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Hazael Bribed by Jehoas!.
II. KINGS, XIII.
Death of Jehoash.
B.C. cir. M40.
1 Heb., went up.
(17) Then Hazael king of Syria went up, and fought against Gath, and took it: and Hazael set his face to go up to Jerusalem. (18) And Jehoash king of Judah took all the hallowed things that Jehoshaphat, and Jehoram, and Ahaziah, his fathers, kings of Judah, had dedicated, and his own hallowed things, and all the gold that was found in the treasures of the house of the 2 Or, Beth-millo. Lord, and in the king's house, and sent it to Hazael king of Syria: and lie lwent away from Jerusalem.
(13) And the rest of the acts of Joash, and all that he did, are they not written
in the book of the chronicles of the
CHAPTER XIII. - (1) In the three and twentieth year of Joash the son of Ahaziah king of Judah Jehoahaz the son of Jehu began to reign over Israel
3 Heb., the ticene
It was the priests'.-Literally, to the priests they And he went away from Jerusalem-i.e., (these moneys) used to fall, or continued to accrue. The withdrew his forces. Thenius asserts that the present general sense is that the priests were not deprived of expedition of Hazael is distinct from that recorded in their lawful revenues by the new arrangement. They 2 Chron. xxiv. 23, seq., which he admits to be historical. received their ancient dues from the trespass and sin But it is not said here that Hazael went in person offerings. The change initiated by Jehoash consisted against Jerusalem. (Comp. verse 17, “set his face to in this, that henceforth gifts intended for the sanctuary go up,” i.c. prepared to march thither.) The serious itself were kept apart from the gifts intended for the defeat of the army of Jehoash, related in Chronicles, priesthood.
accounts very satisfactorily for the sacrifice of his trea(17—21) Conclusion of the epitome of the reign, broken
sures here specified; while the withdrawal of the Syrians off at verse 4.
after their vietory, as told in Chronicles, is explained
by the bribe which Jehoash is here said to have paid (17) Then.-At that time, viz., after the events just them. The two narratives thus supplement each other. related. Hazael's invasion of the south followed upon (20) His servants. His immediate attendants. his successes against Jehoahaz, who became king of (Comp. chap, viii. 15.) the northern kingilom in the very year when Jelioash Arose-i.e., against him. took in hand the restoration of the Temple. (Comp. In the house of Millo.-Or, at Beth-Millo. The verse 6 with chap. xiii. 1, 3.) It appears from 2 Chron. precise locality cannot be determined. Thenins supposes xxiv. 23 that the high priest Jehoiada was dead, and that the sorely wounded (?) king had retired for greater Jehoash had alrearly swerved from his counsels.
safety into “ the castle palace." Fought against Gath.--Which, therefore, at the was murdered while engaged in the fortress. For time either belonged to, or was in league with, Judah. “the Millo," see 2 Sam. v. 9; 1 Kings ix. 15. The Rehoboam hal included this town in his system of chronicler relates that Jehoash was murdered in his national defences (2 Chron. xi. 8); and it was perhaps at bed. this time the only important ontpost of the capital on Which goeth down to Silla. - These words the western side. Ewald assumes that the petty Phi- convey no meaning to us, the name Silla being other. listine states had invited the intervention of Hazael wise unknown. The text is probably corrupt, for Silla between themselves and their suzerain, the king of is almost exactly like Millo in Hebrew writing. (The Judah. Gaza, Ashdod, Ascalon, and Ekron, but not Vatican LXX. omits “which goeth down.”) Gatlı
, appear as Philistine kingdoms in the annals of (21) For Jozachar smote him.-Rather, Senuacherib and Esarladdon, a century later. This And Jozachar ... it was that smote him. The names agrees with what is stated in 2 Chron. xxvi. 6 as to
are different in Chronicles. (See the Note on 2 Chron. Uzziah having destroyed the walls of Gath. (Comp. xxiv. 26.) Thenius notices the curious coincidence of Amos vi. 2.)
the names as given here with the last words of the murSet his face.-Comp. Lnke ix. 51.
dered Zechariah, “ Jehovah see, and avenge!” The To go up to.-Or, against.
prophet was avenged by Jozachar (“Jehovah remem(18) The hallowed things that ... Jehoram, bers "), the son of Shimeath (“ hearing”), and Jeho. and Ahaziah .. had dedicated.-Although zabad (“: Jehovah bestows”), the son of Shomer these kings had sought to naturalise the Baal-worship, ("* watcher"). they had not ventured to abolish that of Jehovah. On With his fathers--i.e., in the city of David; but the contrary, as appears from this passage, they even "not in the sepulchres of the kings" (2 Chron. xxiv. 25). tried to conciliate the powerful priesthood and numerous adherents of the national religion, hy dedicating
XIII. gifts to the sanctuary. The fact that there was so much
(1–3) THE REIGN OF JEHOAHAZ. treasure disposable is not to be wondered at, even after the narrative of the way in which funds were raised for (1) In the three and twentieth year of Joash. repairing the Temple ; because the treasure in question, -Josephus makes it the twenty-first year of Joash, but especially that of the Temple, appears to have been re- wrongly. According to chap. xii. 1, Joash succeeded garded as a reserve, only to be touched in case of grave in the seventh year of Jehu, and Jehu reigned twenty. national emergency like the present.
eight years (chap. x. 36).
II. KINGS, XIII.
in Samaria, and reigned seventeen years. He walked hand of the Syrians: and the children (2) And he did that which was evil in
of Israel dwelt in their tents, as beforethe sight of the LORD, and followed a noh, as yester. time. (6) Nevertheless they departed the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat,
not from the sins of the house of Jerowhich made Israel to sin; he departed
boam, who made Israel sin, but I walked not therefrom. (3) And the anger of the
therein: and there 4 remained the grove LORD was kindled against Israel, and he
also in Samaria.) (7) Neither did he delivered them into the hand of Hazael
leave of the people to Jehoahaz but fifty king of Syria, and into the hand of Ben
horsemen, and ten chariots, and ten hadad the son of Hazael, all their days.
thousand footmen; for the king of (1) And Jehoahaz besought the LORD,
Syria had destroyed them, and had made and the Lord hearkened unto him : for
them like the dust by threshing. he saw the oppression of Israel, because
(8) Now the rest of the acts of Jethe king of Syria oppressed them.
hoahaz, and all that he did, and his (5) (And the LORD gave Israel a saviour,
might, are they not written in the book so that they went out from under the 4 Heb., stood. of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?
3 Hcb., he walked.
B.C. cir. 842.
Seventeen years.-This agrees with chap. xiv. 1. (6) Nevertheless they departed not.- Tho (2) And he did. See Notes on chap. iii. 3.
restoration of Divine favour did not issue in the abolition (3) He delivered them into the hand of of the irregular worship introduced by Jeroboam I. as Hazael.-Comp. chap. x. 32, seq. The meaning is the state religion of the northern kingdom. This is that Jehovah allowed Israel to be defeated in successive written, of course, from the point of view of the Judæan encounters with the Syrian forces, and to suffer loss of editor of Kings, who lived long after the events of territory, but not total subjugation. According to the which he is writing in the period of the exile. It does Assyrian data, Shalmaneser warred with Hazael in 812 not appear from the history of Elijah and Elisha, inB.C., and again in 839 B.C. (See Notes on chap. viii. corporated in his work, that either of those great 15, ix. 2.)
prophets ever protested against the worship estab. All their days.-Rather, all the days, i.e., con.
lished at Bethel and Dan. tinually (not all the days of Jehoahaz, nor of Hazael The house of Jeroboam – Some DISS., the and Ben-haddad). The phrase is an indefinite designa- Syriac, Targum, and Arabic omit “ house.” But the tion of a long period of disaster.
specification of the dynasty is here very appropriate. (4) Besought. — Literally, stroked the face of; a But walked therein. Rather, therein they metaphor which occurs in Exod. xxxii. 11; 1 Kings walked; the reading of the LXX. (Alex.), Vulg., and xiii. 6.
Targum being probably correct. It is the conduct of And the Lord hearkened unto him.- Not, the nation that is being deseribed. however, immediately. (See verse 7.) The Syrian in- And there remained the grove also in vasions, which began under Jehu, were renewed again Samaria.-Rather, and moreover the Asherah stood and again throughout the reign of Jehoahaz (verse (i.e., was set up) in Samaria. The Asherali was the 22), until the tide of conquest began to turn in the time sacred tree, so often depicted in Assyrian art. It symof Joash (verse 15), whose incomplete victories (verses bolised the productive principle of nature, and was 17, 19, 25) were followed up by the permanent successes sacred to Ashtoreth. With the return of peace, and of his son Jeroboam II. (chap. xiv. 25—28).
the renewal of prosperity, luxury also soon reappeared, The parenthesis marked in verse 5 really begins, and the idolatry that specially countenanced it lifted up therefore, with the words, “ And the Lord hearkened.” its head again. (See the Note on chap. xvii. 16.) The historian added it by way of pointing out that (7) Neither did he leave of the people to although the prayer of Jehoahaz did not meet with im- Jehoahaz.-Rather, For he had not left to Jehoahaz mediate response, it was not ultimately ineffectual. (any) people (i.e., war folk; 1 Kings xvi. 15). The
For he saw the oppression.-Comp. Exod. iii. subject appears to be Jehovah. The narrative returns, 7; Deut. xxvi. 7.
after the long parenthesis, to the statement of verse 4, The king of Syria. — Intentionally general, so “and Jehoa haz besought Jehovah (for he had not left, as to include both Hazael and Ben-hadad III., his son &c.).” Or we might render, “one had not left," i.e., (verse 24).
“there was not left." (5) A saviour.-Jeroboam II., the grandson of Je- Fifty horsemen, and ten chariots.-The menhoahaz, a vigorous and successful sovereign, of whom it tion of so small a number appears to indicate the result is said that Jehovah “saved ” Israel by his hand (chap. of the Israelite losses in some great battle, or in succes. xiv. 27).
sive engagements. The destruction of these particular They went out from under the hand.- kinds of forces was equivalent to complete disarmaReferring to the oppressive supremacy of Syria. From ment, and rendered further resistance lopeless, as the these words, and from those of verse 22, it would appear | Syrians were especially stroug in chariots and horsethat Israel was tributary to Syria during some part of
(See Note on chap. ii. 12.) this period.
Had made them like the dust by threshing. Dwelt in their tents-i.e., in the open country. -Rather, and set them like the dust to trample on or In time of war they were obliged to take refuge in tread underfoot. Israel was down-trodden by the con. strongholds and fortified cities.
queror. (Comp. 2 Sam. xxii. 43; Isa. X. 6.) As before time.-See Note on 1 Chron. xi. 2; Gen. (8) And his might.-Or, prowess. The reference Xxxi. 2.
is to his wars with the Syrians.
Jehoash Reigns over Israel.
II. KINGS, XIII.
Elisha's Last Prophecy.
(9) And Jehoahaz slept with his fathers;
sickness whereof he died. And Joash and they buried him in Samaria : and
the king of Israel came down unto him, Joash his son reigned in his stead.
and wept over his face, and said, O my (10) In the thirty and seventh year of
father, my father, the chariot of Israel, Joash king of Judah began Jehoash the
and the horsemen thereof. (15) And son of Jehoahaz to reign over Israel
Elisha said unto him, Take bow and in Samaria, and reigned sixteen years.
arrows. And he took unto him bow (11) And he did that which was evil in the
and arrows. (16) And he said to the king sight of the LORD; he departed not
of Israel, Put thine hand upon the bow. from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of
And he put his hand upon it: and Elisha Nebat, who made Israel sin: but he 1 Heb. Make thine put his hands upon the king's hands. walked therein. (12) And the rest of the
(17) And he said, Open the window eastacts of Joash, and all that he did, and
ward. And he opened it. Then Elisha his might wherewith he fought against
said, Shoot. And he shot. And he Amaziah king of Judah, are they not
said, The arrow of the LORD's deliverwritten in the book of the chronicles of
ance, and the arrow of deliverance from the kings of Israel ? (13) And Joash slept
Syria : for thou shalt smite the Syrians with his fathers; and Jeroboam sat
in Aphek, till thou have consumed them. upon his throne: and Joash was buried
(18) And he said, Take the arrows. And in Samaria with the kings of Israel.
he took them. And he said unto the (14) Now Elisha was fallen sick of his
king of Israel, Smite upon the ground.
hand to ridle.
B.C. cir. 839.
(9) Slept with his fathers.-Or, lay down (i.e., his best counsellor and helper. The prophet, by his to sleep) like his fathers, i.e., as his fathers had done teaching and his prayers, as well as by his sage counsel before him. The same phrase is used even of Amaziah, and wonder-working powers, had been more to Israel who came to a violent end (chap. xiv. 22).
than chariots and horsemen. (10 — 25) THE REIGN OF JOASH, OR JEHOASH.
(15) Take bow and arrows.-From one of the ELISHA FORETELLS HIS SUCCESSES
royal attendants. THE SYRIANS.
(16) Put thine hand upon the bow.-Rather, as
margin. In drawing a bow, the left hand “rides ”upon (10) In the thirty and seventh year. – This it, or closes round it, while the right grasps arrow and does not agree with verse 1. The Ald. LXX. reads,
string. thirty-ninth,” which is right.
Elisha put his hands upon the king's hands. Began to reign, and reigned sixteen -So as to invest the act of shooting with a prophetic years. —The Hebrew is briefer, reigned sixteen years. character; and, further perhaps, to signify the conse
(11) But he walked therein. – Heb., in it he cration of the king to the task that the shooting symwalked. The pronoun is collective in force.
bolised. It is not implied that Elisha's hands were on (12) And the rest. This is repeated, chap. xiv. the king's hands when he shot. 15, 16.
(17) The window.-Or, lattice. Probably a lattice Wherewith he fought.-Or, how he fought. In opening outwards. chap. xiv. 15 and is prefixed, and should be restored Eastward. In the direction of Gilead, which was here.
occupied by the Syrians (chap. x. 33). Against Amaziah. See the account of chap. xiv. Shoot. The old illustration of declaring war by
shooting an arrow into the enemy's country (Æn. ix.
victory over Aram!
Till thou have consumed them.-Literally, (14–21) The visit of Joash to the dying Elisha.
unto finishing. The annihilation of the opposing army
at Aphek, not of the entire forces of Syria, is predicted. This section is obviously derived from another docu- (See verse 19.) mentary source than the preceding. What a fresh and (18) And he said.-LXX., “and Elisha said unto life-like picture it presents in contrast with the colour- him,” which, as Thenius remarks, is more appropriate less abstract which it follows !
here, in introducing the account of the second symbolic (14) He died.-Rather, he was to die.
action. Came down to him-i.e., to his house. Comp. The arrows-i.e., the bundle of arrows. the Note on chap. v. 24, vi. 33.
Smite upon the ground.-Rather, smite (or, Wept over his face.-As he lay on the bed. strike) earthwards ; as if striking an enemy to the
O my father, my father.-Comp. the Note on earth. chap. ii. 12. Joash laments the approaching loss of He smote thrice.-Three being a sacred number.
Death of Elisha
II. KINGS, XIII.
and of Hazael.
a Ecclus. 48. 14.
And he smote thrice, and stayed. (19) And 1 Heb., went down. when the man lwas let down, and the man of God was wroth with him,
touched the bones of Elisha, ahe reand said, Thou shouldest have smitten
vived, and stood up on his feet. five or six times; then hadst thou smit
(22) But Hazael king of Syria oppressed ten Syria till thou hadst consumed it:
Israel all the days of Jehoahaz. (23) And whereas now thou shalt smite Syria but
the LORD was gracious unto them, and thrice.
had compassion on them, and had re(20) And Elisha died, and they buried
spect unto them, because of his covenant him. And the bands of the Moabites
with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and invaded the land at the coming in of the
would not destroy them, neither cast he year. (21) And it came to pass, as they
them from his presence as yet. (24) So were burying a man, that, behold, they
Hazael king of Syria died; and Benspied a band of men; and they cast the
hadad his son reigned in his stead. man into the sepulchre of Elisha : and
(25) And Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz
B.C. cir. 838.
2 Heb., face.
B. C. cir. 839.
(19) The man of God was wroth with him.- (21) As they were burying.-They—i.e., a party Because his present want of zeal augured a like defi- of Israelites. The story is told with vivid definiteness. ciency in prosecuting the war hereafter. The natural A band.-Rather, the troop. The particular troop irritability of the sick man may also have had something of Moabites which happened to be making an inroad at to do with it. Thenius well remarks on the manifestly the time. historical character of the entire scene. It may be They cast the man into the sepulchre of added that, to appreciate it fully, we must remember Elisha.--Comp. Mark xvi. 3, 4. In this case, we must that Berouarteia, or soothsaying by means of arrows, was snppose that the tomb was more easily opened, as the a practice of unknown antiquity in the Semitic world. action was obviously done in haste. Shooting an arrow, and observing where and how it And when the man was let down, and fell, was one method of trying to fathom the secrets of touched the bones.-Rather, and they departed. that Power which overrules events and foreknows the And the man touched the bones. The order of future. The proceedings of David and Jonathan, re- words in the original, as well as the sense, supports old corded in 1 Sam. xx. 35, seq., appear to have been an Houbigant's conjecture. If the meaning were, instance of this sort of divination, which in principle the man went and touched,” the subject in the Hebrew is quite analogous to casting lots, a practice so familiar would have followed the first verb, not the second. to readers of the Bible. The second process—that Moreover, the verb would hardly have been hālak. described in verse 18—seems equally to have depended Ho revived.-Literally, and he lived. Thenius upon chance, according to modern ideas. The prophet thinks that the sacred writer regarded this miracle as left it to the spontaneous impulse of the king to deter- a pledge of the fulfilment of Elisha's promise to Joash. mine the number of strokes; becanse he believed that Bähr
“ Elisha died and was buried, like all other the result, whatever it was, would betoken the purpose men, but even in death and in the grave he is avouched of Jehovah. “The lot is cast into the lap, but the to be the prophet and servant of God.” Dante's whole disposing thereof is of the Lord” (Prov. xvi. 33). warning may not be out of place here :Elisha's anger was the natural anger of the man and
“O voi che avete gl'intelletti sani, the patriot, disappointed at the result of a divination
Mirate la dottrina, che s'asconde from which he had hoped greater things. In conclu
Sotto il velame degli versi strani." sion, it cannot be too often or too forcibly urged upon
Inf. ix. 61, sqq. students of the true religion that the essential differ- (22) But Hazael ... oppressed.-Rather, Now ences which isolate it from all imperfect or retrograde Hazael ... had oppressed. The narrative returns to systems are to be found not so much in matters of outward organisation, form, and ritual, such as priest- (23) And the Lord was gracious.—The verse is hoods and sacrifices, prophets and modes of divination, a remark of the compiler's, as is evident from the style, which were pretty much the same everywhere in Semitic the reference to the Covenant, and the expression “ as antiquity; but in the inward spirit and substance of its yet,” or rather, until now—i.e., the day when he was teaching, in the vital truths which it handed on through writing, and when the northern kingdom had finally successive ages, and, above all, in its steady progress perished. from lower to higher conceptions of the Divine charac- Had respect.-Turned. ter and purposes, and of the right relations of man to (24) Ben-hadad—III., not mentioned in the As. God and his fellow-creatures.
syrian inscriptions. His reign synchronises with that (20) And the bands of the Moabites invaded. of Samas-Rimmon in Assyria, who made no expeditions -Rather, And troops of Moabites used to invade. They to the West (B.C. 825—812). The name Ben-hadad took advantage of the weakened condition of Israel to does not, of course, signify any connection with the revenge the devastation of their country described in dynasty overthrown by Hazael. It was a Divine title. chap. iii, 25.
(Comp. Note on chap. vi. 24.) At the coming in of the year.-So the Targum Benhadad was probably a feebler sovereign than and the LXX. The Syriac, Vulg., and Arabic under- Hazael. The rule, * Fortes creantur fortibus et bonis," stand,“ in that (or, the same') year.” The preposition bě is perhaps as often contradicted as corroborated by has probably fallen out of the Hebrew text: read, běbô’ actual experience. shānāh, " when the year came in”-i.e., in the spring. (25) The cities, which he had taken-i.e., which (Comp. 2 Sam. xi. 1.)
Hazael had taken. The cities referred to must have
Ahaziah Reigns, and
II. KINGS, XIV.
Slays his Father's Hurderers.
B.C. rir. 236.
( 2 Chron. 25. 1.
I took again out of the hand of Ben- | Hebo returned and burnt incense on the high places. hadad the son of Hazael the cities, which
(5) And it came to pass, as soon as the he had taken out of the hand of Je
kingdom was confirmed in his hand, hoahaz his father by war. Three times
that he slew his servants which had did Joash beat him, and recovered the
slain the king his father. (6) But the cities of Israel.
children of the murderers he slew not:
according unto that which is written in CHAPTER XIV.-(1) In the second
the book of the law of Moses, wherein year of Joash son of Jehoahaz king of
the LORD commanded, saying, The Israel, reigned a Amaziah the son of
fathers shall not be put to death for the Joash king of Judah. (°) He was twenty ch 12 20. children, nor the children be put to and five years old when he began to
death for the fathers; but every man reign, and reigned twenty and nine
shall be put to death for his own, sin. years in Jerusalem. And his mother's
(7) He slew of Edom in the valley of was Jehoaddan of Jerusalem.
salt ten thousand, and took "Selah by (3) And he did that which was right in
war, and called the name of it Joktheel the sight of the LORD, yet not like David
unto this day. his father: he did according to all
(8) Then Amaziah sent messengers to things as Joash his father did. (4) How
Jehoash, the son of Jehoahaz son of beit the high places were not taken
Jehu, king of Israel, saying, Come, let away: as yet the people did sacrifice 2 Or, The rock. us look one another in the face. (9) And
B.C. cir. 627.
Deut. 21. 16;
в с. cir. 826.
been cities on the west of Jordan (comp. verses 3 and Ten thousand.-The number slain in one conflict.
gagement, Amaziah's troops forced their way through By war.-Or, in the war.
the narrow defile leading to the Edomite capital, proBeat him.-Rather, smite him (verse 19).
bably meeting no great resistance. XIV.
Joktheel.--A town of Judah bore this name (Josh. THE REIGN OF AMAZIAH IN JUDAH, AND OF
xv. 38). The name probably means God's ward, re
ferring to the wonderful strength of the natural position JEROBOAM II. IN ISRAEL.
of the town. Others explain, subjugated of God. (1–17) THE REIGN OF AMAZIAH. (Comp. 2 Chron. Unto this day-i.e., unto the time when the original XXV.)
document was written, from which the writer derived (2) Jehoaddan.-The Hebrew text, which is sup- this notice. ported by the LXX., lias Jehoaddin (perhaps, “ Jeho. The reduction of the capital implies that of the vah is delight ;" comp. Isa. xlvii. 8, and the Divine country. The defeat of Jehoram (chap. viii. 20, seq.) was name Naaman).
thus avenged. Chronicles gives a more detailed account (3) Yet not like David his father.-The chroni. of the re-conquest of Edom, and its consequences (2 cler paraphrases this reference to the ideal king of Chron. xxv. 5–16). It is there related that Amaziah Israel : “yet not with a perfect heart."
hired a large force of mercenaries from the northern (4) Howbeit.-The same word was rendered “yet” kingdom, but sent them home again at the bidding of a in the last verse. “Only,” or “save that” would be
prophet. On their way back they attacked and plunbetter.
dered certain of the cities of Judah. The fall of Selah (5) As soon as the kingdom was confirmed- was followed by a massacre of captives. The gods of i.e., as soon as he was firmly established on the throne; Edom, which Amaziah carried off, proved a snare to as soon as he felt his power secure. (Comp. 1 Kings him. (See the Notes on the passare.) ii. 46.)
(8) Then,- After the reduction of Edom. The Slew .-slain.- Literally, smote . . . smitten. more extended narrative which follows is plainly taken (6) The murderers.-Literally, the smiters.
from a different source than that of the brief extract According unto that which is written
preceding it. law of Moses.- A quotation of Deut. xxiv. 16. This Come, let us look one another in the face. reference is from the pen of the Judæan editor. -A challenge to battle, the ground of which might
Shall be put to death.-So the original passago be found in the outrages committed by the Israelite and the Hebrew margin. Hebrew text, “shall die." mercenaries on their homeward march.
It appears This humane provision of the Jewish law contrasts likely, however, that Amaziah, intoxicated by his recent favourably with the practice of other nations, ancient success, aimed at nothing less than the recovery of the and modern. Readers of the classics will recollect the Ten Tribes for the house of David. So Josephus hideous story of the treatment of the young daughter (Antt. ix. 9, § 2), who gives what purport to be the of Sejanus (Tac. Ann. v. 9).
letters which passed between the two kings on this (7) He slew.-Rather, he it was that smote.
occasion. The valley of salt.--Comp. 2 Sam. viii. 13. El- (9) The thistle.- Or bramble or briar. (Comp. Job Ghôr, the salt plain of the Dead Sea, which Amaziah xxxi. 41; Cant. ii. 2.) The LXX. and Vulg. render would traverse in marching against Edom.
“thistle;” the Syriac,“ blackthorn ”(Prunus silvestris).