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about equal to the British Islands, Spain, and Turkey in Europe. I have here called the tract which lies on the south of the Kistna river, the peninsula ; in conformity to general practice ; although its form does by no means warrant it. The term Deccan, which fignifies the south, is applied (as before-said) in its most extensive signification, to the whole region that lies on the south of Hindoostan proper : I apprehend, however, that in its proper and limited fense, it means only the countries situated between Hindoostan proper, the Carnatic, the western sea, and Orissa: that is, the provinces of Candeish, Dowlatabad, Visiapour, Golconda, and the western part of Berar.
The term INDIA, by which this country, as far as it was known, is distinguished in the earliest Grecian histories, appears to be derived from Hind, the name given it, by the ancient Persians ; through whom, doubtless, the knowledge both of the country and its name, were transmitted to the Greeks. We have the strongest assurances from Mr. Wilkins, that no such words as Hindoo, or HINDOOSTAN, are to be found in the Sanscrit Dictionary. pears that the people among whom the Sanscrit language was vernacular, styled their country BHARATA*; a name, which is, I believe, quite novel to the ears of the learned in Europe. It is probable then, that the word Hind furnished that of India, to the Greeks : and the termination stan, signifying country in the Perfic, is of more modern date : for we find it joined to many of the ancient Persian names of countries; as to Dahæ, whence Dahestan:
See the notes to the Heetopades cr Fables, recently translated from the Sanscrit (or San. screet) by Mr. Wilkins, page 332. This gentleman has the merit of being the firit European who acquired the knowledge of the Sanfcrit language : which was that of ancient Hindoottan (or Bharata) but which cealed to be the vernacular tongue, soon after the Mahomedan conquest, in the 17th century
A few years ago, it was known only to the Pundits or learned Bramios; who religiously kept it from the knowledge of all but their own order : it being the facred de positary of their religious institutions, and mysteries ; and which it was inconvenient to communicate to the vulgar, otherwise than through the medium of their own comments, and interpretations. The honour dune Mr. WILKINS on this occasion, reminds us of the communicarione made to HERODOTUS, by the Egyptian Priests: and it is a fair.inference, that the personal merit of both of these men, had a principal fare in obtaining so distinguished a preference.
and Tapuri,"is Taberi-Stan; Corduene, Curdi-Atan : together with many others. It has happened in the application of this name, INDIA, as on fimilar occasions ; that is to say, it has been applied, not only to the country originally designed by it, but to others adjacent to, and beyond it * : for the countries between Hiņdooftan and China, came to be called the furtber India; or India vextra Gangem: whereas, Hind, or India, properly belonged only to the country of the people called Hindoos ; or those of India intra Gangem. The name is as ancient as the earliest profane history extant: and this
may serve among many other instances, to prove the high antiquity of the Persian language. 4: India has in all ages excited the attention of the curious, in almoft every walk of life. Its rare products and manufactures, engaged that of the merchants; while the mild and inoffensive religion of Brama, and the manners inculcated by it, attracted thơ notice of philofophers. The structure of its language too, is remarkable ; and has a claim to originality. It had been happy for the Indians, if they had not attracted the notice of a class of men more inimical to the happiness of mankind : for the softness and effeminacy induced by the climate, and the yielding nature of the soil, which produces almost spontaneously, invited the attacks of their more hardy neighbours; and rendered them an easy prey to every foreign invader. Hence we find them successively conquered by the Persians, Patans, and Moguls : and it is probable, that, like the Chinese, they have seldom had a dynasty of kings, from among their own countrymen. The accounts of 22 centuries ago, repre- .. fent the Indians as a people who stood very high in point of civili-. zation: but to judge from their ancient monuments, they had not:
The term Lybia belonged at first only to the countries of Africa, that were colonized by the Greeks: but was afterwards applied by them to the whole continent. The Romans, in a : fimilar manner, extended the name of AFRICA, which originally belonged only to the terri. tories of Carthage, to the whole continent : or, at leak, to as much as they knew of it., Asia was applied at first only to Natolia ; which took the name of LESSER Asia, afterwards, when Asia was applied to all the known parts of that continent.
carried the imitative arts to any thing like the degree of perfection attained by the Greeks and Romans, or even by the Egyptians. Both the Hindooś and Chinese appear to have carried the arts just to the point requisite for useful purposes ; but never to have
approached the fummit of perfection, as it respects taste, or boldness of defign.
The principal monuments of Hindao fuperftition are found in the peninsula. Some have concluded from this, and from other circumftances, that the original feat of the Hindoo religion, was there. Others, perhaps with more appearance of probability, suppose it to have originated on the banks of the Ganges. :: Monuments af a fuperftition, apparently anterior to the Hindoo, exist in the caves of Salfette and Elephanta, two islands on the western coast of India : these consist of apartments of extenfive dimensions, excavated from the live rock, and decorated with figures and columns.
India was but little known to the Greeks until Alexander's expedition, about 327 years before Chrift. HerodOT US, who wrote about 113 years before, appears to have heard but indistinály, of any but the western part of it; and that only, by its being tributary to Perfia. He informs us (Book IV.) that Darius Hyftalpes had dispatched Scylax of Caryandra to explore the Indus, about 508 years before Chrift; i and that the departed from Cafpatyrus and Pattya, which were fituated near the head of the Indus. Herodotus continues to say, - that the Indians who inhabit towards the north, and border on these territories of Cafpatyrus and Pactya, resemble the Bactrians, (that is, their neighbours) in manners :* and are the most valiant people of all India. The eastern part of India, fays he, is rendered desert by, fands :. which defcription applies only to the country lying east of the Indus, and south of the PANJAB*. and this thews pretty evidently, that Herodotus's knowledge of India, as to particulars, extended no further, than to the above tract: and a collateral proof, is, that he does not mention
* The country watered by the 5 eastern branches of the Indus. See page 80 of the Memoir.
the Ganges, which became so famous, a century afterwards. Indeed, he tells us very plainly, that this fandy desert, was the extreme point of his knowledge eastward.
With respect to Scylax's discoveries, this is Herodotus's account. “ Darius being desirous to know in what part, the Indus (which is the second river that produces crocodiles) runs into the sea, sent Scylax of Caryandra, with others of approved fidelity, to make the discovery. They departed in divers ships from Caspatyrus, and the territories of Pactya *; failed down the river, eastward to the sea ; and then, altering their course to the west, arrived in the 30th month, at that place, where the King of Egypt (Nechao) had caused the Phenicians I mentioned before, to embark in order to surround the coast of Lybia (Africa). After this fubdued the Indians, and became master of that fea.” Herod. Book ĮV. In another place, in the fame book, he takes notice of some Indian nations, situated to the southward, very remote from the Perfian conquests; and whose complexions were as black as Ethiopians : these ought to be the people of the peninsula. He had also learned that they killed no animals, but contented themselves with the produce of the earth : that they exposed those whom they deemed too ill to recover ; lived chiefly upon rice ;, had horses. of a smaller breed than their western neighbours; and that they manufactured their fine cotton wool in cloathing.
Now, after the above account of Scylax's expedition, can we give credit to the story of Alexander's supposing that he had discovered the head of the Nile, when he was at the Indus? Are we to suppose that Aristotle concealed the books of Herodotus from his pupil ? Or, on the contrary., ought we not rather to believe,, that the matter of them was on his mind : and that the discoveries of Scylax, made within 1.80 years of his own time, and of a kind,
I conclude that Partya,, is the modern Pekkely. See pages 1o8 and 116 of the Memoir. some ve fuppofed Cajpatyrus to mean Calimeri : but this is improbabic, from its situation, which is remote from the Indas,
that particularly interested him ; were detailed to him ; when we find them given incidentally in Herodotus ?
The story of Alexander's surprise at seeing the tides in the Indus, appears to me equally improbable ; seeing that the same Herodotus (Book II.) speaks very particularly of the tides in the Red sea; and describes them as being not only strong, but ebbing and flowing every day. (That most intelligent and ingenious traveller, M. Volney, informs us, that the tide ebbs and flows three feet and a half at Suez). “ Arrian takes no notice of the tides until Alexander's fleet had arrived near the mouth of the river. It is trne, that the tide in the Indus does not go up so high, as in other rivers of equal bulk, and that run on so sinall a descent; but nevertheless, as the tide is perceptible at '50 or 60 miles above the river's mouth *, we may conclude that it could hardly escape the notice of Alexander and his people, in their voyage from Pattala to the sea : supposing they had not been apprized of the circumstance. Besides, Arrian's account of the coming in of the tide, which did so much mischief to the fleet, is descriptive of the Bore, or füdden influx of the tide, in a body of water, elevated above the comnion surface of the sea ; such as occurs in the Ganges, &c.” He says, those ships that lay upon the fand, were swept away by the fury of the tide ; while those that stuck in the mud, were set afloat again without damage. To the generality of readers, no reason will appear, why the circumstances of the ships should be different, in the mud, and on the fand: the fact is, that the bottoms of channels, in great rivers, are müddy; while their shallows are formed of fand: and it is the nature of the bore, to take the shortest cut up a river'; instead of following the windings of the channel : consequently, it must cross the sand banks it meets in its way; and will also prove more destructive to whatever it meets with aground, than what is afloat.
• The tide in the Indus is perceptible at about 65 miles above its mouth; according to the information of Mr. Callander, who resided a considerable time at 'Tatta, near the head of the delta of the Indus. In the Ganges the tides are perceptible at 240 miles yp: and in the river Amazons, at 600,