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70 miles of the sea. General Joseph Smith remarks, that the Kistna was fordable both above and below the conflux of the Beemah river, in the month of March : and that a few miles below the mouth of the Beemah, its bed was 600 yards wide, and exhibited an uncommon appearance, from the number and diverfity of the rocks in it.

The Kistna and Godavery rivers, however remote at their fountains, approach within 80 miles of each other, in the lower parts of their course; and forin an extensive tract of country, composed of rich vegetable mould, such as is usually found at the mouths of large rivers.

Here we behold, on a finaller scale, the fame economy that is observable in the agency of the Nile and Ganges, in forming the DELTAS of Egypt and Bengal ; by means of the finer particles of earth, that are swept down by those vast rivers, and their branches, in a course of more than 2000 miles. Those who have been on the spot, and reason from analogy, in this case, will readily suppose that the whole, or the greatest part of the tract, included between Samulcotta and Pettapolly (about 150 miles in length along the sea Thore, and from 40 to 50 wide) is in reality, a gift of the two rivers, Godavery and Kistna.

The same appearances indeed, may be observed at the mouths of the Cattack and Tanjore rivers ; but the two rivers in question, by draining a much greater extent of country (that is, from the 15th to the 21st degree of latitude) have collected materials for a greater quantity of new land. Within this new formed land, and about midway between the Godavery and Kistna, the soil forms a hollow space; which in its lowest part, is a lake at all seasons; and in all the other parts, an extensive inundation, during the season of the periodical rains ; being then a lake of 40 or 50 miles in extent. This is called the Colair lake; and its origin may be referred to the same cause, as that which produces the lakes and morasses of the Egyptian and Bengal deltas : which is, that the deposition of mud by the two rivers (or the two branches of one river) at the time when


they overflow, is greatest near the banks: for the farther the inundation flows from the margin of the river, the more of its earthy particles will be deposited in its way; and the less will remain for the distant parts ; which therefore cannot be filled up to the level of the ground, nearest the bank of the river : and thus the

ground will acquire the form of an inclined plane, from each river bank towards the interior part of the country, where a hollow space will be left : but it may be expected that when the rivers have raised their banks, and the adjacent country, to the greatest possible height, which is that of the periodical flood (and the ground can be raised no higher) the subsequent inundations will find their way into the hollow space, from the lower part of the river ; and will gradually fill

up with mud, the part of the lake that lies towards the source of it: and as the new land continues to encroach upon the sea, the lake will travel downwards in the same proportion. For the natural course of things, is, that when the new lands that are thefurthest removed from the sea, are raised as high as the agency of the waters will admit, that portion of the mud that cannot be deposited above, is carried lower down to raise other lands ;'or to lay the foundation of new land, further out: and thus the regular. declivity of the channel is preserved. All lands subject to inundations, must continue to rise ; because the water of the inundation deposits, at least, fome portion of the earthy particles suspended in it: but there must be a certain point of elevation, beyond which no delta or river bank, can rise ; for each successive point in the course of a river, must be lower than the preceding one.

As to the Nile, its banks will admit of being raised, throughout the whole Said, as well as lower Egypt; the cataracts being so much elevated above the lower part of the river : and Egypt also differs in another particular, from India, in that no 'rain falls there to wash away the light parts of the soil into the river, before the inundation : whereas, the heavy rains of Bengal, previous to the inundation, must reduce the level of the elevated grounds, and

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contribute partly towards filling up the hollows; and no small proportion of what is deposited in one season, will be carried lower down, or into the sea. So that the progress of raising the lands, must have been more rapid in Egypt than in any of the moister regions. It

appears to me that the gentlemen who have lately reasoned fo ingeniously on the increase of the delta of the Nile, have omitted a circumstance of considerable moment, as it respects the length of the periods required to form given quantities of new land in; or to elevate the old to a certain degree. We never fail to remark on a survey of the naked summits of mountains, that the rain has in a course of ages, washed away the earth that covered them : or in other words, that there is a progressive motion of the finer particles of earth, from the mountains, towards the vallies. Admitting this to be true, and that the stores of fine earth are not inexhaustible; the longer the rivers continue to run, the less quantity of earth they must carry away with them : and therefore, the increase of the deltas, and other alluvions of capital rivers, must have been more rapid in early periods of the world's age, than now.

After this long digression, it would be unpardonable in me to omit an account of a plan proposed by my ingenious friend Mr. John Sulivan : which was, to open a communication at all seasons, between the Colair lake and its parent rivers, with a view to the improvement of the adjacent lands (which form a part of the Circars) and of the inland navigation. It appears that an imperfect channel already exists, between the lake and the Godavery river ; as well as the traces of an unfinished one, towards the Kistna: and which this gentleman, with great appearance of probability, imputes to a like design having been formed by the natives, in early times. This scheme, which appears to be practicable on easy terms, has never been adopted : the proposal was made early in 1779 : and for the particulars, I shall refer to the tract itself, which also contains much information on other subjects.


To return to the subject of the Memoir. The Beemah river is known to be a principal branch of the Kistna, coming from the NW, and joining it near Edghir. It rises in the mountains, on the north of Poonal, probably not far from the sources of the Godavery; and passes within 30 miles of the east side of Poonah, where it is named Bewrah, as well as Beemah ; and is also esteemed a sacred river. General Smith crossed this river, when accompanying the Nizam from Hydrabad towards Myfore, in 1766 ; about 10 miles above its junction with the Kistna, where it was fordable:

The Visiapour river is a branch of the Beemah, and is named Mandouah, by Mandelloe.

The mountains named the Gauts, Gattes, or INDIAN APPENINE, and which extend from Cape Comorin to the Tapty, or Surat river ; occupy, of course, a part of the tract, whose construction is discussed in this section : but I thall reserve a general account of the Gauts, for the next section; which treats of the peninsula in general, and of the Gauts, as included in it. This celebrated ridge does not terminate in a point or promontory, when it approaches the Tapty; but departing from its meridional course, bends eastward, in a wavy line, parallel to the river; and is afterwards loft among the hills, in the neighbourhood of Burhanpour. In its course along the Tapty, it forms several passes, or descents, (that is, Gauts, according to the original import of the word, which means a landing place) towards that river ; whence the country into which the passes descend, was originally named Candeish, or the low country.

It would appear, that the ridge abates of its great height, after passing the parallel of Baffeen, northward';. for Mr. Farmer, in his way from Poonah towards Naderbar, observed. that the passes had all a descent northward; forming as it were, a. series of steps, until he landed in Candeith. He was then a hostage with Madajee Sindia; who at that time led the grand Mahratta army into Guzerat, against General Goddard.


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The country inclosed by this bend of the Gauts, is named Baglana, or Bocklana ; and extends the whole way from the Tapty river. to Poonah. It is mountainous, of course ; and contains in it, many strong fortresses. Among these, were Rairee and Jeneahgur, the strong holds of Sevagee, in the last century: but I cannot trace out their positions. It is surprising, considering how long the Englith have had settlements at Bombay and Surat, that there should be no map, or other record, descriptive of the geography of Baglana ; or of any part of the tract between Bombay and Aurungabad. The routes of M. Anquetil du Perron, and of Mr. Farmer, together with Mr. Smith's line, have described the roads leading from Poonah to Noopour, and Burhanpour: but all on the west of these lines, is a blank, for an extent of 100 miles in width, and 150 in length: even the position of Nassick-Trimuck, a celebrated place of Hindoo worship, on the NE of Basseen, is not well known; and M. Anquetil du Perron's account of its position, in respect of some points in his route from Poonah to Surat, is not satisfactory. It is situated near the springs of the Godavery; and they must be on the east side of the Gauts, and nearly on a parallel with Bahbelgong.

Some general information respecting the situation of the Teek forests, and of the extent of the British conquests in 1780 and 1781, along the western foot of the Gauts, between Baffeen and Surat, was obligingly communicated by Mr. Hunter of the East India Direction; and by Mr. Holmes. The Teek forests, from whence the marine yard at Bombay is furnished with that excellent species of ship timber, lie along the western side of the Gaut mountains, and other contiguous ridges of hills, on the north, and north-east of Baffeen: the numerous rivulets that descend from them, affording water carriage for the timber. I cannot close this account without remarking the unpardonable negligence we are guilty of, in delaying to build Teck ships of war for the use of the Indian seas. They might be freighted home, without the ceremony of regular

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