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Barren Island, and the Rock on the east of Duncan's Pallage, are from the remarks of Capt. Justice in 1771.
ISLAND of CEYLON.
IT happens that the ordinary tracks of British ships, to and from Ceylon, and the coast of Coromandel, are not calculated for determining the relative positions of Point Pedro and Point Calymere, the approximating points of Ceylon and the continent of India. Hence it is, that we are so ill informed, not only of their true fituations with respect to each other, but also with respect to the parallel of latitude under which they are situated.
By my observations, Point Calymere (the southern extreme of Coromandel) lies in 10° 20' latitude. M. D'Apres places it 6 minutes more northwardly; and D'Anville 7
further south. The latitude of Point Pedro, is also variously represented by the aboveGeographers: I have taken it at 9° 53'.
In M. D'Apres I find the bearing and distance from Point Calymere to Point Pedro, to be
E. 41 G, miles In D'Anville
39. In a MS. chart, no name
46.30 I had an opportunity in 1764, of determining the position of Cow Island from Tondi, very nearly. This I have placed in the map; and then I have traced off from M. D'Apres' chart, the coast between Cow Inand and Point Pedro; by which means the latter bears from Point Calymere S 44. E. distance 39 G. miles.. I think there can be no great objection to this mode of fixing it. The means for determining the figure of Ceylon, may not, poffibly, be deemed quite so satisfactory.
Point de Galle was found by Mr. Dalrymple’s Time-Keeper *, to be about 2° 37' of longitude to the eastward of Cape Comorin ; and M. D'Apres reckons it 2° 41'. I have adopted Mr. Dalrymple's account, and placed Point de Galle in 80° 30'. Now the placing the two almost extreme points of the Inand (Point de Galle and Point Pedro) according to their respective differences of longitude from the parts of the continent nearest to each, and those longitudes differing considerably from former charts, makes a difference of 18 minutes of longitude between the relative positions of Point de Galle and Point Pedro, in M. D'Apres' chart, and in mine. That is to say, Point de Galle is 8 minutes to the east of Point Pedro by my account; and ten to the west of it by M. D'Apres'. M. D'Anville places them nearly under the same meridian.
The positions of Ramiseram and Mantole Points, in respect to each other, differ widely in Major Stevens's chart, from former accounts: for by lengthening Adam's bridge, Mantole point is thrown much farther eastward than usual.
All these circumstances taken together, occasion a difference in the form of the island of Ceylon, from what it appears in the late maps : the longest diameter of it in my map, being more inclined to the westward of the meridian, and the northern part much narrower ; occasioned by my having followed Major Stevens's chart of Adam's bridge. At the widest part, the island, in my map, is 4 miles wider than in D’Anville's; and q narrower than in D’Apres'.
For the particulars of the coast, that part excepted which lies between Mantole and Jaffnapatam, I have copied M. D'Apres; and for the inland part, M. D'Anville.
The Maldive and Laccadive illands are copied from M. D'Apres.
The surveyed Traęt on the side of Bengal, or that occupied
by the Course of the Ganges, and its principal Branches, as far west as the City of Agra.
HIS extensive tract, which comprizes the foubahs of Bengal,
Bahar, Allahabad, and Oude; a large portion of Agra and Delhi, and a small part of Oriffa, is bounded on the east by Affam, and the dominions of Ava; on the south east, by the gulph, or bay of Bengal ; on the south west by an imaginary line drawn from the port of Balasore in Oriffa, to the city of Narwah ; and on the west by another such line drawn from Narwah, through the city of Agra to Hurdwar, the place where the Ganges first enters the plains of Hindoostan. It is in length from the city of Agra, to the eastern confines of Bengal, upwards of 9.00
3 and in breadth from 360 to 240.
With respect to the particulars of this survey, it is unnecessary to say more than that the distances were measured, and that they accorded with the observations of latitude and longitude: with the former minutely, and with the latter so 'nearly, that it was unnecessary to make any correction.
Agra, by Claud Boudier's observation, is in
Difference of longitude by observation
Agra, then, appears to be the most western point determined by the survey; and serves as a common point of union between the surveys on the east, and the routes furnished by various MS.
maps, and itineraries, on the north, south, and west. By means of the survey also, a number of points are ascertained, which serve to set off cursory surveys of roads both to the west and south : such as Hurdwar and Ramgaut, on the north of Agra; and Ghod, Calpy, Chatterpour, Rewan, Burwa, and Balasore on thesouth.
As this tract contains the site of the famous city of Palibothra (or Palimbothra) as well as those of Canoge *, and Gour, it may not be amiss to take some notice of them : as also of some of lerser note, such as Punduah, Tanda, Satgong, (or Satagong) and Sonergong: all of which, (Palibothra excepted) are mentioned either in the Ayeneh Acbaree, or in Ferishta.
The situation of Palibothra has already exercised the judgment of M. D'Anville, who places it on the site of the present Allahabad, at the conflux of the Ganges and Jumna rivers.
One principal circumstance on which he founds his opinion, is, that Palibothra is said to have been fituated at the point of conflux of a very large river with the Ganges; a river of the third degree of magnitude amongst the Indian rivers: the other is, that the “Fomanes river (Jumna) according to Pliny, traversed the country of Palibothra. M. D'Anville therefore concludes that the river which joined the Ganges at Palibothra, was the Jumna.
But Pliny, in another place, positively afligns for the fite of Palibothra, a spot 425. Roman miles below the conflux of the Ganges and Jumna: and also enumerates the particulars of the whole diftance between the Indus, and the mouth of the Ganges : and altho' his proportions do not in all cases correspond with the map, yet it must be allowed that upon the whole, there is a degree of propor
tion and consistency, in his account of the respective positions of places, that merits some degree of confideration.
His distances are there :
From Taxila or Tapila, on the Indus (most probably Attock) to the river Hydaspes (the modern Behat)
120 Roman miles.
To the Hyphasis (Setlege)
168 the part nearest to the Hyphasis To the Ganges (the nearest part of which
to that part of the Jumna just mentioned,
is about Moonygurry) To Rhodopa To Calinapaxa
167) To the conflux of the Jomanes and Ganges ? (where Allahabad now stands)
225 To Palibothra
425 To the mouth of the Ganges
In order to ascertain Pliny's scale, it will be necessary to compare his distances with mine in some known part of the above route, and none appears fitter for this purpose than the space between that part of the Jumna nearest to the ordinary route into Hindoostan, and its conflux with the Ganges. This distance in Pliny is 623 Roman miles, and on my map 354 G. miles : so that I of a Geographical mile is equal to a mile of Pliny's, reduced to horizontal distance: or about ; by the windings of the road : agreeing nearly with a Roman mile, for which it was doubtless intended.
Now, taking this for a scale, we shall find that about 110 such miles will reach from the aforesaid part of the Jumna, to that
* This is 3900 in Pliny's account; but it is evidently a mistake of a cypher.