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11 Jarrisen fo.199.116A Sow/.


CORRECTION of the GEOGRAPHY of the INDUS, and its

Delta, &c.

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INCE the Memoir was printed, some better information re

specting the country of Sindy, and the river Sinde * (or Indus) than what appears in page 80, has been most obligingly communicated by a person of character, who resided some time in that country, in the service of the East India Company. The delta, and course of the river, have in consequence, been corrected in the map: but the form of the coast has undergone no change, although the position of it, has ; for Ritchel and Cape Monze are removed several miles further to the south, while their former distance from Jigat Point is preserved. Cape Monze now stands in lat. 24° 55', lon. 65° 46': Ritchel, in lat. 24° 14 (it was 24° 12 by Capt. Scott's observations) and the mouth of Larry-Bundec river, which was the principal channel of the Indus, during the last century, and early in the present one, is in lat. 24° 44'; being within one minute of the parallel assigned it, by the India pilot.

The city of Tatta, the capital of the province of Sindy, and supposed to be near the site of the Pattala t of the ancients, is situated, according to the idea of the abovementioned gentleman, about 38 G. miles to the north of Ritchel, and 50 to the east of it: so that it ought to be in lat. 24° 50', lon. 67° 37'; and about 125 miles from the sea, by the course of the river *. According to M. Thevenot, it is three days journey from Larry-Bunder town; which according to Capt. Hamilton, is 5 or 6 leagues from the sea. M. Thevenot's 3 days journey may be taken at 54 G. miles of horizontal distance, and the whole distance of Tatta, from the mouth of Larry-Bunder river, at about 68 G. miles : and this does not disagree with the account given above.

• Mr. Wilkins makes the proper name of this river to be Seendl;oo. Heetopades,.page 3336.

+ It is impossible to fix the exact site of Pattala; as there are properly two deitas, a superics. and an inferior one ; exclusive of the many.illands formed by the Indus when it approaches the sea. Tatta is near the head of the inferior delta ; and the ancient accounts mention only one great delta, having Pattala at the upper angle of it. In Ptolemy's map (Aliæ Tab. XX) Pat. tala is placed very far below the place, where the Indus firft begins to separate into branches. Pp

it :

According to a MS. itinerary (kept by N. Whittington, no date to it) Tatta is about 180 cosses from Radimpour on the Puddar river : ; and 228 from Amedabad, passing through Radiinpour This last town is placed in the new map, chiefly on the authority of Mr. Hornby's MS. map of Guzerat, mentioned in page 149 : and 180 cosses, laid off from it, would place Tatta about 22 G. miles further to the west, than the position assigned it above, provided that the general direction of the road, was straight': but it appears by the ideas of Jansen and Blaeu, who have severally defcribed this road, that it bends greatly to the south ; and therefore will accord very well with the above data : and it may be concluded, on the whole, that the longitudes of Tatta and of Cape Monze, are not far from the truth. The route in question, goes by the village of Negar-Parkar, and by the town of Nuraquimire ; and through part of the territory of Cutch: it crosses the great fandy defert also.

It is not to be expected that any particular account of the number and positions of the several branches and mouths of the Indus, should exift, unless a survey of them had previously been made. All the information that I have been able to obtain on the subject,

These are the particulars : From Ritchel to Shahbunder, about 40 miles by the course of the river, the bearing, much eaftwardly. Thence to Aurungabunder, 25 more (but by land only 10 or 12) the course somewhat more northwardly. Thence to Tatta, 60 miles, NNE, or NÉb N. The windings of the river are supposed to reduce the distance, on a straight line, to 63 G. miles. The latitude of Tatta, is supposed to be something more than 249 40'i the construction, according to these data, makes it 24° 56'.


respects respects three of them only; and is as follows.: About 170 miles from the sea, by the course of the river, the Indus divides into two branches ; of which the westernmoft is by much the largest. This branch, after a course of about 50 miles, to the SW, divides into two more; the fmallest of which runs on a WSW course, to Larry-Bunder, and Darraway: and the largest, taking the name of the Ritchel river, runs on a more fouthwardly course to the town or village of Ritchel, on the sea coast. (Tatta is situated within this inferior delta, and'about five miles below the upper angle of it.) The third branch remains to be mentioned, and is that which bounds the eastern fide of the superior delta' ; feparating as is said above, at about 170 miles from the sea.

miles from the 'sea. It is smaller than the Ritchel river, but larger than that of Larry-Bunder ; and by circumstances, and by report, it opens into the mouth of the gulf of Cutch, nearly opposite to Jigat Point; its course' being somewhat to the eastward of fouth.

From these data, together with the aid of the chart of the coast, it may be collected, that the delta of the Indus is about


British miles in length, along the sea coast; and about 115 in depth, from the place of feparation of the fuperior branches of the river, to the most prominent point of the sea coast. Arrian (after Nearchus) reckons the first distance 1800 * ftadia; and Pliny 220 Roman miles : that is, he reckoned about 8 of those stades. to a mile.

The lower part of this delta is interfected by rivers and creeks, in almost

every direction, like the delta of the Ganges : but unlike that, it has no trees on it ; 'the dry parts being covered with brushwood; and the remainder, by much the greatest part, being noisome swamps, or muddy lakes.

or muddy lakes. A minaret, at the mouth of Ritchel river, ferves for a mark for the road; which, from the flatness and fameness of the appearance of the coast, could not other

It appears from Strabo, that Ariftobulus allowed only 1000 ftadia for the basis of the delta.

P P 2


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