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pires, met those of the Romans. Strabo has either been mistaken in this point, or has not fully expressed himself, where he describes the Parthians who defeated Craffus, as the descendants of those Carduchians, who


so much trouble to Xenophon, during the celebrated retreat of the Greeks. It is probable, or at least possible, that the Parthians might have had in their army at that time, some detachments from among those hardy mountaineers; as the Carduchi were then numbered among their subjects : but the bulk of the Parthiản army, came from Persia, their proper country. Whoever considers the flight subjection in which the Carduchians were held, even during the vigorous reigns of the first Persian Emperors, will not expect that the Parthians had many recruits from that quarter. The history of the Parthian geography is briefly this: Parthia proper, was a small province, very near to the south-east extreme of the Caspian fea; which territory, after the division of Alexander's empire, fell to the share of the Seleucidæ, Kings of Syria, and of the east, about 300 years before our æra. years after, Parthia rebelled; and together with Hyrcania, and other adjoining provinces, became an independant state, under Arfaces. As the empire of the Seleucidæ grew weaker, the Parthians extended their country westward; and the fine province of Media (now Irak-Ajami) fell to them : and within a century after the foundation of their state, it had swallowed up all the countries from the Indus to the Euphrates, Bactria included : and this province had thrown off the yoke of the Seleucidæ, long before Parthia. The Parthian conquests in Armenia, about 70 years before Christ, brought them acquainted with the Romans'; whose conquests met theirs, both in that country and in Syria. The Parthians, together with their conquests, had advanced their capital westwards; and had eilablished it on the Tigris at Seleucia, or rather Ctesiphon (near the present Bagdad) before their wars with the Romans commenced. The particulars of their first wars with the Roman people, which continued about 65 years, are too well known to be repeated, here,


About 50

had this been a proper place for it; such as the expeditions of Pompey, and Anthony; and the defeat of Crassus. On occasion of this last event, the Parthians extended their conquests further westward, but were afterwards compelled to retire: and they generally lost ground in Armenia and Mesopotamia, during the time of the Roman Emperors. Trajan penetrated to their capital; and satisfied his curiosity by embarking on the Indian sea. The moderation of Adrian restored the ancient boundary of the Euphrates. In A. D. 245, Persis, or Persia proper, which had hitherto ranked as a province of Parthia, gained the ascendency; and under Artaxerxes, put an end to the dynasty of the Arsacidæ, and restored the ancient name of Persia to the empire; after that of Parthia had existed about 480 years. So that, in fact, the Parthian empire, considered generally, was the Persian, under another name.



The Tract situated between the Kistnah River, and the

Countries traversed by the Courses of the Ganges and Indus, and their principal Branches : that is to say, the middle Parts of India.



very extensive tract is bounded on the north-east by the soubahs of Bengal, Bahar, Allahabad, and Agra; on the N W by the course of the river Puddar ; on the east and west by the sea ; and on the south by the river Kistnah or Krishnah ; and comprehends in general the soubahs of Guzerat, Malwa, Berar, Orissa, Candeish, Amednagur (or Dowlatabad) Vifiapour (or Bejapour) and Golconda. It is about 800 British miles in length from NW to SE; and 600 wide: and has in and about it, many points that are determined either by cælestial observations; or inferred from such points, by the help of surveys or good charts.

The fundamental points on which the construction and scale of this part depend, are as follows:

On the north and north-east, Agra, as determined by observations and survey (page 48); and Calpy, Chatterpour, Rewah, Burwah, and Balasore, inferred from measured lines drawn from other places of observation. On the east, Cattack, as determined by Col. Pearse, (page u). On the south, Masulipatam, as determined by Col. Pearse, and Capt. Ritchie (page 12). On the west, Bombay, by the observations of the Hon. Mr. Howe (page 31) and


Surat, Cambay, and Diu Point, inferred from charts and surveys (page 33). And in the interior parts, Narwah, Sirong, Bopaul, Huslingabad, Burhanpour, Poonah, Amedabad, by Mr. Smith's observations, and General Goddard's march: Nagpour, Ruttunpour, and Gurrah, by Mr. Ewart's observations and surveys : and Aurungabad, Hydrabad, Sumbulpour, Agimere, and Areg (near Visiapour) by miscellaneous materials. I shall proceed first, to give the authorities by which these primary stations or points, were determined ; and afterwards thew how the intermediate parts were filled up, in detail. The construction of the sea coasts, on both fides of this tract, has been already discussed, in section 1: and I shall begin my account of the construction of the inland parts, with Mr. Smith's and General Goddard's lines across the continent, from Calpy to Bombay, and Surat.

The Rev. Mr. Smith set out from Calpy with Col. Upton in 1776, on an embassy to the Mahratta Court at Poonah; and fell into the great road from Delhi and Agra to the Deccan, at the city of Narwah ; which is situated on the river Sindeh, near the entrance of a famous pass, that leads through the chain of mountains, that divide Malwa from Agra. From Narwah, he proceeded to Sirong, a city of Malwa, subject to Madadjee Sindia : and from thence to Burhanpour, the capital of Candeish; and at one period, of the Deccan also. It is yet a flourishing city; and is situated in the midst of a delightful country. In his way to this place from Sirong, he crossed the famous river Nerbuddah ; formerly the reputed boundary of the Deccan, to the north. From Burhanpour, he went to Poonah, the capital of the western Mahratta empire, crosling the heads of the Godavery and Beemah rivers in his from Poonah to Bombay. During all this route, he took observations of latitude and longitude, as often as opportunity offered'; which was not unfrequently: and with thefe, together with the intermediate bearings of the road, he constructed a map, which is. no less valuable on the score of its general accuracy, and extensive



way: and

information; than curious, by the novelty of its subject. We had then for the first time, a geographical line, on which we could depend, drawn across the continent of India, through the principal points between Agra and Poonah ; and which, by establishing so many interesting positions, has enabled us to correct several routes, which, without it, would have remained very indeterminate. Narwah, for instance, corrects the bearing and distance of the road between it, and Agra; Sirong, the road to Ougein, and Mundu ; and Burhanpour, the position of Aurungabad; and the bearing of the roads to Surat, Hydrabad, and Nagpour.

General Goddard's celebrated march from Calpy to Surat, touches on the route of Mr. Smith, at Calpy, Sirong, Bopaul, Hurdah, and Burhanpour : and the map of it, which remained in the General's possession at the time of his death, was said to be drawn from the materials furnished by the field engineers; who measured the distances, and took the bearings of the road, the whole way. On a comparison of the difference of longitude shewn by this map, with that resulting from Mr. Smith's observations, the difference was 6' 35"; the measured line giving so much more than the obfervations.

ó 15°

General Goddard's map gave the miles of westing,

between Calpy and Sirong 109, or difference

of longitude And from Sirong to Burhanpour 96 , miles of west

ing, or difference of longitude

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