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those two great rivers, both of which have their sources in the mountains above mentioned. India extra Gangem comprehends the countries situated to the east of the Ganges, Thibet, Nepal, Boutan, Assam, Aracan, Ava, Siam, the islands of Java, Sumatra, and various other eastern islands. The Imaus, called by the Indians Himodhi,* meaning the receptacle of Snow, separated it on the north-east from the countries included under the general name of Scythia extra Imaum.†

"India then on its most enlarged scale,

* By Europeans those mountains are sometimes written Himalaya.

The Emodus, &c. of the ancients, are those mountains which extend from the Ganges, above Sirinagur, to Cashmire.

+ Pliny, speaking of the mountains we have mentioned, but beginning with those on the east, says:

"Junguntur inter se Imaus, Emodus, Paropamisus, Caucasi partes, à quibus tota decurrit India in planitiem immensam et Egypto similem."-Plin. lib. vi. c. 17.

See "Recherches sur la Géographie Systematique et Positive des Anciens, &c. &c. par T. J. Gosselin, Paris,

in which the ancients appear to have understood it, comprises an area of nearly forty degrees on each side, including a space almost as large as all Europe; being divided on the west from Persia, by the Arachosian mountains; bounded on the east by the Chinese part of the further peninsula; confined on the north by the wilds of Tartary, and extending to the south as far as the isles of Java. This trapezium, therefore, comprehends the stupendous hills of Potyid or Tibet, the beautiful valley of Cashmire, and all the domains of the old Indo-Scythians, the countries of Nepal and Boutan, Camrup or Assam, together with Siam, Ava, Racan, and the bordering kingdoms, as far as the China of the Hindus, or Sin of the Arabian geographers; not to mention the whole western peninsula, with the celebrated island of Sinhala, or Lion-likemen,* at its southern extremity. By India, in short, we mean that whole extent of country in which the primitive religion and lan

*Or rather Singh-Alaya, the abode of Lions.

guages of the Hindus prevail at this day, with more or less of their ancient purity, and in which the Nagari letters are still used with more or less deviation from their original form."*

The name Hindustan, is composed of two Persian words, Hindu and stan, meaning the country of black people. This mode of derivation is very common with the Persians, as Dahæ-stan, Tabor-stan, Curdstan, Moghol-stan; but whatever may have been the origin of Hindu-stan, it was the name given to the part of the peninsula first known to the Persians. At present Hindustan proper, means only the region extending from the mountains on the north,

* Sir William Jones.

M. Langlès observes to the author: "Ceci est rigoureusement vrai pour l'ordre alphabétique et pour le système syllabique, qui sont les mêmes chez toutes les nations citées par l'auteur; mais plusieurs de ces nations, telles que les Chingulais, les Javans, les Siamois, les Mongols, les Mantchous, &c. ont des caractères où il seroit difficile de reconnoître quelques formes du Dêva-Nagary, mais qui sont rangés suivant l'ordre et le système de ce dernier alphabet."

down to about the twenty-second degree of latitude, where the river Narbudda flows: the country southward from thence is named Deckan or Dakhina, meaning south. The name Indus used by the Greeks, has been continued by modern authors,* but the proper name in Sanscrit, is Sindhou, though it be vulgarly pronounced Sind, and Sindhy. One of the names of this country also, is Bharat, from an ancient sovereign whose dominions were so extensive, as, in the hyperbolical language of the east, to obtain for him the title of King of the World.‡

In this immense empire, were many great Rajahs, or hereditary princes, who acknowledged the Mahah, or great Rajah, as their supreme chief, or Liege Lord; but

*Pliny says: "Indus ab incolis Sindus appellatus." Lib. vi. c. 23. (edit. Bipont.)

+ Translation of the Heetopades, p. 333.

"Quant aux indigènes qui sont absolument étrangers à la discussion que nous venons d'aborder, ils nomment leur pays Bharata-Khanda, pays de Bhârata, un de leurs anciens souverains."-See Notice Géographique, sur l'Hindoustan, par M. Langlès, p. 6.

who, in the internal government of their territories, were independent sovereigns. Some of those princes were nominated to different great offices of the state; and, if called upon, were obliged at a festival named Rajasuya, or royal sacrifice, to attend the Mahah Rajah, and serve in their respective offices.* In the territories of these, as well as in the immediate territories of the Mahah Rajah, were also numerous hereditary nobles, who paid tribute, and were bound to military service to their respective chiefs. Numbers of such nobles, notwithstanding all the changes India has undergone, exist in these days.

Many great cities are mentioned, both by native and by Greek authors; but the capital, or chief place of residence of the Mahah Rajah, or great prince, has not yet been ascertained. Some have supposed it to have been Oujein, a city of great antiquity, and which answers in name and position tothe Ozene of Ptolemy, who calls

* See the Ayeen Akbery, vol. ii. p. 89. 4to edit,

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