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house. Mouth to mouth will I speak with him, and in vision, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of Jehovah shall he be
VER. 8.- MOUTH TO MOUTH,] That is, living creatures which Ezekiel saw, (Ezek. i.) familiarly, plainly, in mine own presence, and the seething pot and almond rod which without any interposed mean; as the Chald. Jeremiah saw, (Jer. i.;) and the ephah which translateth, speech with speech. So when Zechariah saw, (Zech. v.) and so the other Joseph spake without an interpreter, he said, prophets, of whom some spake the parable and • it is my mouth that speaketh unto you,' the interpretation thereof, some the interpreGen. xlv. 12; and the apostle opposeth it to tation only; and sometime they uttered the speech by writing; as, I would not write parable only without the interpretation, as with paper and ink, but I trust to come unto part of Ezekiel's and Zechariah's words: and you and speak mouth to mouth, that our joy they all prophesied by parables and after the may be full,' 2 John ver. xii; and 3 John way of dark speeches. None of the prophets xiv. A like phrase is in Exod. xxxiii. 11, prophesied at all times when they would; but • Jehovah spake unto Moses face to face, as a prepared their understanding, and sat joyful, man speaketh unto his friend;' and in this and with cheerful heart, and with coutemmanner of communication, Moses excelled plation. For prophesy cometh not upon men, all the other prophets, Deut. xxxiv. 10. either when they are sorrowful, or when they The Heb. doctors have explained this matter are slothful, but when they are joyful: therethus; “ it is one of the foundations of the fore the sons of the prophets had before them law, to know that God maketh the sons of psalteries, and timbrels, and pipes, and harps, men to prophesy; and prophesy resteth not (1 Sam. x. 5 ;) and they sought for prophesy; but on a wise man, great in wisdom, mighty and this is that which is written, and they in his virtuous qualities, that his affections (or prophesying,' (1 Sam. x. 5;) as if he should natural corruption) prevail not over him in say, walking in the way of prophesy, until any thing in the world, but he prevaileth by they do prophesy. Those which forget to his knowledge over his affections continually, prophesy, are called sons of the prophets: and &c. On such a man the Holy Spirit dwel- although they prepared their wits (or underleth, and when the Spirit resteth upon him, standing,) it might be the Holy Spirit would his soul is associated to the degree of angels come down upon them, and it might be not. which are called men, and he is turned to All these things that we have spoken of, were another man, and perceiveth in his own the way of prophesy for all the former and knowledge that he is not so as he was, but latter prophets, except Moses our master, the that he is advanced above the degree of master of all the prophets. And what differother wise men, as it is said of Saul, ence was there between the prophesy of ' and thou shalt prophesy with them, shalt Moses, and of all the other prophets ? All be turned to another man,' (1 Sam. the prophets prophesied by dreams or hy vi. 6.) The prophets were of divers degrees : sion: but Moses prophesied when he was as in wisdom one wise man is greater than waking and standing; as it is written,' and another, so in prophesy, one prophet was when Moses was gone into the tent of the greater than another. And all of them saw congregation, to speak with him, then he not the vision of prophesy but by dream, by heard the voice of one speaking unto him,' vision of the night, or in the day time, after (Num. vii. 89.) All the prophets prophesied that a deep sleep was fallen upon them, Num. by the hands of an angel, therefore they did xii. 6 ; and all of them when they prophesied, see that which they saw in parables and dark their joints trembled, and strength of body speeches: Moses prophesied not by the hands failed, and their thoughts were troubled, and of an angel, as it is said, 'mouth to mouth, the mind was left changed to understand that I will speak with him,' (Num. xii. 8 ;) it is which was seen; as it is said of Abraham, also said, “the Lord spake unto Moses face 'and, lo, a terror, a great darkness fell upon to face,' (Exod. xxxiii. 11 ;) and again it is him,' (Gen. xv.;) and as is said of Daniel, said, and the similitude of the Lord shall
and my vigour was turned in me unto cor- he behold, (Num. xii. 8 ;) as if he should say, ruption, and I retained no strength,' (Dan. there is no parable there, but he seeth the X. 8.) The things that were made known to thing concerning his Creator, without dark a prophet by vision prophetically, were made speech, without parable. He it is of whom known to him by way of parable, and forth- the law testifieth, apparently, and not in with the interpretation of the parable was dark speeches,' (Num. xii. 8 ;) for he prowritten in his heart, and he knew what it phesied not by dark speech, but apparently,
As the ladder that Jacob our father for he saw the thing concerning his Creator. did see, and the angels ascending and des- All the prophets were afraid, and troubled, c'ending on it, (Gen. xxviii. 12 ;) and the and fainted, but Moses was not so ; for the
hold: and wherefore were ye not afraid to speak against my servant, against Moses? 9 And the anger of Jehovah was kindled against them, and he went away. 10 And the cloud departed from Scriptare saith, as a man speaketh unto his Aben Ezra explaineth it thus, “ I will show friend,' (Exod. xxxiii. 11 ;) as if he should him the thing as it is, as the form of the say, As a man is not troubled to hear the tabernacle, (Exod. xxv. 40,) and not in a words of his friend, so there was strength in dark speech, (or riddle), like (that in Ezek. the mind of Moses to understand the words xvii. 2;) a great eagle with great wings, &c. of prophesy, and he stood on his place safe DARK SPEECHES,] Or, hidden speeches, rid. and well. None of the prophets prophesied dles : a dark speech is called in Heb. Chidah, at all times when they would: but Moses of sharpness, because it requireth sharpness was otherwise, for at any time when he of wit, both to propound and expound the would, the Holy Spirit clothed him, and pro- same, as we have an example in Samson's phesy came upon him; and he needed not to riddle, Judg. xiv. 13, 14, &c.; and it is of prepare his mind and make himself ready the nature of a parable, as in Ezek, xvii. 2, for it, for he was prepared and ready, and 3, 'Son of man put forth a riddle, and speak stood as the angels of ministry, therefore he a parable to the house of Israel ; a great prophesied at all times, as it is said, stand eagle with great wir long winged, full of still, and I will hear what the Lord will com- feathers which had divers colours, came unto mand concerning you,' (Num. ix. 8.) And Lebanon,' &c. And all close and hidden this God caused him to trust upon, as it is doctrine is called a riddle, Ps. xlix. 5. And said, 'but as for thee, stand thou here with the Holy Spirit translateth it in Gr. sometime me, &c. (Deut. v. 31 :) whereby thou mayest Ainigma, a riddle, 1 Cor. xiii. 12; (as the learn that all the prophets, when prophesy common Gr. version here hath,) sometime was taken up from them, returned to their hidden things,' Matt. xiii. 35; from Ps. tents, which was for things necessary to the Ixxviii. 2; and so the Chald. of Jonathan body of them all, as the rest of the people ; expoundeth it here. The apostle showeth therefore they were not separated from their the meaning of this word, when he said, wires: but Moses our master returned not to now we see through a glass in a riddle, (that bis first tent, therefore he was separated from is, darkly,) but then (we shall see) face to his wife for ever; and his mind was fast face,' I Cor. xiii. 12. THE SIMILITUDE, bound unto God the rock everlasting, and Or, the likeness, image, which the Gr. interhis glory was never taken up from upon him, preteth the glory of the Lord. Sol Jarchi but the skin of his face shined, and he was saith, “ this was the sight of (God's) backsanctified as the angels." Maim. in Misn. parts," mentioned in Exod. xxxiii. 23. And tom. i.; in Jesude haturah, chap. vii. sect. this prerogative Moses had above all Israel, 1–6. Now as the apostle compareth Christ which saw no similitude of God, Deut. iv. with Moses, and preferreth him before Moses, 12, 15; and above all prophets, who saw Heb. iii. ; so in this gift of prophesy he did no vision of God so clear as he did. For excel him; for the Lord gave him the even Moses himself could not see the face of tongue of the learned, that he knew how to God, Exod. xxxiii. 20. • No man hath seen speak a word in season,' Is, I. 4; and this he God at any time,' John i. 18 ; neither can learned not by dreams or visions, nor by see,' 1 Tim. vi. 16. AGAINST MY SERVANT, angels, nor by speech communicated mouth AGAINST MOSES,] A manner of speech both to mouth ; but by clean seeing of God, (which earnest and elegant, like that in Gen. xxi. no man ever did at any time ;) and being 10, ' with my son, with Isaac;' and that in
in the bosom of the Father,' John i. 18; 2 Sam. vii. 23, 6 like my people, like Israel.' and having the Spirit, not by measure,
he Sol. Jarchi poteth, " he saith not against testified what he had seen and heard with his my servant Moses; but against my servant, Father, John iii. 32, 34; viii, 38; and in against Moses ; against my servant though him all fulness dwelt, even the fulness of he were not Moses ; against Moses, for though the Godhead bodily,' Col. i. 19; ii. 9. be were not my servant, it were meet ye Will I speak,] That is, I usually speak : should fear before him, how much more seethe time to come is used to signify a continu- ing he is my servant ? According to this ed action. In VISION,] Or, by sight, or ap- the apostle speaketh in 2 Pet. ii. 10, they pearance, that is apparently : the Gr. trans- are not afraid to speak evil of dignities.' lateth, in an appearance or sight : which Ver. 9.—HE WENT AWAY,] Withdrew word is opposed (in 2 Cor. v. 7 ;) to faith, the sigo of his glorious presence, not vouch. which is of things not seen, Heb. xi. l; and safing to hear their answer; which was a here the Lord opposeth it to dark speeches, token of his great displeasure. so it meaneth an apparent or clear revelation, Ver. 10.-THE CLOUD DEPARTEN, ] The
off the tent; and, behold, Mary became leprous as snow: and Aaron looked upon Mary, and, behold, she was leprous.
11 And Aaron said unto Moses, Alas! my Lord, I beseech thee, lay not the sin upon us, wherein we have done foolishly, and wlierein we have sinned. I beseech thee, let her not be as one dead, of whom when he cometh out of his mother's womb, half his flesh is even consumed. 13 And Moses cried unto Jehovah, saying, O God, I beseech thee, heal her now.
" And Jehovah said unto Moses, And if her father had spitting spitted in her face, should she not be ashamed seven days? let her be shut seven days out from the camp ; and after let her be gacloud of the g'ory of the divine presence of the Ver. 12.-As ONE DEAD,] By continu. Lord, saith Thargum Jonathan. LEPROUS AS ance of the leprosy upon her, whereby she SNOW,] That is, leprous white as snow ; and should be shut out of the communion of the this was the sorest leprosy, and most incur- church, Num. v. 2; should defile all that able, see Exod. iv, 6; 2 Kings v. 27; and touched her as do the dead ; and in the end they that had this disease, were put out of be consumed, and die utterly with that fretthe Lord's camp as unclean, Lev. xiii. ; and ting plague, as the words following show, therefore God departed now away, for (as The Chald. expoundeth this verse thus ; "Det Chazkuni here saith,) “ It is not the way of her not now be separated from among us, for the earth, that holiness should stay in an un- she is our sister: pray now for this dead flesh clean place.” This punishment was very that is in her, that it may be healed.” Is memorable, both for the suddenness and sore- EVEN CONSUMED,] Or, is even eaten, to wit, ness of it ; wherefore it is after said, “re- with the disease: and by coming out of his member what Jehovah thy God did unto mother's womb, the Gr. understandeth and Mary by the way, after that ye were come translateth, an untimely birth and coming forth out of Egypt,' Deut. xxiv. 9. And if out, &c. for as of such a dead birth the flesh God did thus unto so great a woman for is half consumed, so is the flesh of a leper. Moses' sake, what will he do to such as rebel VER. 13.-CRIED OUT,] That is, as the against Christ, who is counted worthy of Chald. translateth, prayed, but earnestly, and more glory than Moses,' Heb. iii. 3.
as grieved for her athliction; so the word if they escaped not, who refused him that usually signifieth. O God,] Hebr. Æl, spake on earth; much more shall not we es.. which is one of God's names, signifying his cape if we turn away from him that speaketh might, and including his mercy; as is noted from heaven,' Heb. xii. 25. For Christ is on Gen, xiv. 18. So in Thargum Jonathan, not the servant, but the Son, even • the it is here explained, “ And Moses prayed, Lord from heaven, 1 Cor. xv. 47.
and besought mercy before the Lord, saying, Ver. 11.-ALAS, MY LORD,] Or, Oh, my I beseech for mercy of the merciful God, I lord, Heb. unto me, to wit, have respect; the beseech God that hath power of the spirits of Chald. explaineth it, we pray thee, my lord: all flesh, heal her I beseech thee," see this phrase in Gen. xliii. 20. Aaron as Ver. 14.-HAD SPITTING SPITTED,] That unworthy of access himself unto God now is, had but spitted, to wit, in anger.
The departed, maketh request unto Moses, hon- Chald. expoundeth it, had rebuked. Spitting oureth him (though Aaron himself was both on the face, is a sign of anger, shame, and the elder brother and the high priest,) with contempt, Job xxx. 10; Is. 1. 6; which, if the title of his lord, confesseth their sin against it had been from her earthly father, should him, craveth pardon ; and by Moses' media- have made her ashamed and sorrowsul seven tion, to have their sister cured. Sin,] That days: how much more now that it is from is, the punishment of sin, (as Lev. xxii. 9 ; her Father which is in heaven ? SEVEN Num. xviii. 32 ;) which he desireth that by DAYS,] So long every leper was to be shut Moses' intercession, it might not be laid upon up by the law, for every trial; and also at his them of God. WHEREIN WE HAVE DONE cleansing ; see Lev. xiii. 4, 5, 21, 26 ; xiv. FOOLISHLY,] Or, because we are become fool- viii. So long was he unclean that touched a ish: the Gr. translateth, because we have dead man, Num. xix. ll. GATHERED,] done ignorantly in that we hare sinned : in That is, received in, or as the Gr. translatwhich sense it is a lessening of their sin, as eth, enter in. So gathering is used for redone through unadvisedness and oversight, ceiving or taking in, after that one is neglectnot maliciously
ed or forsaken, Judg. xix. 15; Josh. xx. 4; thered in. 15 And Mary was shut out from the camp seven days; and the people journeyed not till Mary was gathered in again. " And afterward the people journeyed from Hazeroth, and encamped in the wilderness of Pharan. Ps. xxvii. 10. Here Thargum Jonathan was a special honour unto Mary above other addeth this paraphrase, “ And I will cause to lepers, for whom there was no such stay, stay, for thy sake, the cloud of my glory, and Num. v. 2, 4. Because this Mary was one the tabernacle, and the ark, and all Ísrael, of those whom God sent before his people, until the time that she is healed, and after- Mic. vi. 4; Exod. xv, 20. Sol, Jarchi ward she shall be gathered in."
saith, " The Lord imparted this honour unto VER. 15.- MARY WAS Shut,] In Gr. her, because she once stayed for Moses when was separated : this was an example of jus- he was cast into the river, as it is written, tice against sioners, without respect of per- And his sister stood afar off," &c. Exod. ii. 4. sons: therefore they are after desired to re- Ver. 16.-_WILDERNESS OF PHARAN,] Or, member this, Deut. xxiv. 9. And even of Paran; which had been “ Ishmael's' habikings when they were lepers, were separated, tation, Gen. xxi, 21, and the place where and dwelt apart, 2 Chron. xxvi. 20, 21. they pitched in this wilderness was called THE PEOPLE JOURNEYED NOT,] But stayed * Rithmah,' Num. xxxiii. 18, and • Cadeshmourning for her, till she was cured; which barnea,' Num. xiii, 3, 26; Deut. i. 19, &c.
1. The Lord enjoineth Muses to send one man of every tribe, to search the land of Canaan. 4. Their names and tribes. 17. Their instructions. 21. Their acts and return after forty days. 26. Their relation of the goodness of the land, and strength of the inhabitants. 30. Caleb encourageth the people, but the others discourage them, and bring up an ecil report upon the land.
פ פ פ
AND Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, "Send thou men, that they may search the land of Canaan, which I give to the sons of Israel: one man, one man for a tribe of his fathers, shall
DDD Here beginneth the thirty-seventh or at least, permitted the thing which they section of the law: see Gen. vi. 9.
desired. VER. 1.-JEHOVAH SPAKE,] By Moses' re- Ver. 2.-SEND THOU,] Or, send for thee: lation after, it appeareth, that when God had led which Sol. Jarchi expoundeth to this sense; his people from mount Horeb to Cadesh Barnea, "I command thee not; if thou pleasest, through the great and fearful wilderness, and send: forasmuch as Israel came and said, we they were come to the mountain of the Amo- will send men,” &c. Deut. i. 22. That. rites; then Moses said, 'See, the Lord thy THEY MAY SEARCH,] Or, and let them search, God hath given the land before thee; go up, or espy, by searching round about: and the possess it.
And all the people came near word implieth the action of the heart and unto Moses, and said, We will send men mind, not of the eyes only, Eccl. i. 13 ; vii. before us, and they shall search out the land 25. Thus God let them go search or espy for us, and briog us word again, by what way the land, which he himself before had espied we shall go up, &c. That word liked Moses for them,' Ezek. xx. 6, and went before them well; and, be took of them twelve men, and in the way, to search them out a place to sent them to spy out the land,' Deut. i. 19 pitch their tents in, in fire by night, and in -24. So where here it is said, “Jehovah & cloud by day, Deut. i. 33. OF CANAAN,] spake,' &c. it is not meant, that this motion That is, as the Gr. translateth, of the Cacame first from the Lord; but the people naanites: named as the chief, for it was the first spake of it to Moses, he consulted with land of seven mighty nations, Deut. vii. 1. I the Lord about it; and the Lord approved, GIVE,] Or, am giving: so he speaketh as of a
ye send every one a ruler among them. 'And Moses sent them from the wilderness of Pharan, at the mouth of Jehovah : all those men were heads of the sons of Israel. And these were their names: Of the tribe of Reuben, Shammua the son of Zaccur. Of the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat the son of Hori. Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh. Of the tribe of Issachar, Jigal the son of Joseph. Of the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea the son of Nun. 'Of the tribe of Benjamin, Palti the son of Raphu. Of the tribe of Zabulon, Gaddiel the son of Sodi.
1 Of the tribe of Joseph, of the tribe of Manasses, Gaddi the son of Susi. 12 Of the tribe of Dan, Ammiel the son of Gemalli. 13 Of the tribe of Aser, Sethur the son of Michael. 14 Of the tribe of Naphtali, Nahbi the son of Vophsi. 15 Of the tribe of Gad, Gevel the son of Machi. These are the names of the men which Moses sent thing present, for more assurance. ONE here; and sometime Joseph is named for MAN, ONE MAN,] An Hebrew phrase, mean- Ephraim, Ezek. xxxvii. 16, 19; Rev. vii. ing, of every tribe one man, excepting the 8. Here he is named as father of Manastribe of Levi, for of them none was sent; seh, who was his first-born, Josh. xvii. 1, because they were to have no inheritance in although the Heb. give another reason; the land, Deut. xviii. 1. A RULER,] Or, a namely, “ Because both of them uttered an prince ; not of the baser sort, because the ill report ; Joseph, of his brethren, (Gen. business was weighty: whereupon their re- xxxvii. 2,) and the prince of Manasseh, of bellion following was of the more note. the land: which Hoshea of Ephraim did not,”
Ver. 3.- AT THE MOUTH,] Or, accord- Chazkuni on Num. xiii. ing to the mouth, that is, the word of the VER. 13.-Setuur,] In Gr. Sadour. Lord, as the Chald, translateth; and the Gr. VER. 14.–Naubi, ] Or Nachbi; in Gr. by the voice of the Lord: and this Sol. Jar- Naabi son of Sabi. chi expoundeth, “by his permission.' So Ver. 15.-GEVEL,) In Gr. Goudiel. in the commentary called Phesikta, fol. Ver. 16.- THESE ARE THE NAMES,] Chazit is said, “The election of the spies was kuni here observeth, “He sent no spy of the according to the mouth of the Lord; not tribe of Levi, because he had no portion in that God commanded them to send them. the land." Nun,] Called also, Non, 1 If thou sayest, why did he not forbid them Chron. vii. 27, in Gr. Nave. Josuda, ] Or, to send? To accomplish their desire, and to Jehoshua, called sometime · Jeshuah,' Neh. render them their recompense, and to give viii, 17, in Gr. Jesus; and so the New Tesunto Joshua and Caleb a good reward." tament writeth him, Acts vii. 45, Heb. iv, HEADS,] That is, as the Gr. saith, chief- 8, that signifieth a “Saviour,' Mat. i. 21. rulers ; and Chazkuni expoundeth them, And this name Moses gave him by the “ captains over thousands:" as in Exod. xviii. Spirit of God; either as foreseeing that he 25.
should be his successor, and save the people Ver. 4.-SHAMMUA,] In Gr. Samiel son from their enemies the Canaanites; or, (as of Zacchour
Sol. Jarchi here noteth) praying for him, that VER. 5.-SHAPHAT,] In Gr. Saphat son the Lord would save him from the counsel of of Souri.
the (wicked) spies. But Chazkuni expoundVER. 6.-CALEB,] In Gr. Chaleb son of eth it, “ Moses had called Hoshea the son of Jephonne. See 1 Chron. iv. 15. His Nun, Joshua, not that he now first called him name signifieth hearty: and he brought Joshua, but before when he was made his Moses word again, as it was in his heart, minister, and found grace in his eyes." We Josh. xiv. 7.
find him called · Joshua,' before they came VER. 7.-JIGAL,] In Gr. Igad.
to mount Sinai, Exod. xvii. 9, and after this, VER. 8.-Hoshea,] In Gr. Auses son of when Moses is ready to die, he is called Nave.
Hoshea,' in Deut. xxxii. 44. Where Chaz.' VER. 9.–Palti,] Or, as in Gr. Phalti. kuni saith thus ; “ At the first when he was
Ver. 10.-GADDIEL,] In Gr. Goudiel son taken to be Moses' minister, Moses called of Soudi.
him Joshua; for so is the manner of kings, Ver. 11.-OF Joseph,] He was father of to change the name of their ministers, Gen. Ephraim in ver. 8, as well as of Manasseh xli. 45; Dan. i. 7. But now when he is