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teresting route from Surat to Poonah, in which Nafsuck-Trimbuck, Sineer, Juneer, Sungumnere, &c. appear, is Capt. Reynolds's. Of his southern route from Poonah to the Kistnah river, we shall speak, in its place.

The south-east part of Guzerat is from a survey taken by order of the Bombay Government, collated with General Goddard's marches; and establishes among other points, that of Brodera, a principal fortress and town, in the north-east part of the tract lying between the rivers Tapty and Myhie: through which the great road leads from Surat to Ougein. Brodera lies in lat. 22° 15' 30"; lon. 73° 11'. The road to Amedabad, is entirely from General Goddard: and the country round about it, as well as the peninsula of Guzerat, owe their present appearance in the map, to the information contained in that, made by the Bramin SadaNUND; of whom we have spoken in page 186. This genuine Hindoo map, contains much new matter: and the Ayin Acbaree assists in discriminating the valuable parts of it. In it is found the site of Mahmoodabad; in its turn, the capital of Guzerat, and founded by Sultan Mahmood, in the 11th century. The Ayin Acbaree describes the walls of it, as including a vast extent of ground; and speaks of it rather as an existing city, than as a place in ruins. This was in the latter part of the 16th century. Junagur, or Chunagur, a city and fortress in the heart of the peninsula, and a subject of Ferishta's history; together with many other positions, are pointed out, or illustrated, by this map; which, as we have said before, is the production of a native of Guzerat. Without a particular account of its author, one might have rested satisfied with its containing a great variety of particulars, although not arranged in geographical order: but it is remarkable, that it gives the form of Guzerat with more accuracy, than the European maps could boast of.

It does not however, clear up the ambiguity that has long existed, concerning the lower part of the course of the Puddar river: nor

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am I yet informed whether that river discharges itself into the head of the gulf of Cutch, by one channel; or whether it forms several channels, and discharges itself through the many openings that present themselves, between the head of the gulf of Cutch, and the Indus. One thing only, we are certain of by means of this map; and that is, that one large river (or branch of a river) falls into the head of the gulf of Cutch; and that it appears to be the same river that has its source in the S W part of Agimere, and which is named by Europeans, the Puddar. The river that opens into the head of the gulf of Cutch, is named in the MS. map, Butlass; taking its course by Sirowy, Palhanpour, and Radunpour (or Radimpour). The Ayin Acbaree does not enumerate among the rivers of Guzerat, or Agimere, either the Puddar, or Butlass. It is more extraordinary that the Puddar should not be taken notice of, as the Ayin Acbaree describes an extensive tract of low fenny land, on the west of Amedabad, and which was periodically overflowed by the mouth of a river ; when that very river is what we name the Puddar. It is certain that the name occurs only in D'Anville.* Tavernier takes no notice of it, in his route from Amedabad to Agra, although he must have crossed it. Possibly the word Puddar, may be no more than an appellative; or may be the same as buddar, or budda, in Soane-budda, and Ner-budda: and the proper name of the river, Butlass, may have been omitted.

The peninsula of Guzerat is about 200 miles in length, and 140 wide, formed by the Arabian sea (called by the Asiatics the sea of OMMAN) and the gulfs of Cambay and Cutch; both of which

penerate far within the continent, as the dimensions of the peninsula shew. By the numerous subdivisions of this tract, and more by the sum of its revenue, in the Ayin Acbaree, we are led to consider it as of very great importance, in the opinions of the Moguls. Surat

Since the above was written, I found the same name in a map of Persia, drawn and engraved at Constantinople, in the year 1729. The names are in Arabic: the scale between six and seven-tenths of an inch, to a degree.


Acbaree says,

too, that great emporium, situated in its vicinity, had its share in raising the value of the natural products of it; among which, cotton is the staple article. Being a frontier province, as it respects the access by sea, Guzerat contains, a greater inixture of races, and a greater variety of religions, than any other province. The Ayin

“ From the liberality of his majesty's (Acbar's) disposition, every sect exercises its particular mode of worship, “ without molestation.” What a happy change since Mahmood, in the 11th century; whose principal delight was the destruction of Hindoo temples! The famous pagoda of Sumnaut, which was destroyed by Mahmood, stood within the peninsula, of which we have been speaking ; and its particular site is pointed out by circumstances, in the Ayin Acbaree, and Ferishta. For the former says,

“ Puttan on the sea shore, is also called Puttan Sumnaut." And the latter, “ it was situated upon the shore of the ocean, and " is at this time to be seen in the DISTRICTS of the harbour of Deo

(Diu) under the dominion of the idolaters of Europe.” This appears to refer plainly to Diu, in the hands of the Portuguese : and a town of the name of Puttan, is about 30 miles to the NW of Diu; and on the sea shore: but this Puttan has Billowell, or Velloul, prefixed to it. Several particulars, in the Ayin Acbaree, prove that Sumnaut is nearer to Diu point, than to that of Jigat; where M. D'Anville placed it. It was near the river Sirsooty, and in the second, or Puttan division of Guzerat. Mangalore (or Mangarole), and Joorwar (or Choorwar), were in the same division with Sumnaut; and these places, in Sadanund's map, are in the quarter towards Diu. Lastly, Jigat, or Jugget, which includes the pagoda and point of that name, is reckoned the fifth division of Guzerat. (Ayin Acbaree, Vol. II. page 81, to 83.)

The ancient city of Nehrwaleh, the capital of the country of Guzerat, or rather perhaps of a kingdom, of which Guzerat only constituted a part, in the 12th century, has hitherto been misplaced; though M. D'Anville's idea came the nearest to it.

He supposed it to have stood where Amedabad does (Eclaircissemens, page 74.); but the fact appears to be, that Puttan, or Pattun, which is situated in the north part of Guzerat, and on a branch of the Puddar river, stands on the site of Nehrwaleh. The information came from my friend Capt. Kirkpatrick; and it will be found that the notices concerning it, in Edrisi, and in the Ayin Acbaree, convey the same information. The tables of Nasereddin and Ulug Beig, give its latitude (Nehelwara) at 22 degrees; but it is nearer 24o.

Ferishta, in his History of Hindoostan, mentions it as a city of Guzerat. Sultan Mahmood, in 1022, passed through it in his way to Sumnaut; and found its situation so pleasant and so convenient, that he conceived a design of making it his capital. Ferishta, in another work, after mentioning Nehrwaleh, adds, “ bet« ter known in these days, by the name of Puttan.” Shahnawaz also, giving an account of the death of the great Byram (Acbar's minister), says that it happened at Puttan, “anciently called Nehr“ waleh.”* Edrisi, at a later period than that of Sultan Mahmood's invasion, speaks of it under the name of Nabroara, situated at eight journies from Baruh (or Baroach). The road lay through an open country, free from hills ; and the towns or cities of Hanauel and Dolca, both of which stood near the foot of the mountains, that lay to the north-east; occurred in this road. Hanole, appears in the route from Brodera to Ougein, mentioned in page 220; and the fortress of Paygurrah, on a hill, three cofses to the right (i.e. to the south-eastward); with the distance of 14 cofses from Brodera, to the NE; mark it to be the place in Capt. Reynolds's route named Halole; near the foot of the mountains of Champaneer. In point of general situation, it lies about NNE į E from Baroach; and at the distance of more than three journies. We find

• Kirkpatrick's MSS.

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Halole, also in Sadanund's map, in nearly the same position: as well as Dolaue, in the line of the route from Baroach to it; which may possibly be the Dolca of Edrisi. Hanole, however, cannot well be any other than his Hanauel, by the position.

Puttan, or Pattun, bears to the west of north from Baroach, according to the ideas of Capt. Reynolds, and Sadanund: and in distance by the former, about 134 G. miles; full eight journies of ordinary travellers, from Baroach, through Hanole. The bend of the road to the N E, through Hanole, is easily accounted for: it was to avoid the tides in the rivers that fall into the gulf of Cambay (Sinus Barygazenus), and more particularly that of Myhie, a large river that falls in, at the head of the gulf; the passage of which is rendered very uncertain, and dangerous, by reason of the bores. In the present times, the Myhie is crossed 30 or 40 miles above its mouth, and far out of the line of the road, between Baroach and Amedabad, to avoid this danger. Therefore, we may conclude, that the communication between the capital (Nehrwaleh) and its port (Baroach), was by a road, that was at all times practicable; for it is said, that there was a carriage road between them (Edrisi, p. 62). And here it will be proper to mention, that the Ayin Acbaree (Vol. II. p. 76.) describes a road of 100 cosses (190 road miles) long, leading from Puttan to Berodeb. I rather suppose that Baroach should be read for Berodeh (or Baroda); for the distance will agree much better to that. The Ayin Acbaree also says (page 77), that Puttan was at first the seat of government; then Champaneer; and last of all Amedabad.

A very curious particular relating to Nehrwaleh, is, that its king was styled BALHARA, or King of Kings; from which title, we might infer, that the rest of the Indian princes, his neighbours, acknowledged him in some degree, as their superior. Both Edrisi, and Masoudi, mention this circumstance. Ptolemy's Baleocur may probably mean the capital of the same kingdom, though

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