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The fate of Thistlewood appears to be irrecoverably sealed; but a question remains, whether there is any mercy in the fountain for any of the others. Ings urged in his defence that Edwards was the man who entrapped him into the party; and it appears evident that Edwards had gone so far into the scheme as to make it essential to justice, that he should be tried as an accomplice, or produced as an evidence for the crown. the Ministers neither punish him, nor make an evidence of him, it becomes evident that they are deeply involved in the whole

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manœuvre.

The present is one of the most gloomy moments this country ever beheld. A new reign has commenced, but by no means auspicious. There is evidently an hostile feeling between the people and the goverment. The former are oppressed, and the latter the oppressors; and should they not be disposed to conciliate and redress the injuries of the People, a civil war, with all it horrors, must be the consequence of it. The hanging and beheading a few individuals, even if it be a few hundreds or thousands, will neither allay the hostile feeling, nor terrify the people. It will only tend to open their eyes and make them more cautious who they fix on as leaders.It has ever been the practice of the government of Pitt and his adherents, to furnish the people with bad and injudicious leaders, and their own agents as often as possible. The ple begin to see this, and will soon learn the necessity of looking to themselves alone, and trusting to none but those who have been brought up amongst them, and on whom they can rely.

The peo

Dorchester Gaol, April 26th 1820.

R. CARLILE,

TO CORRESPONDENTS.

It

The Editor is sorry that Mrs. Carlile should have misunderstood the notification to A. J., respecting the sending him a copy of the Theological Works of Paine, and Palmer's Principles of Nature. was intended as a notification to that individual only, and not as a general notice. The Editor had no other means of supplying a copy to any individual further than the knowledge of a friend, who had supplied him before the trial with a few copies more than he wanted.

It is intended to make the political matter preponderate in the future numbers of the Republican, the last sheet only will be filled with theological subjects. The mind of the Editor has been so deeply involved in this latter subject of late as almost to lose sight of every other thing.

The first and second volume of the Republican may now be had in boards, at 12s.; the first 5s., the second 75. Also, may be had separate, Gibbons's five causes of the progress of the Christian Religion, at 3s. stitched.

The second volume of the Deist will be finished within a few weeks, when it is respectfully announced to the public, that its publication will be suspended until the liberation of the Editor. Subscribers are requested immediately to fill up their two first volumes.

Also may be had, a faithful representation of the attack of the Manchester Yeomanry Cavalry on the public meeting of the 16th August last, at 3s. plain, 5s. coloured.

Also a representation of the downfall of superstition, and the es tablishment of Reason, Truth and Justice, in two Plates, at 6d. caclı, Proofs 15.

We promised a short time since that the Mock Trials of the Editor should be put in progress for the completion of its publication, but Mrs. Carlile has positively refused to proceed, in consequence of the prosecution pending against her; and as we know no other possible channel for publishing it, it must be delayed for a time. lis completion will be the first object of the Editor whenever he can find the means of issuing it. It is a subject that will not lose its interest during the reign of superstition, and therefore a delay is not dangerous in this case.

ON SCEPTICISM.

I a sceptic! Heaven defend me from it! Scepticism indicates weakness of mind, and embitters the lives of many, and to many has made death terrible. I believe, and firmly believe, what reason bids me; but things of which I cannot convince myself, I leave as they are; reject them not-ridicule them not and only say, that I know nothing of the matter. With respect to our state beyond the grave, nothing can be said with certainty; he who created us alone can know whether, and how, the soul, separated from the body, can think and act. But this uncertainty disturbs me not. Was I unhappy before I was born? Why, then, should I deem myself unhappy if I must cease to be, and return to my former non-entity? I thank the Omnipotent for the boon of this short life, whether futurity be to me an eternal sleep, or a continuance of existence. If the Creator of all things has destined man to the latter, I am convinced I too shall enjoy such happiness. While this is the state of my mind, the old fellow with his scythe may come when he will; probably he will not find I shall receive him with a smile, though I certainly shall with serenity, if my machine be not so far worn out as not to be too sensible of the pain attending its destruction. T. PRICE,

William Street, Black Friars Road.

CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SPANISH

CONSTITUTION,

The Spanish Constitution consists of ten divisions, viz. The first is, On the Spanish Nation and Spaniards. The second, On the Territory of Spain, its Religion, Government, and on the Spanish Citizens. The third, On the Cortes. The fourth, On the King. The fifth, On the Tribunals and Administration of Justice in Civil and Criminal matters. The sixth, On the interior Government of the Provinces and of the the People. The seventh, On the Taxes. The eighth, On the National Military Force. The ninth, On the Public Eduration. The tenth, On the observance of the Constitution. and mode of procceding to make alterations therein.

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We shall insert every article of this celebrated document, and make our observations as we pass on. It commences thus:

"Don Ferdinand the seventh, by the Grace of God, and by "the Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, King of Spain, and in "his absence and captivity, the Regency of the Kingdom, nominat"ed by the general and extraordinary Cortes, to all to whom these presents shall appear and be heard, know ye, that the same Cortes have decreed and sanctioned the following: "Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, as Proclaimed in Cadiz, 19th March, 1812.

"6

"In the name of Almighty God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, creator and supreme legislator of society.

"The general and extraordinary Cortes of the Spanish nation, "well convinced, after the most extended examination, and mature, deliberation, that the ancient fundamental laws of this monarchy, "united with suitable regulations and precautions that may ensure completely the ends thereof, are duly adapted to the great object of promoting the glory, the prosperity, and the welfare of the whole nation, decree the following POLITICAL CONSTITUTION, for the good government and correct administration of the State."

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DIVISION I.

On the Spanish Nation and Spaniards.

CHAP. I-On the Spanish Nation.

ART. 1. The Spanish nation consists of all Spaniards of both hemispheres.

This first article was well adapted for the time it was first published, but it is scarcely probable, that any part of the old subjects of Spain, residing in South America, the Floridas, or the West Indian Islands, in the present day, will ever return to their allegiance to the Spanish monarchy. We must now look at the Spanish nation as confined to Europe, and that is a sufficient territory to be under any one government.

ART. 2. The Spanish nation is free and independent, and is not, nor cannot be, the patrimony of any person or family.

This is a noble assertion and worthy of freemen. May this feeling and those principles propagate.

ART. 3. The Sovereignty resides essentially in the nation, and the right of enacting its fundamental laws belongs exclusively to it from this same principle.

This article is purely Republican, and no government can be good for any length of time unless it be founded on this principle. The interest of a people cannot continue to be protected, unless, the laws are made by themselves or their representatives.

ART. 4. The nation is obliged to preserve and protect, by wise and just laws, the civil liberty and the property, besides all other legitimate rights, of all individuals belonging to it.

It is evident, that the state of Spain at the time of promulgating this constitution, was not fit for the establishment of religious liberty: thus we find the word omitted. However, at present it is sufficient and satisfactory that the Inquisition is abolished, and that the monasteries are to be abolished. A sure presage of future religious liberty.

CHAP. 11.-On Spaniards,

"In the first place, all free Spanish dominions, and their

ART. 5.-Those are Spaniards.men, born and dwelling in the children.

"Secondly. Foreigners who may have obtained from the Cortes let

ters of naturalization.

"Thirdly. Those who without them, reside ten years in a district, obtain it, according to the law, in any village or town of the monarchy.

"Fourthly. Manumitted freedmen, as soon as they obtain their

liberty in Spain.

In this fifth article the right of citizenship is clearly pointed out, and placed on a basis that cannot be misunderstood. breathes the purest spirit of liberty.

It

ART. 6. The love of his country is one of the principal duties of every Spaniard and also to be just and benevolent.

This article appears to me to be superfluous, because it is vague, and binds to nothing. Education and example will inculcate morality better than the laws.

ART. 7.-All Spaniards are bound to be faithful to the constitution, to obey the laws, and respect the established authorities.

This also appears to be an unnecessary injunction. It is the basis of society, and cannot be excused in the most ignorant

person.

ART. S.-All Spaniards are also bound, without any distinction whatever, to contribute, in proportion to their means, to the expences of the state.

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