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Mills' Analysis I paid more attention, and in it I found' with much to approve, much to disapprove. The diction is extremely loose. The term sensation is used not merely for sensation, properly so called, but also for perception. Is not this to confound the cause with the effect? and, in a philosophical treatise, in which we expect precision both of thought and expression, such an abuse of words is unpardonable, and may occasionally lead into errors of no ordinary magnitude. Ideas are said to be the copies of sensations. We here recognise the language of some of the modern sceptics, and are reminded of the inquiry which has more than once been made, to what organic impressions our ideas of religion, of time, and of space, bear any resemblance? In the chapter on Touch there are some judicious sentiments, with an intermixture of the most trifling absurdity. When enumerating the laws of association, Mr. Hume makes contrast a species of resemblance, and Mr. Mills brings resemblance under the head of repetition, which, shall we say, speaks the greater nonsense, the historian of Britain or of India? There is a long discussion on naming, which is but remotely connected with the other parts of the work, which contains some pedantry, a great deal of irrelevant matter, and a few mistakes. The author seems fully aware of the advantage of general terms, although I humbly conceive he would multiply them unnecessarily. According to him, when we give a name, it is merely to our own sensations, and that, of course, our vocabulary is imperfect, because it has not another name for the ideas which are the copies of these sensations. What would be the use of this multiplication of words? Would it not, instead of rendering speech more precise and perspicuous, render it more in. definite and ambiguous? The assertion, besides, that it is merely to our own sensations we give the name, is not generally true. If a horse is standing before us, it is not to the feelings that he excites in us, it is to the cause of these feelings we apply the epithet horse; and what is our idea of him when he is absent, except the recollection that we had seen an animal of a certain size and figure. The perception and the recollection are generally distinct; the object of them is the same, and should have the same name. Mr. Mills totally mistakes the meaning of the verb to be, and all the unhappy consequences which he ascribes to it, and to the kindred verb in other languages, have arisen from far different sources. He considers belief a strong asso
ciation of ideas; but when we see a change, why are we necessarily led to imagine that it must have a cause ? Should it be a consequent, which we have never seen accompanied by its antecedent, our belief must be something different from the association of ideas. Are not belief and the association of ideas as different as sensation and memory? He examines, at considerable length, the nature and origin of relative terms. In this examination he makes a rather curious blunder. He makes same the correlative of same, different of different, like of like, and unlike of unlike; might we not as well style honest the correlative of honest, just of just, and good of good. Most people would suppose, that as low is the correlative of high, and unjust of just, so different is the correlative of same, and unlike of like. Mr. Mills' morality is a refined, or, at least, concealed species of selfishness. All our instincts, all our sympathies, all the charities which bind man to man, and give to life all its charms, are resolved, like belief, into the association of ideas. There is no such thing as conscience, as a natural and instantaneous approbation of what is right, or disapprobation of what is wrong. An instinctive love of offspring, or a disinterested commiseration of human misery, is a fanciful chimera. Our corporeal motions be represents as connected with sensations and ideas, in the same manner as ideas are with sensations or ideas. Thus, the doctrine of automatic motions is again revived, by a pupil of the very man who had so ably refuted it. Mr. Mills is greatly inferior to Dr. Young as a metaphysician, and still more as a moralist. The former supplies something for the judgment, but nothing for the heart,--the latter illuminates and warms the mind; the former undermines all these mental traits which carry us directly to the Divinity, the latter, by leading us constantly to the Creator, makes us sensible of our dependence upon him, strengthens moral obligation, rectifies the intellect with correct notions, and ennobles it with generous ones. Yours,
RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION IN THE SOUTH OF FRANCE. ཨ་སྒྲ*, !་
"Montélimart, Sept. 8th.
"We shall appear before the Court, at Valence; I am preparing materials for the defence in concert with the counsel.
It is requisite that we should be furnished with the numbers of the Moniteur,' containing the speech of the Keeper of the Seals, in the Chambers, in which he declared, that the law against associations was not intended to be applied to religious meetings and also the numbers of the same Journal, in which the explanations, relative to that law, given by the recorders before both Chambers, are contained. Send me those papers as early as possible. As you will observe, dear brother, we are attacked and condemned other grounds than those which were set forth in the business of Oster; therefore, as the question is quite new, my opinion is, that we should carry the final decision of this trial into the Court of Cassation, should the sentence pronounced against Brother Masson be confirmed by the Court of Appeal at Valence, It is probable that we shall be summoned to appear at Valence, at a short notice; therefore, press the transmisson of the documents, and ask, &c. (Signed,) "ALMERAS."
The Committee of Correspondence in Paris, persuaded that it is of the utmost importance to the freedom of worship, and to the progress of the Gospel, that the French legislation be once for all fixed upon this point, and that the charter should triumph over the import of the articles in question of the penal code, Nos. 201, and 294, as well as respecting the law against associations, would propose to the London Committee to adopt the resolution of defending the proceedings instituted against Brother Masson, to the end, and to provide for the expenses.***
You are, perhaps, aware of the prosecution which was instituted against Oster, an Evangelist, employed by the Evangelical Society. The Court of Cassation, in their decision, interpreted the articles 291 and 294, according to the mean. ing of the charter. Moreover, the Ministers, when they brought forward in the Chambers the law against associations, solemnly declared, that it was not in the least intended to interfere with religious meetings. There is every thing to gain in going forward in this instance. In short, a prosecution was entered upon lately against a Mr. Pillot, a minister of the French Catholic form of worship, and he was condemned at Versailles, in the most absurd and ridiculous manner; and as he has appealed to the Court of Cassation, his trial tends to bring about the same result. The spirit of the French Popish priesthood has assumed fresh vigour. The Jesuits are in Paris, where they have a Chapel. That it is necessary to insist upon the matter being decided, is the general opinion.
The Committee in London immediately came to the proposed resolution,
* JAMAICA. LUCEA.
Extracts of a Letter from the Rev. James Watson, dated Lucea, May 12, 1837.
·Voyage to Jamaica.
ON Friday, January 27th, we embarked, at Greenock, on board the Isabella, at 3 p.m. The ship was loosed from her moorings, and towed out of the harbour by the Hercules Steamer. The wind being fair, in a short t me the Steamer cast us off, hauled close under our quarter, and received on board those dear Christian friends who had clung to us to the last moment. This is always a very interesting moment when separating from those we love, they to return back to their happy homes, we to traverse the mighty ocean,-to face unknown dangers, to bid a long, it may be, a last adieu to our beloved land, and to encounter all the difficulties and trials of the Missionary warfare, on the distant shores of a foreign country. Various are the emotions that then agitate the bosom of the departing Missionary; but one thought of the glory and grandeur of the mighty enterprize on which he has embarked, restores him to his wonted firmness, dissipates the gloom which departed friends had occasioned, and inspires him with a loftier devotedness to that noblest of causes, which embraces in its principles, and unfolds in its execution, the glory and honour of the Redeemer, the salvation of thousands of immortal beings, and the extension of the Saviour's kingdom far and wide through. out the world. It was soon dark after our friends had left us, and the breeze freshening up as the night advanced, we proceeded on our voyage with a fine fair wind, and all sails set. After recommending ourselves to the care of Him who holds the sea in the hollow of his hand, we retired to rest. On the following morning we were off the west coast of Ireland, the wind still fair, and the ship running nine miles an hour.
29th. This is our first Sabbath at sea; passengers all sick. I feel very sick myself, and unable to go on deck. As I have not seen Mr. and Mrs. Niven, I believe they are equally as helpless as ourselves, Ah! how different this day to the many delightful Sabbaths I have spent lately in my dear native land. But even here the promise," Lo, I'am with you always," cheers and comforts us,
February 1st-To-day the weather is very fine; still making progress to the south and west. There are three ships in sight. It is pleasant amidst the ocean wilderness to meet these pilgrims of the deep, bending their course to some distant shore. We are all much better to-day, and have had prayers in the cabin.
6th.-About ten o'clock this morning, we were visited by a very heavy gale of wind from the south-west. The ship was put before the wind, and the sails taken in as speedily as possible. There is something fearfully grand in these sudden bursts of tempest. I feel, amid the roaring of the storm, that there is a river that maketh glad the city of God. He who made the ocean, holds it in the hollow of His hand, and saith, Hitherto shalt thou come, and no farther; and here shall thy proud waves be stayed."
9th. Last night surpassed all that I ever experienced at sea. The gale commenced at 12 o'clock yesterday, and, as the night approached, it got gradually more violent, until it blew a perfect hurricane. The *sea had a fearfully grand appearance. Every sail was taken in, and the
ship lay to, under the bare poles, but even then she seemed flying with the rapidity of lightning. I believe we all felt alarmed. The sudden lurches which the vessel gave as she descended into the depths of sea, made every thing moveable roll from one side to another. About four o'clock the following morning, the gale began to subside, but the sea was still running mountains high, and the vessel tossing about so much, that I thought she would roll over altogether. It is astonishing how a ship .can hold together in such circumstances.
Nothing of any consequence occurred after we passed the Island of Madeira, until we fell in with the trade winds, and then we had warm delightful weather all the way to the Windward Islands. On Sabbath, March the 5th, just as we had concluded our public service on the deck, the welcome cry of land upon the larboard bow was sung out by some one of the crew. Every eye was now directed to the wished-for object, and, in a short time, the island Descada was distinctly seen about nine miles disdant.
March 6th. This morning we were all on deck very early, in the hope of getting a view of some of the Islands as we passed them. I found the ship becalmed, the surface of the sea like a sheet of glass, and the Island of Antigua lying close to us in all the peace and tranquillity of a babe in slumber. The morning mists were sleeping on the mountain sides, and the negroes were just beginning to leave their huts to resume their accustomed labours. On the other side of the ship, and at a greater distance, but quite distinct to the naked eye, lay the Island of Guadaloupe, covered with the thick hazy clouds of the morning. Right a-head of the ship lay Montserrat, a beautiful island. It seems very mountainous, and has some beautiful villas, most romantically situated. We sailed so close to it as so see the houses distinctly, and the people walking on the beach. I could see the planter, with his broad brim, sitting on the terrace of his house, watching the progress of our ship as she passed along. The island of Nevis is also in sight, but at a great distance; so is St. Christopher's and its capital, Bassetere.
On the 9th, we passed St. Domingo, and cast anchor on the morning of the 12th, in Montego Bay. On arriving at this place, however, Mrs. Watson, who had been very unwell during the voyage, was so weak that it was evident she would not be able to proceed to Lucea for some days. I therefore resolved to take her to Cornwall, the nearest of our stations to Montego Bay. In the meantime, the chil.dren, and Mr and Mrs Niven, went forward to Lucea in a boat, accompanied by the teacher and the servant. The news of our arrival at Montego Bay had reached Lucea, and the people in the town were all overjoyed, and anxiously looking for our arrival amongst them. As the boat with my children approached the land, they saw the beach covered with the negroes and towns-people, who, imagining that Mrs Watson and myself were in it, had come down to welcome us again amongst them. When the boat,reached the beach, the utmost joy was expressed by the erowd to see the children; and on being told that Mrs Watson and I had gone to Mr Waddell's, some symptoms of disappointment.were manifested. However, they soon rallied again, and shook hands with Mr and Mrs Niven, welcomed them to the island, and wished them long life and usefulness. The teacher, a young man whom I had taken out with me, was next the,object of their attention. They wished to know, "If him parson too ;" and on being told that he had come to teach them and ‚and their children to read, they expressed themselves quite overjoyed at