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Lucknow is the present capital of Oude, having superseded the late capital Fyzabad, on the occasion of the Rohilla and other conquests; which left it rather in a corner of the kingdom, as it is now constituted, and in that corner the farthest removed from the scene of business. It is a very ancient city, and moderately extensive : but after the short account given above of the nature of the ordinary buildings, a city may very suddenly be augmented on its becoming a royal residence: and Fyzabad of course may have declined. A small river, named the Goomty, runs under Lucknow, and communicates with the Ganges; but this last river is at least 43
miles to the S W of Lucknow. With respe& to Calcutta, it is distant by the nearest road, 650 miles; and about 280 from Delhi. All is one vast plain from Lucknow to the mouth of the Ganges.
Fyzabad lies on the river Gogra, a very large river from Thibet, and is situated about 80 miles to the eastward of Lucknow, and 560 from Calcutta. It is a very large city, and nearly adjoining to it, is the very ancient city of Oude or Ajudiah. "Fyzabad was the capital of the Nabob of Oude, till within these few years; but it was an inconvenient situation, even before the Rohilla conquest.
Jionpour is a small city on the Goomty river, about 40 miles to the N W of Benares, and in the road from that city to Fyzabad.
Corah, or Corah-Jehenabad is a sınall city in the Doab or country between the two rivers Ganges and Jumnah. Both this city and Jionpour, are within the Nabob of Oude's dominions.
Bereilly is the capital of Rohilcund, which was added to the dominions of Oude, in the year 1774. It is but a small city and situated about half way between Lucknow and Delhi.
The city of Agra *, as I have said before, is situated at the western extremity of the tract under discussion; and on the south bank of the Jumna river, which is very feldom fordable. This
• Latitude 27° 15', longitude 78° 29' by Claud Bcudier : 78° 28' in the map.
city appears to have been during the late century, and in the beginning of the present, the most splendid of all the Indian cities; and at this time exhibits the most magnificent ruins. About the year 1566, the Emperor Acbar, liking its situation, made it his capital, and
gave his name to it : fince which, it is often named Acbarabad. It was then a small fortified town; but it soon sprung up to an extensive well built city, regularly fortified according to the Indian method, and with a fine citadel of red free-stone. Perhaps it has seldom happened, that a city of such great extent and magnificence has declined fo rapidly. If Ptolemy, by Agara, meant Agra, it is certainly a place of great antiquity ; but he has not placed Agara in the situation where we should look for Agra, Biana or Baniana seems to have immediately preceded it, as the capital of the province now called Agra, and which was originally included in the kingdom of Canoge.
The Tract occupied by the Course of the River. Indus and
its principal Branches : with the adjacent Countries on the South and East, as far as the Cities of AGRA, and AGIMERE;; and the River PUDDAR.
HIS part comprehends in general the foubahs or provinces
of Lahore, Moultan, and Sindy; with the northern parts of Agimere, and the western parts of Agra and Delhi: and is about 700 B. miles in length from N E to SW; and from 550 to 350 in 'width. It is bounded on the east by Mount Sewalic, and by an imaginary line drawn from Hurdwar to Agra; on the fouth by the great road leading from Agra to Agimere, and by the river Puddar; on the west by the Arabian sea, and Perfia; and on the north-by Cabul and Cashmere.
Delhi, the nominal capital of Hindoostan at present, and the actual capital during the greatest part of the time since the Mohan medan conquest, has its position determined by observations of latin tude and longitude ; which observations accord both with the maps, and with the popular estimation of its distance, from the nearest points in the surveyed tract, mentioned in the last section.
We first hear of Delhi, as the capital of Hindoostan, about the year 1200," It is reported to have been founded by Delu *, about 300 years before our æra ; and I believe should properly be written
• Ferifhta. The Ayin Acbarce fays that the ancient name of Delhi, was Inderput. K
!: ! Debly. Althaugh a more extensive and populous city than Agra, it was not so well built. · Shah Jehan, grandson of Acbar and father of Aurengzebę, made this city his residence, and directed it to be called Shahjehanabad; apd by this kind of vanity, it happens, that most of e Indian cities have a plurality of names : which occaLions great confusion, when it becomes necessary to trace any event to a high period of antiquity.
Delhi, which is now situated on the right, or western bank of the Jumna, anciently stood on the opposite bank. It is difficult to ascertain the true measure of extent of this city, which was said to contain, during the latter part of the last century, two millions of inhabitants. It is certain, that the account given by Bernier, who had good opportunities of being informed, and who deserves the greatest credit for veracity, does not justify so high a calculation of its inhabitants. His account was indeed written in 1663, only four years after the acceffion of Aurengzebe : and it is well known that under his reign, both the empire and capital were greatly augmented. Bernier, I fay, estimated the circumference of Delhi, at three leagues only, reckoning what, was within the fortifications ;:, besides which; he defcribes several fuburbs, but altogether, no extraordinary extent fór a capital city in India. He describes Agra as being considerably larger. After the plunders and massacres that it has been subject to, since the decline and downfall of the Mogul empire, we may expect it to be reduced very low: and accordingly, it is spoken of by late travellers as a city of moderate extent; and even for an Indian
ill built. : Claud Boudier found the latitude of Delhi to be 28° 37', and its longitude 77, 40'..; A M. map communicated by Mr. Hastings, and which includes fome principal roads in the Dooab, between Furruckabad, Matura, Anopelheer, and Delhi; gives 51 G. miles of westing from Anopesheer, the nearest point in the survey to Delhi ; and 16 of northing: and this agrees perfectly with the obfervation of longitude, and comes within one minute of the latitude. Delhi is also 40 computed coffes from Ramgaut, another x Stappravi that ancient Delhi otood on the some one of the Jamnapoint with the mesent city of that name B.
point in the survey; but this would place it 4 miles further to the ealt than the observation. It is placed according to the observation, and the distance from Anopesheer. Beyond Delhi, westwards, there are no points determined mathematically, by which the length and direction of the route can be ascertained ; except the computed distances between places; and some latitudes and longitudes, taken with little precision, if we may judge by a comparison of some of the observations from the same catalogue, with those taken by Eupeans. For instance, the latitude of Jion pour and Burhanpour are from 21 to 25 miles too far north, in the Ayin Acbaree; Oude, 35 too far north; and Delhi, 22 too far south. We have therefore little reason to suppose that any of the others are much nearer the truth ; nor is there any rule to guess on which side the error lies. The longitudes are still more vague ; as for instance:
By the A. A. By the Map The difference of longitude be
3° 28' | 4° 48' tween Delhi and Oude is Delhi and Jionpour
Here the medium of the difference is 10 minutes too liale, in each degree..
In these places, although the longitudes in the map are not determined with precision, we may still perceive that the Ayin Acbaree is not exact. From such kind of materials, nothing very accurate can be expected : and therefore. I have never had recourse to them but in a very few cases, where every other species of information has failed.