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'terous and idolatrous worship. They had their JAO, or JOVE, in imitation of the true JEHOVAH; and from different "attributes of the Divine Nature, they formed an innumerable groupe of gods and goddesses. They had also their temples, in imitation of the temple of God; and in these, they had their holy and more holy places, in imitation of the courts of "the Lord's house. The heathen temples consisted of several ' parts or divisions: 1. The area or porch; the temple, simi( lar to the nave of our churches; 3. the adytum, or holy < place, called also penetrall, and sacrarium; and 4. the inner temple, the most secret recess, where they had their mysteria, and which answered to the holy of holies in the tabernacle. And as there is no evidence whatever, that there was any temple among the heathens, prior to the taber"nacle, it is reasonable to conclude, that it served as a model * for all that they afterwards builded.' (If you can prove the existence of the Jewish tabernacle, 3311 years since, out of the bible, we will submit to your argument, Doctor?) "They had even their portable temples, to imitate the tabernacle: and the shrines for Diana, mentioned, Acts, xix. 24. were of this kind. They had even their arks, or sacred coffers, ' where they kept their most holy things, and the mysterious ⚫ emblems of their religion; together with candlesticks, or lamps, to illuminate their temples, which had few windows, to imitate the golden candlestick in the Mosaic tabernacle. "They had even their processions, in imitation of the carrying about of the ark in the wilderness; accompanied by such 'ceremonies, as sufficiently shew, to an unprejudiced mind,

that they borrowed them from this sacred original. Dr. Dodd "has a good note on this subject, which I shall take the liberty to extract.

Speaking of the ark he says, "We meet with imitations of 'this divinely instituted emblem, among several heathen nations. Thus Tacitus, De Moribus Germanorum, cap. 40., 'informs us, that the inhabitants of the north of Germany,

our Saxon ancestors, in general, worshipped Herthum, or 'Hertham, i. e. the mother earth; and they believed her to 'interpose in the affairs of men, and to visit nations; that to * her, in a sacred grove, in a certain island of the ocean, à ve"hicle covered with a vestment, was consecrated, and allowed 'to be touched by the priests only, (compare 2 Sam. vì. 6, 7.

1 Chron. xiii. 9, 10.), who perceived, when the goddess en*tered into her secret place, penetrale, and with profound ve

'neration attended her vehicle, which was drawn by cows "See 1 Sam. vi. 7, 10. While the goddess was on her progress, 'days of rejoicing were kept in every place, which she vouch'safed to visit-they engaged in no war, they handled no 'weapons; peace and quietness were then only known, only ' relished, till the same priest reconducted the goddess to her 'temple. Then the vehicle and vestment, and, if you can 'believe it, the goddess herself, were washed in a sacred lake. Apuleius, describing a solemn idolatrous procession, De Aur. Asin. lib. 11. after the Egyptian mode, says "A chest, or ark, was carried by another, containing their secret things entirely concealing the mysteries of religion." And Plutarch, in his treatise, De Iside, &c. describing the rites of "Osiris, says "On the tenth day of the month, at night, they go down to the sea, and the stolists, together with the priest, carry forth the sacred chest in which is a small boat or vessel of gold."


"Pausanius likewise testifies (lib. vii. c. 19.) that the ancient Trojans had a sacred ark, wherein was the image of Bacchus, made by Vulcan, which had been given to Dardanus by Jupiter. As the ark was deposited in the Holy of 'Holies, so the Heathens had, in the inmost part of their temples, an adytum, or penetrale, to which none had access but the priests. And it is remarkable that among the Mexicans, ‹ Vitzliputzli, their supreme God was represented under a hu 'man shape, sitting on a throne, supported by an azure globe, which they called heaven; four poles or sticks came out from two sides of this globe, at the end of which serpents heads were 'carved, the whole making a litter, which the priests carries on 'their shoulders, whenever the idol was shewn in public. Religi "ous ceremonies, vol. iii. p. 146. Calmet remarks, that the 'ancients used to dedicate candlesticks in the temples of their 'Gods, bearing a great number of lamps,

'Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. xxxviv. c. 3. mentions one made in the form of a tree, with lamps in the likeness of apples, "which Alexa nder the Great consecrated in the Temple of Apollo.

"And Athenæus, lib. xv. c. 19, 20, mentions one that supported three hundred and sixty-five lamps, which Dionysius

It is evident that this description alludes to Ceres directing he plough, and formed a part of the Roman mythology, and it has been the common practice of all people in an uncivilized state, to worship that which procured them agreeable food.

'the Younger, King of Syracuse, dedicated in the Prytaneum at Athens. As the Egyptians, according to the testimony of Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom. lib. i. were the first who ued lamps in their temples, they probably borrowed the use from the golden candlesticks in the tabernacle and temple." Is it not more probable Doctor that the Israelites should have borrowed the custom from the Egyptians?

It now appears that the ark of Noah, the ark of bulrushes in which Moses swam on the Nile, and the ark said to be manufactured in the wilderness, are all emanations of the same tale, and customs of the ancient heathens. The whole system of the Jewish religion as related in the Bible, is a mythology that has not the claims of pre-eminence that many other mythologies have, because there is much doubt that the whole compilation is no more than a fiction of the mind, and has never been in practice in the same manner as we have proof that the mythologies of the Egyptians, the Grecians, and the Romans were. It is an attempted improvement on the mythologies of those nations by whom the Jews were led captive, and and we have not the slightest proof that any thing of the kind was practised before the Babylonish Captivity.

To imagine for a moment, that if ever the Israelites were wanderers in the wilderness as described, which is not improbable, for most nations have had their origin from such predatory tribes, they could have fabricated two such splendid and beautiful fabrics, as this description of the ark and tabernacle in Exodus must have been, is impossible; it does not come within the reach of a single probability. We have mention of diamonds, rubies, sapphires, agates, and every stone and gem that is considered valuable, there is also a mention of the use of all sorts of spices and olive oil, neither of which could be obtained in the wilderness. The compiler of these tales was an arrant fool, if he wished them to be believed in, he should have made the Israelites like the present Arabs who inhabit those countries, in the habit of sallying forth and plundering the caravans which pass the borders of this desart with all the valuable merchandize of the East. The Jewish and Christian Priests might then have silenced all our scruples by saying, that Jehovah looked out for all the caravans, and gave notice to Moses when they were to pass by, and thus obtained all those luxuries.

(To be continued.)

Printed by J. Carlile, 55, Flect-street,

No. 11, Vol. 3.] LONDON, FRIDAY, JULY 7, 1820. [PRICE 6D,


With further proofs of the Queen's Innocence, and the baseness of her accusers.

Dorchester Gaol, Monday, July 3, 1820.

In our last we approached the termination of the negociation between the King. and Queen, and the address of the House of Commons, on the subject of that termination. Since that time, the House of Commons has been at a stand, and the business has been resumed in the House of Lords. Thus each endeavours to throw the odium of the business on the other. The House of Lords' Committee has, however, gone so far as to open the Green Bag. The Marquis Lansdown and Lord Erskine refused to sit on the Committee. A report from this Committee is expected this day, but when it comes it will be no novelty. The ground-work of all proceeding will be to obtain a divorce, and when we are so fully convinced of the profligacy of both Houses of Parliament we have only to wonder why they have hesitated. It must be a case, passing infamous, that could have raised any scruples in their minds. On Monday last, her Majesty presented the following petition to the House of Lords by Lord Dacre, after which her law-officers, Messrs. Brougham and Denman, were heard in support of it, at their Lordships' bar.

"To the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, in Parliament assembled.

"The Queen having been informed that proceedings are about to be instituted against her in the House of Lords, feels it necessary to approach your Lordships as a petitioner and a fellow-subject. She is advised that, according to the forms of your Lordships' House, no other mode of communication is permitted.

VOL: III. No. 11.

Printed and published by J. Carlile, 55, Fleet Street.

"Now, as at all times, she declares her perfect readiness to meet every charge affecting her honor; and she challenges the most complete investigation of her conduct: but she protests, in the first place, against any secret inquiry; and if the House of Lords should, notwithstanding, persist in a proceeding so contrary to every principle of justice and of law, she must in the next place declare, that even from such an unconstitutional source she can have nothing to apprehend, unless it be instituted before the arrival of those witnesses whom she will summon immediately to expose the whole of the machinations against her. She is anxious that there should now be no delay whatever in finishing the inquiry; and none shall be occasioned by her Majesty. But the Queen cannot suppose that the House of Lords will commit so crying an injus tice as to authorize a secret examination of her conduct, in the absence of herself and her counsel, while her defence must obviously rest upon evidence which for some weeks cannot reach this country. The instant that it arrives she will entreat the House of Lords to proceed in any way they may think consistent with the ends of justice; but in the mean time, and before the first step be taken, her Majesty desires to be heard by her counsel at your Lordship's Bar, this day, upon the subject matter of this petition."

This petition produced no effect, and on Wednesday the 28th, inst. the famous or infamous Green Bag was opened, by the Committee, after a private remonstrance sent in by her Majesty's law-officers: the particulars of which have not transpired. We cannot help remarking, that all the documents which have appeared in her Majesty's name, have been deficient in that tone and dignity, which her station, and more particularly, her present situation, required. They have all of them that degraded appearance, which has been visible in the whole management of her case by Mr. Brougham. If there be any exception, it was in the answer to the House of Commons, and that arose from the refusal of its application. Mr. Brougham, in his "absolute wisdom," knows that however far he might go in his attempt to degrade the Queen, he will be sure to attract attention from the King in proportion to it. Future interest will be his sole guide.

Lord Castlereagh threatens to bring forward a substantive motion on the subject on Friday next, provided the House of Lords do not supersede the necessity of it. It appears that he alone, of all the ministers in the House of Commons, has sufficient impudence to open his mouth on the subject. They evidently shrink from the odium and disgrace which has attended this most nefarious measure. On the other hand, the Queen cannot quit her residence, but she is immediately drawn wherever she likes to go by the people. She has the respect of all the virtue in the country. The people begin plainly to see, that the present business is nothing more than a revival of

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