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For JULY, 1798.


Art. i. A Surary of the Turkish Empire. In which are come

fidered, I. Its Government, Finances, military and naval Forces Religion, History, Arts, Sciences, Manners, Commerce, and Popus lation, 11. The State of the Provinces, including the ancient Government of the Crim Tatars, the Subjection of the Greeks, their Efforts toqvard Emancipation, and the Interest of other Nations, particularly of Great Britain, in their Success. III. The Causes of the Decline of Turkey, and those svbich tend to the Prolongation of its Existence, with a Developement of the Political System of the late Emprefs of Rufia. W. The british Commerce with Turkey, ibe Necessity of abolishing the Levant Company, and the Danger of our quarantine Regulations. With many other important Particulars. By W. Eton, Etq. many Years resident in Turkey and in Ruffia. 8vo.

544 pages. Price 8s. in boards. Cadell and Davies. 1798.

The grand subjects of contention and theatres of war, among modern nations, have been different at different times. To the invaders of the roman empire every country and province became successively the scene of rapine and the subject of conqueft : and subsequent quarrels among the conquering chiefs agitated every part of Europe. The nations, somewhat humanized and softened by the prevalence of the civil law, and the progress of the christian religion with all it's corruptions, had begun in fome ineasure to draw breath in peace, when a spirit of religious enthusiasm called them, in prodigious numbers, to redeem the holy land from the possession of the faracens. In the progress of knowledge, and the intercourse of men and nations, a fpirit arose of discovering new regions of the globe, of navigation, and colonization, as the best ally and hand-maid of commerce. For a period of near two hundred years, in all disputes between the great maritime powers of Europe, the great objects were, certain poflessions in the East and Welt-Indies. YOL, XXVIII. NO. 1



In our day, so pregnant with revolution, the views of corttending powers are called again to the scenes of the croisades, by a different principle. The ambitious and the busy world now turns it's attention to Syria and Egypt, not from sentiments of religion, not calculations of commerce and finance, the great sinews, in this age of improvement, both of war and political power. A genius has arilen, formed for the accomplishment, at least for the attempt of grand deligns by extraordinary means; and who opens his mind to such combinations and such plans as were conceived and executed by the Cæsars and Alexanders of former ages. Buonaparte, finding it impossible to reduce Great Britain by discord and invasion, has formed a plan of reducing her power, by cutting off the channels of her commerce at home, Whatever farther views he may entertain, which will either be extended or circumscribed by events, it appears very probable, in the present conjuncture, that he has formed a concert with the divan, as an ally against the ruslians; and that he is to take porsession of the castles of the Dardanelles, in this character, on the one fide, while he is at the same time to make a settlement in Egypt, as a half-way Nation to India, on the other. In these circumstances a survey of the turkish empire, by one who had so good an opportunity of information, is a very reasonable, and, we doubt not, will be a very acceptable present to the public. In Turkey; as he tells us very properly, in justice to the credibility of his reports, he has been a consul; he has had indirect concerns in trade; as a traveller, he has visited most parts of the turkish empire; in Russia he was, for several years, in the confidence of the late prince Potemkin, and in a situation to know more of the secrets of the cabinet than most foreigners."

A custom which prevailed very much in the business of publication about a century ago, and which had been generally laid aside as equally inelegant and oftentatious, has been of late revived: namely, to give a very copious account of the design and principal contents of a book in the title page. Mr. E.'s title page is so copious as to save us, in a great measure, the labour of farther analysis. The most prominent feature in his book is, that it represents the curks in a much more unfavourable light than that in which they have been exhibited by certain writers of travels, and particularly by lady Mary Wortley Montagu. 'In the history of the world there have been frequent instances of mighty nations, who, after conquering their opponents by force of arms, have received from their captives, the softer yoke of science. Nor have there been wanting examples of the intro. duction of arts by the conqueror himself. The turks, however, like barbarians invaded Greece, and swept before them tho mighty monumerts of ancient science; and, like barbarians, they hold their captives, to the present day, under the benumbing yoke of ignorance and flavery. Instead of promoting the mutual advantage of both nations, by an intercourse of knowledge and benevolence, they use the privilege of conquest only to the extinction of the sominon powers of intellect." This conduct our author kontrasts with that of the arabs in Spain, who intermarried with



the conquered christians, and promoted the arts and sciences. But the haughty turk, Mr. E. observes, is not only exalted above his subject greek as a conqueror : he confiders himself still more highly elevated as the favourite of heaven, and the greater part of his ferocity as a tyrant is owing to the arrogant and bare barous dictates of his religion. The sentiments expressed by the sultans and muftis are so repugnant to juttice, to humanity, and to every principle of virtue, and to those laws which all civilized nations have refpecied, that nothing can be said worse of them. The effects produced by this monstrous government in the provinces are shocking to behold. Every raja (that is, every lubject who is not of the mohammedan religion) is allowed only the cruel alternative of death or tribute ; and even this is arbitrary in the breast of the conqueror. The very words of the formulary, given to their christian subjects on paying the capitation tax, import, that the sum of money received, is taken as a compensation for being permitted to wear the

beads that year.' The insulting distinction of christian and mohammedan is carried to so great a length, that even the minutiæ of dress are rendered subjects of restriction: a christian must wear only clothes and headdresses of dark colours, and such as turks never wear, with flippers of black leather, and must paint his house black or dark brown. The leaft violation of these frivolous and disgusting regulations is punished with death : and it is not at all uncommon for a christian to have his head itruck off in the street, for indulging in a little more foppery of dress than the sultan or vizir, whom he may meet incognito, approves.

If a christian itrike a mohammedan, he is most commonly put to death on the spot, or, at least, ruined by fines, and severely baftinadoed; if he strike, though by accident, one of the sherifs (or emirs, as they are called in turkih, i.e. descendants of Mohammed, who wear green turbands) of which there are a thousand in some cities, it is death without remition. The teltimony of chriltians is little regarded in courts of justice ; at best, two testimonies are but considered as one, and are even overborn by that of a single mohammedan, if reputed at all an honest man.

It is no wonder, under such a government, to find depopulated provinces, and the country, in so many places, literally a desert.

We seek in vain for a population, fufficient to compofe those numerous kingdoms and Itates, which flourished when the turks usurped their dominion. We find vast cities reduced to beggarly villages, and of many hundreds no traces remain.'

The account that Mr. E. gives of the government and manners of the turks coincides entirely with that given by the baron de Tott, who had so many and long continued opportunities of acquiring information. The picture which he exhibits of the turks has been considered by many as severe and calumnious : but we believe it to be accurately drawn from the life.

Mr. E. shows in a clear light the degeneracy of the sultauns, the enervation of the people, the relaxation of military discipline, and, on the whole, the weakness of the government; which, it would, in his opinion, be easy to overthrow, and drive the turks out of


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Europc; an event, which he thinks, will come to pass, the firsk campaign of the first war in which they shall be engaged. • The expulfion of the turks froin Europe, and the re-ettablishment of the greek'empire,' he says, “is more the advantage of Britain than even of Russia itselt. So far from being an ufurpation, it is an act of justiee. According to the laws of nations, the rurks have not, by length of poileflion, acquired a right to the dominion of the countries they conquered *. The importance of the alliance of Rufiia with Britain appears every day more trongly. The falvation of Europe depends on engaging that power as a principal in the present war. The views of the trench, with regard to Greece, now too plainly appear, and the emperor of Ruthia is in danger of being attacked in the Black Sea by a trench fieet.

• If it be said, that we ought, as inuch as may depend on us, to prevent the increate of naval power in every other nation, withour denying the propofition, I affirm, that it is not applicable to the precut cale: Rullia never can be formidable in the Baltic; nature has forbid it. In the Black Sea the may, and Me will, in fpite of all we can do to prevenç it. The queition then is, since we cannot prevent is, which is the mode of it's existence which will be leaft hurtful to us ? that the greeks will emancipate themfelves from the yoke of Turkey is equally certain. If this event take place by thc atliftance of the French, we fall certainly have an enemy in Grece: if through Russia, and with our concur. rence, a friend. There is, indeed, a poffibility, but not the leait probability, that we may sometime or other quarrel with them, but not for a length of time, as there will exist a mutual interest in friendiliip. Why make a vain attempt, which will cerfainly create us enemies, when at least, we fand a fair chance of procuring friends?

Mr. E. has added to his survey some miscellaneous papers, which fhow, in part, how far the emprefs's vait views of aggrandizement extended-they went to the entire conquest of all European Turu key, a part of which was to be given to the house of Aditria : the se-eitablishient of the greek empire, and placing her grandson Contantine on the throne of Cooltantinople; of making Egypt an independant state ; of giving to Poland a rullian for a lovereign, and ultimately incorporating it into her own empire ; of making a conqüet of Japan and a part of China, and eitablishing à Daval pou er in those cas.

Great events are for the most part preceded by a general expectation; and predictions tend to hatten their accomplithment. The revolution in America was forctold for many years before it happened. The revolution of Frence was foretold, fo early as the reign of Lewis xv, by the abbé St. Pierre, afterwards by Route Teini, Voltaire, and many others. The fall of the papal power was foretold for ages : yes, one circumstance relating to the whole,

* This may seem to be found morality, on the principles of abfrict reasoning, but it is dangerous doctrine if applied to states. What other right to dominion is in general to be recognized, than that of pofleilion ?

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