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justice, that the very imperfect accounts which have been published of foreign tranactions of great importance, delayed, , in hopes of being able to acquire better information, our entering upon a subject which could not be treated with of precision, from the continued con, tradictions in matters of fact, which at tended every part

of it. In this, however, as in every thing else, we rather chuse to rely upon the indulgence, than pretend to appeal to the candour, of our readers,

The only effectual acknowledgment in our power to make, we have already adopted, by taking such measures as will prevent, for the future, so well-founded a complaint from being laid against us. Whatever charges of inability, may

with justice be brought against the compilers of this work, that cenfure, which of allothers they would most dread, is that only, which they are incapable of incurring, an inattention to the duties they owe, forgetfulness of the great obligations they are under to the Public.

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State of the belligerent powers. Expedition to the Miditerranean. Turky.

Critical state of that empire. State of Poland Conduct. of the neighbouring powers in regard to the war. Auftria. Prusia. Denmark. Disputes between the king and the senate in Szveden. Diet degrades and punishes the senate. Treaty of subsidy concluded with France. Fra:rce. Bankruptcy and fufpenfion of the French East India company. Spain. Pora tugal. Mazagan taken by the Maors,


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E saw at the close of the ing actions, it has abounded with lait

year, the dispositions those, which thew war under its that were making by the great most disgusting and hideous afpeét; rival powers of the North and East, in the ruin and devastation of to plunge Europe and Afia into countries: in ravage, and in maithe calamities of war. The, con- facreś. Happily, as the neighteft between these powers has been bouring states have not hitherto cruel and bloody. If it has not interfered in the quarrel, its conbeen attended with great and thin- fequences have been restrained to VOL. XII.



in it.

the parties who were originally cited in that country, would feen engaged or immediately interested sufficient to answer thefe purposes.

Endeavours are however used to The success of the Russian arms raise a more formidable enemy. in the latter part of the campaign, A Tartar, named Kerim Kan, is seems to put it in the power of the said to have obtained the principal court of Petersburg, either to pro- command in Persia, and to have secute the war to great advantage, united at length that country, fo or nearly to prescribe the terms of long and so miserably harrassed and peace. In the former case, the distracted. Persia, when at peace large frontier provinces of Mol- within itself, has always been a davia and Walachia, which seem formidable neighbour to the Turks. now to be added to its dominion, The politics of Ruflia have stirred as well by the inclination of the up Kerim Kan, to lay claim to some inhabitants as by conquests, will be of the frontier provinces, which of infinite use. Without entering have been formerly disputed beinto the prospects that may thereby tween the two empires. If we may be opened to the Ruffians, of ex- give entire credit to this report,

it tending their conquests on the other is not difficult to appreciate the side of the Danube, it seems at dangers which menace that exleast to be in their power to make tended, proud, ferocious, ignorant, themselves masters of the lower and feeble nation. If the empress course of that river, which, if they of Ruflia finds no evocation from mean to hold this conquest, will be disturbances at home, or is not à natural barrier and defence to appeased by speedy and reasonthese provinces.

able concesions from abroad, the In this situation the intercourse Turkish empire may at tength fall, between Turky and Crim Tartary by the hands of a woman. is in a manner destroyed. By land That great and enterprising woit seems wholly interrupted; and man, has not however confined her the communication by the Black views merely to the operations of Sea is tedious and dangerous, åt a land war; they are much more least in the weak ftate of `naval extensive; and to the astonishment Strength and naval refources among of Europe, from the bottom of the the Turks. In the mean time the Baltic, a Russian fleet is issued to Ruffians might reduce the city of Take the remoteft parts of the MeBender, and afterwards employ the diterranean ; to excite and fapo greater part of their forces, in port the insurrections of the Greek chastising the Tartars, and in to. Chriftians, and to leave nothing in tally crushing the remainder of the 'any part of the vast empire of enePolish confederates.

mies, free from alarm and confuWhile the Porte is thus freight- fion. This naval expedition of med on the fide of Europe, measures Ruffia, stands particularly distinare taken on that of Asia, which guished amongft the events of this will serve further to distract its at- year, and is indeed a remarkable tention, and to divide its forces. æra in naval history. Ruffian troops sent into Georgia, This however has been thought and the infurre&ion they have ex- a ralh and dangerous experiment. It has been faid, that the know- free right of trade upon the Black ledge in their profeffion, which the Sea, with liberty for her thips to Rufian failors could acquire, by pass through the Dardanelles, in their fort fummer navigations in their way to and from the Archithe gulphs of Finland and Bothnia, pelago and Mediterranean. The was not to be fuppofed equal to great success of the Turks against the dangers which they must en. the late emperor, (who was when counter, in unknown and boisterous the Russian ally), and the dishoseas. The condition in which both nourable peace which they forced fhips and men arrived in England, him into, frustrated the scheme the length of time they took in for that time; but there can be ro making their voyage, and the ac- reason to doubt that it had its full cidents they met with, notwith- effect in producing the present Standing the afliftance of some Eng; war, How far its fuccess, and the lih oficers and pilots, feemed establishment of a new naval power Itrongly to countenance this opi- in those seas, may be consistent with nion. It was also said, that the the interest of the other European fea of the Archipelago, so famous states, it is not our business here to for its numberless iħands, Ahoals, discuss : however, it may be easily and currenes, as well as for its seen, that if it took place in its sudden, fhifting, and violent winds, fulleft extent, Ruffia must become seemed to be an ill chofen and one of the greatef maritime powers perilous school of probation. in the world.

The attempt, however, is great, A long war is not however at bold, and manly; and it should be present desirable to Rusia. Those observed, that neither great de- who are acquainted with the state figns are to be defined, nor great of population in that vaft empire successes to be obtained by the pre- know, that the want of inhabicife rules of vulgar calculation tants, is its great and principal

Nor is this to be regarded as a want. If we may credit some late matter totally novel, and which French writers, the race of man is only sprung up from the present in danger of becoming extin& in contingency. A design of a fimi- its northern provinces, from inlar nature, or which at least led to ternal, and perhaps irremediable the same end, has been for many causės, The loss of men which, years in contemplation, and a 'fa- notwithstanding its success, it has vourite object at the court of Peterf- already suffered in the field during burg: Indeed it is not to be ima the progress of this thort war, muit gined, that Peter the Great and his have been very great. We know fucceffors, would have built such that the two great generals, Lacy a number of vast ships, only to and Munich, lost above half their have them dragged about once a armies in two fucceffive fummer year between the rocks and shoals campaigns against the Tartars only, of the Baltic.

though they had no enemy that It is now known, that the great could engage them in the field ; point which Rufla had in view, in and that war coft Ruflia confider the war of the year 1736, against ably more than 100,000 men. The ahe Turkis, was to gain a port and lois fuftained this year by. the ra

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vages of the Tartars, may probably have also found but little admits equal if not exceed that in the tance in the Turkish military inftifield; besides their ruining the in- tutions, the power of habit, and fant colony of New Servia, and that knowledge acquired by actual spoiling the noble province of the experience, could alone fupport the Ukraine ; a province by much the force and goodness of their armies; finest and most fertile that Ruflia being in this respect much inferior is poffeft of, the cultivation of to their European neighbours ; which has always been regarded who having brought the art of war as an object of the greatest im- into a regular system, keep large portance.

bodies of troops in the constant These are losses that touch Russia exercise of that discipline to which in the most sensible and tender they are subject in the field. part. It may also be observed, To this long peace may also be that though this empire, from the attributed that disposition to recheapness of provifions, and the volt which seems at present fo precały method of providing for the valent among the Greeks. The troops, can support an infinite terror with which they first renumber of them at home; yet that garded their fierce and haughty the state of its finances is' but ill conquerors, was kept up by seeing adapted to the vast expences which them continually in arms, and by attend the employment of Meets and being witnesses that the same couarmies at a great distance. For rage which firit made thein irrethese and many other reasons, par- liftible, still made them terrible to ticularly the jealousy of the other their moft warlike neighbours. European powers, it is not pro- These ideas being worn off

, by a beble that Rullia will be too im- long knowledge and acquaintance placable in iis prosecution of the in the softness and weakness of war, nor that it will refuse advan- peace; they now dare to reflect iageous, though at the same time upon the wretchedness of their own equitable terms of peace, when condition, and to repine at the opthey are proposed.

pressions which they suffer. The affairs of the Turkish em- This mal-content temper of the fire, are at present in a very cri- Grecian Christians, and the strong tical situation. Founded by the attachment which from religious sword, and established totally upon and political principles they bear military principles, nothing less to the Ruffians, are circumstances than a continued exercise in war, much more alarming to the Otand the consequent bbservance of toman empire, than any consea severe discipline, could preserve quences that could result from the it in its original vigour. Í he late ill conduct of the last campaign, long rest of thirty years, was not or the military prowess of their only contrary to the genius and enemies. The Greeks are not only temper of the people, but subver- numerous, but most of the prosive of the constitution; the laws vincials are fierce and warlike; fo and maxims of which are repug- that the Turks are indebted to the nant to peace and the arts that de- bigotry and oppressive difpofition, pend on it. As system and theory which so uniformly disgraced the


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