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ILLUSTRATIONS

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Manikarnika Ghât

Frontispiece
A Vyas, or Public Reader, at Benares
The Coronation of Râma and Sita
Site of Deer-Park, excavated 1905 ·
Miniature Votive Shrine, excavated at Sarnath, 1903, showing the

sikra crowned by the amålika ornament
Model of a Nepalese Buddhist Temple •
The Asoka Column, marking the place where Buddha began to

preach. Discovered at Sarnath, 1905
Buddha Preaching. Discovered at Sarnath, 1904 •
Carving on the Dhamek Stupa
Excavations below Humayun's Tower, Sarnath, 1905
Shiva, as Natesa. From a bronze in the Madras Museum
The Goddess Durgå---a fresco painting
A Benares Street
A Village Temple in Bengal
Gâi Ghât-A Classic Group
An old Sacrificial Vessel
An old Benares Brocade
An old Benares Lota
Temple at Dasâsamedh Ghât.
"Lighting up the recesses of the cave-like shrines
A Sannyâsi's Water-Vessel
A Shivaite Rosary

He will sit like a living Buddha, motionless”
The Burning Ghát -

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Page Dasâsamcdh Ghât ·

107 The 'Temple of Sitala

114 A Sanskrit School

116 Carved Snakes at Chauki Ghât

118 An Aghori A Suttee-Stone Another venerable hermit, seated on a leopard's skin".

123 Shivala Ghất

127 Balcony of Man Singh's Observatory

129 The Nepalese Temple

131 The Shrine of Ganga

133 “Groups of women ... are performing puja”.

· 135 “ Like a painted frieze from Pompeii, or the decoration of an antique

139 Scindhia Ghât

141 An Encainpment of Sådhus

145 The Buildings at Ghôsla Ghât

147 The Head of Bhima

148 Bhima completed

149 Lamps for the Pitris

151 Lamp-stand at Panchganga

152 “Three old women, who pause to barter with a seller of pots and

pans, unconsciously posing themselves in their classic drapery
like the Fates, or the Weird Sisters”

153 Palhvad Ghât

156 A Vaishnavite Nun reading the Ramayana

157 The Salagram Stone

161 Plan of Hindu Roofing The Temple of Durgâ, or “Monkey Temple”.

163 Durga

167 Mask of Shiva

169 In the Ahmety Temple: a Brahmin performing his sandhya The Ahmêty Temple.

171 A Sacrificial Spoon ·

175 The Temple at Ramnagar

· 178 Mask of Bhaironath

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170 ILLUSTRATIONS

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Page Ganesha

. 181 The Well of knowledge

183 The Panch-kôsi Road

189 A Village Deity

· 190 The Temple and Tank at Khandawa

191 Ancient Carving, Khan-lawa Temple

193 “Thin vaporous clouds of smoke rise from the funeral pyres. The

slanting rays of the morning sun cast long shadows across the
chất”

195 Ancient l'otive Stones Tomb of Lal Khan

203 " An idyll of peace and self-satisfactica

207 Panchyanga

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CHAPTER I

IN THE VEDIC TIMES

History, in the conventional European sense, has never possessed much interest for the Hindu mind. Thoroughly permeated with the idea of the unreality of material things, the Brahmin priesthood, while taking extraordinary precautions to preserve their inheritance of spiritual culture, have never troubled themselves to mark the footprints which kings and dynasties leave upon the sands of time. It is chiefly through the exertions of European scholars, with the help of the old Buddhist records, that the main outlines of Indian history, previous to the Muhammadan invasions, have been made intelligible.

The detailed history of the petty kingdoms into which northern India was divided would probably possess little interest, even if it were sisted out of the wild legends which Eastern imagination has woven into it. Benares will always possess supreme interest as the chief centre of the evolution of two of the great world-religions — Brahminism and Buddhism; but while the development of Buddhism can be, to some extent, traced and mapped out with exact dates and events, the history of Brahminism must always be regarded from a different stand-point.

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