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I confess it was a matter of surprise to me, that there should be no mountains, between the province of Cabul, and Tershish, in the route passed by Mr. Forster: he describes nothing but scattering hills, where the maps usually represent lofty chains of mountains, Throughout his whole route from Candahar to the Caspian sea, he crossed no stream, that was too deep to be forded; although the journey lasted from the beginning of August, to the latter end of January
I have introduced Alexander's march after Bessus, &c. in order to render the map more complete. We may trace the ancient Tapuri, in Taberistan; Dahe, in Dahistan; Arachosia, in Arokhage; and Aria, in Herat, or Harat. Cau-casus, and Paro-pamisus, the names of ridges of mountains on the NW of India, derive part of their names from Kho, and Pabar, words which signify mountains, or hills, in the Indian languages. Of Imaus, we have spoken before, in pages 126, and 150.
The most considerable change that has taken place in the geography of the tract comprehended in this small map, since the publication of the first edition,* is that which regards the positions of Cashgar, and the ridge of mountains on the west of it; in
respect of India, and Samarcand. On this subject we have already touched, in page 97: and to which I shall beg leave to refer the reader, as an introduction to the remarks, that are to follow.
Samarcand, according to the tables of Ulug Beig, is 99° 16' east of the Fortunate Islands; and Aleppo, in the same tables, is 720 10': that is, Samarcand is 27° 6' E of Aleppo; and this last, being 37° 9' E of Greenwich (by the Con. de Temps, 34° 49'E of Paris), Samarcand should be in 64° 15' east of Greenwich. If we reckon it from Casbin, which, according to M. Beauchamp's observation, is 49° 33' E of Greenwich; and by Ulug Beig, 14° 16' west of Samarcand; the latter, by this calculation, will be in 63° 49': or.
The map in question, was re-constructed for the second edition.
26 minutes farther west, than if reckoned from Aleppo. But having with much labour, investigated the particulars of the distance, between Casbin and Samarcand; and compared them with the intermediate longitudes and latitudes, recorded in the Oriental tables, I am inclined to adopt 64° 15', for the longitude of Samarcand. Its latitude, taken with the famous quadrant of Ulug Beig, is 39° 37' and some odd seconds.
In this position, Samarcand stands 95 degrees of longitude west of Cashmere, according to my construction; and about 5 degrees of latitude, to the north of it.
Cashgar, in the tables of Abulfeda, is given at 7° 30' of longitude east of Samarcand, by Alfaras; 7° 5', by Albiruni : in those of Ulug Beig, 7° 14'; and 8° 10' in Nasereddin's. The mean of all, is about 7 degrees; which would place Cashgar 2 degrees west of Cashmere.
Before we can compare the popular estimation of the distance, between Samarcand and Cashgar, with the difference of longitude between them; it becomes necessary, of course, to ascertain the parallel of Cashgar. This is given in the tables, universally at 44 degrees; which would place it nearly N E from Samarcand. That it bears considerably to the north of east, from Samarcand, is strongly implied by the direction of the roads, which lead to it, from Samarcand, and Bokhara: that from the former being through Cogend, and Andegan (or Ferganah); both of which lie to the north-east of Samarcand; the former at 7, the latter at 11 days journey from it. And from Bokhara, the road to Cashgar, lies through Tashkund, still more to the north than Cogend. Now if the direction of the road be north-east, for 11 days out of 25, the distance of Cashgar from Samarcand; and 14 out of Bokhara, nearly N E by N, it furnishes a strong presumptive proof that the direction of the whole line, is very far to the north of east. The only line of distance, that will in any degree help us to the latitude of Cashgar, is that given by Bernier (Vol. II. Letter ix.),
in which it is stated that the distance of Cashgar from Cashmere, is 44 journies, through Little Thibet; but that a shorter road lay through Great Thibet: and these journies, although not declared to be those of a caravan, may be understood to be such, from the narration. Now caravan journies, on such a distance as requires 44 days to travel through, cannot in any country be taken at more than 14 G. miles of direct distance, each day: and through such countries, as those between Cashmere and Cashgar are described to be (see the latter part of the same letter), perhaps at 11 or 12 only. The distance on this proportion, would reach to the parallel of 42° 45'; on a supposition that 71, or 8 degrees of longitude, were allowed between Samarcand and Cashgar: but even if 9 or 10 were supposed, the bearing line from Cashmere is so nearly meridional, that 2 degrees of longitude, would make a difference of a few minutes only, in the latitude assigned to Cashgar.
Although no accurate result can be expected from this statement, yet I think it may be inferred, that Cashgar cannot be in a lower parallel than 42°: and then, admitting either of the distances from Samarcand (between 7 and 10 degrees of longitude), the bearing would be from E N E, to E NEŽ N. Strahlenberg places it in 42° latitude; and at 2° of longitude, west of Cashmere: M. Petis de la Croix, in Timur, Book III. chap. vii. in 43". M. D'Anville went into extremes, and placed it in 40° only.
The Russian maps give no ideas, that can, or rather, should be followed, in the quarter of Samarcand, and western Tartary: forasmuch, as there is an error of 5° of longitude in the position of Samarcand, and the countries adjacent to it, in respect of the Caspian sea : the matter that should liave occupied the square of 5 degrees, between the 8oth and 85th degrees, being placed in that, between the 85th and goth. To what extent the error may affect the positions that lie on the north and east, I am ignorant.
Admitting then, that the capital of Cashgar is situated in, or about the parallel of 427, we shall find that its distance from Sa
marcand, and Bokhara, according to the report of the Orientalists, is consistent with the difference of longitude, given in their tables. It is indeed, very probable, that the difference of longitude was calculated to answer the computed distance. And supposing this to be the fact, we have the satisfaction of knowing, that we are in possession of the actual sum of the computed distance, according to the ideas of the natives of the country: because the distance, and the difference of longitude, by their near agreement, verify each other!
Sherefeddin (in his History of Tamerlane, Book V. chap. iv. of the translation by M. Petis de la Croix) states the distance between Samarcand and Cashgar, at 25 journies. As it occurs in the account of the roads between Bucharia and China, these journies must be considered as those of the caravans, which ordinarily passed between the two countries: * and the highest rate at which each journey can be taken, on an extent of 25 days, is 15 G. miles; so that the amount of the distance, will be 375, on a direct line: and this laid off to the parallel of 42*°, gives a difference of longitude of about 71°. If the journies should be considered as those which individuals perform, in the course of their own business, 161 may be allowed; and the difference of longitude arising from this calculation, would be about 84. Another account of the distance is found in Astley's Collection of Voyages and Travels, Vol. IV. p. 637, where it is stated to be 30 days from Bokhara to Cashgar. t. In this account, we have some idea of the scale of the days' journies, given us, by the number of journies between Bokhara and Urkenje; which are said to be 15; and the distance (by my series of positions, in Persia, &c.) being about 240 G. miles, leaves 16 for each day, on a journey of 15 days: and if we apply this
Sherefeddin (in Timur, Book III. chap. vii.) says, that Oluc-Yulduz is two months journey, by the caravan, froin Samarcand. Cashgar lay in the way: and D'Anville and Strahlenberg, place it at 470, to.480 G. miles from Yulduz; or 32 caravan days, at 15 each. Of course, 28 would remain, for the space between Cashgar and Samarcand. This, although no positive proof; must be allowed to be, at least, a strong presumptive one.
+ " By easy journies, such as merchants take, with their goods;" }, e. by caravan,
proportion to the 30 days between Bokhara and Cashgar (though manifestly too great), we have 480 G. miles for the whole distance, which will give, in effect, the same as the 25 days from Samarcand, 7° difference of longitude. Bokhara is five ordinary journies to the westward of Samarcand.
There is yet another account of the distance, in Astley; but it differs so much from all the rest, that I shall draw no conclusion from it. In this, Cashgar is stated to be 41 days of easy travelling (caravan I suppose) from Bokhara: and of these, the first 14 are to Tashkund, which (in my map of positions) is about 220 G, miles, N E by N, nearly, from Bokhara; answering to 151 for each day. But as 27 journies more, are to be reckoned (by this account) to Cashgar, although Tashkund is supposed to be five journies nearer to it, than Samarcand is; this calculation on the whole, makes a difference of seven days: and would occasion an increase of almost 21° of longitude, to the 71° arising from Sherefeddin's statement.
I confess, if M. D'Anville had not adopted a position at 12 east of Samarcand, for Cashgar; I should have thought it unnecessary to adduce so many authorities; or to have reasoned so much upon them: for nothing appears clearer, or more consistent, to me, than the accounts of the longitude of Cashgar: I mean, in the very general way, in which I intend to apply it. But, for the reader's satisfaction, as well as that the matter itself is curious, as it respects the geography of a country, so little known to Europeans; I shall insert a short passage from an eastern author concerning it.
Capt. Kirkpatrick quotes SHAHNAWAZ, as follows: “ Cashgar is « bounded on the north, by the mountains of Moghulistan; one
extremity of which range, reaches to Shâsh, and the other to “ Terfan; and from thence to the Calmuck country. On the “ west, it is bounded by a long ridge of mountains, from which “ the Moghulistan mountains branch out. To the eastward, lie