAT YE SEEK what was before, and what shall be after. NOT,] Or, and ye shall not seek, (or search, And sometimes of prophesy, whether it be as Num. xiv. 36,) which word Solomon ap- truth or no; and sometimes of the law, plieth to his heart, searching out' things by whether it be from heaven or no. And he wisdom, Eccl. i. 13; vii. 25. The Gr. knoweth not what to judge of them, till he here translateth it, turn aside; the Chald. know the truth concerning his Creator, but ET?, (or go astray.) Your HEART,] In will be found a revolter unto heresies. ConChald. the imagination of your heart. Here cerning this thing is that warning in the law, God calleth men from their own wisdom and where it is said, And ye shall not seek after inventions to his law only; for every ima- your heart, and after your eyes, after which ye gination of the thoughts of man's heart, is go a whoring, Num. xv. 39, as if he should only evil every day,' Gen. vi. 5. And í he say, There shall not any one of you be drawn that trusteth in his own heart, is a fool,' after his own slender understanding (or Prov. xxviii. 26. Your eyes,] Io Chald. knowledge,) as to imagine that his cogitation
So the Holy Spirit can attain to the truth: so have our wise men saith, 'Walk in the ways of thine heart, and said, Aiter your heart; this (meaneth) herein the sight of thine eyes; but know thou, sies; and after your eyes, this is whoredom. that for all these things God will bring thee And this is an occasion for a man to deprive into judgment,' Eccl. xi. 9. And the apos- himself of the world (ur life) that is to come,” tle mentioneththe lust of the eyes, as that Maim, treat. of Idolatry chap. ii. sect. 3. Vol. II.
The sight of your eyes.