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wise be discriminated. The upper part of the delta is well cultivated, and yields abundance of rice.

From the ideas generally entertained concerning the nature, and treatment of camels, it would not be expected that this delta, and especially that part of it, neare to the sea, should be set apart for the breeding of those animals. It is, however the cafe ; and the tender parts of the brush-wood serve them for fodder.

It is a remarkable circumstance that the tide should not be visible in this river, at a greater distance than 60 or 65 miles from the sea. The bores are high and dangerous in the mouths of the river: (See the Introduction page xxiv.)

. of The breadth of the Ritchel branch is estimated at one mile, just above the tide ; and at Tatta, at only half a mile *. It is certain that the Indus is very conliderably less than the Ganges. The velocity of its current, is estimated at 4 miles per hour, in the dry season ; which I should suppose to be over-rated, unless the declivity be much more than I have an idea of: though - indeed, the short course of the tide, upwards, seems to require some fuch cause.

The province of Sindy in many particulars of foil and climate, and in the general appearance of its surface, refembles Egypt: the lower part of it being composed of rich vegetable mould, and exo tended into a wide delta ; while the upper part of it, is a narrow dip of country, confined on one side by a ridge, or ridges of mountains, and on the other by a fandy desert; the river Indus, equal at least to the Nile, winding through the midst of this level valley, and annually overflowing it. During great part of the SW monfoon, or at least in the months of July, August, and part of September, which is the rainy seafon in most other parts of India, the atmosphere, is here generally clouded, but no rain falls, except very near to the sea. Indeed very few showers fall during the

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pririnin Hamilton reckoned it a mile broad, in 1699; and fays it was 6 fathom deep, and that the inundations are in April, May, and June.


whole year. Capt. Hamilton fays, that when he visited Tatta, no" rain had fallen for 3 years before. Owing to this, and to the neighbourhood of the fandy deserts, which bound it on the eart, and on the north-west, the heats are fo violent, and the winds from those quarters so pernicious, that the houses are contrived fo as to be occasionally ventilated by means of apertures on the tops of them, resembling the funnels of small chimnies. When the hot winds prevail, the windows are closely shut, by which the hottest

part of the current of air (that nearest the surface, of course) is excluded : and a cooler part, because more elevated, descends into the house, through the funnels. By this means also, vast clouds of dust are excluded, the entry of which alone would be sufficient to render the houses uninhabitable. The roofs are composed of thick layers of earth, instead of terraces. Few countries are more un wholsome to European constitutions : particularly the lower part of the delta.


°; Sindy extends along the course of the Indus from its embouchure to Behker or Bhakor on the frontiers of Moultan; and may be reckoned at least

300 B. miles in length, that way. Its breadth is very irregular : it may be about 160 miles in the widest part. On the N E, lie the territories of the Seiks; and on the north, those of the King of Candahar ; on the west is Makran *, a province of Persia, whose Prince is tributary to the King of Candahar. A fandy desert bounds Sindy on the east, and extends the whole way from the territory of Cutch, to the confines of Moultan; being near 550 B. miles in length, and from 100 to 150 wide. P. Wendell in his account of the Rajpoot's country (or Rajpootana) says, that the country begins to grow fandy, immediately on the west of Agimère : fo that the desert must be exceedingly wide in that part. This is the fandy desert mentioned by Herodotus. See page xxii

• Makran, or Mocran, is the ancient GEDROSIA. One of its modern names is Ketch or Kedge, and is often prefixed to the other, as Ketch-Makran. If Ketch was in use anciently, it is likely to have given birth to the name Gedrofia.

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of the Introduction. The fort of Ammercot, the retreat of the Emperor Humaioon, and the birth place of his son Acbar (page lvii) is situated within this defert. In the Ayin Acbaree, it is claffed as belonging to the Nufserpour, divifion, of the province of Sindy : Ferithta reckons it about 100 coffes from Tatta. reasonably be supposed that this desert contains many habitable tracts or islands, within it, like the OASIS * of the Lybian deferts.

The city of Tatta, the position of which we have described above, was, in the last century, very extensive and populous, and was a place of great trade ; possessing manufactures of filk, carmania wool, and cotton: and was also celebrated for its cabinet ware. Little of these now remain ; and the limits of the city are very much circumscribed. On the shores of the Indus, above the delta, conliderable quantities of falopetre are made: and within the hilly tract, which commences about three miles on the NW of Tatta, are found mines of iron, and salt. The ruins of a city, supposed to be Braminabad, lie within 4 miles of Tatta.

The river Indus and its branches, admit of an uninterrupted navigation from Tatta to Moultan, Lahore, and Cashmere, for versels of near 200 tons; and a very extensive trade was carried on between those places, in the time of Aurungzebe : but at present very little of this trade remains, owing to a bad government in Sindy; and probably to the hostile dispolition of the Seiks, the prefent poffeffors of Moultan and Lahore. Capt. Hamilton says that boats came from Lahore to Tatta, in 1 2 days. Had Ferose’s canali been completed, there would have been an inland navigation from Tatta to Bengal, and Affam. (See page 72.).

The reader will recollect that Nadir Shah, in 1739, obtained cession of the province of. Sindy, as well as the rest of the Indian provinces, lying on the west of the Indus: and he even visited


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Tatta., Abdalla, when he feized on the provinces, which com, pore the

present empire,, retained the sovereignty of Sindy also : and the Prince of this province, is accordingly, tributary to the present King of Candahar, Timur Shah *. The Prince is a Mahomedan, and of Abaffynian extraction : his usual place of residence is at the fort of Hydrabad, situated on the Indus, not far above the head of the delta; and in the neighbourhood of the city of Nuslerpour. The Hindoos, who were the original inhabitants of Sindy, and were reckoned to outnumber the Mahomedans, in the proportion of 10 to 1, in Capt. Hamilton's time, are treated with great rigour by their Mahomedan Governors; and are not permitted to erect any pagodas, or other places of worship: and this severity, drives vast numbers of them into other countries.

The gentleman from whom I had my information concerning the delta of the Indus, &c. went up the Indus as far as the city of Bhakor (or Behker) which is about two-thirds of the way to Moul

He observed the moveable towns or villages on the banks of the river (noticed by Nearchus, and the Ayin Acbaree : fee Introduction page xxx). Some of these are the habitations of fishermen, and others of graziers: and they are constantly changing their positions like a camp. Few rivers abound more with fish than the Indus does ; and among these, are some very delicious forts.

Among the various tribes, that inhabit the hilly tracts bordering on the western side of the Indus, there is according to my friend's account, one of the name of Nomurdy. They are of the Mahomedan religion ; are freebooters, and very troublesome to the villagers, and travellers. The Ayin Acbaree also takes particular notice of this tribe; and states its strength to be 7000 infantry, and 300 horsemen (about the year 1560). This being a part of the tract


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Mr. Fraser, in his account of Nadir Shah, gives a copy of the partition treaty, by which the Nulla Sunkra, or Sunkra river was to be the common boundary between Hindoottan and the Persian provinces, near the mouth of the Indus. It may then', be inferred, that the ea tern branch of the Indus is named the Sunkra river.


named INDO-Scythia by the ancients, a doubt arises whether they may not be the descendants of the Scythian NOMADES; if the Scythians on the borders of Mount Imaus, did really call themselves by that name; and that it was not a term applied to them by the Greeks *, alone. It may also be a question whether the graziers abovementioned, may not have derived their custom of moving their habitations, from Scythian ancestors : for the custom, as far as I know, does not prevail in the rest of India.

The upper part of the course of the Indus, is taken from M. D’Anville's map of Asia; as I know of no better authority. The towns on its banks are taken chiefly from the itinerary, mentioned in page 68; as is also the point of conflux of the Setlege (or Suttuluz) with the Indus. The latitude of Behker is given at 27° 12' in this itinerary, which I have corrected to 27° 32'; for reasons given in pages 68 and 80. Finding Hajykan mentioned as one of the districts belonging to Sindy, in the Ayin Acbaree, and it being very clear that a large province of the same name, lies on the west of the Indus opposite to Moultan, I can no otherwise reconcile these two accounts, than by supposing that Hajykan extends southward, along the Indus, until it meets the borders of Sindy; and that a small part of it was subject to Sindy. In this case, the province of Behker must be confined chiefly to the east fide of the Indus. No part of Hajykan is. reckoned to belong either to Moultan or Candahar ; in the Ayin Acbaree:

Cutch, is a territory of considerable extent, situated on the southcaft of Sindy; the eastern branch of the Indus separating the two

• The following passage occurs in M. D'Anville's Eclaircissemens Géograpbiques furla Carte de l'Inde, p: 42

“ On ignore le temps auquel les Scythes sont venus occuper le Sindi. Dans le Périple de la mer Erythrée , la ville de Minnagara, la même que Mansorat, eft qualifiée de capitale de la Scythie. Denys Périegète dit, que les Scythes méridionaux, habitent sur le fleuve Indus. Eustathe les nomme Indo-Scythes : & ce que Ptolémée appelle Indo-Scythie remonte le long de l'Indus jusqu'au fleuve Coas I.

• The Arabian fea, or sea of Omman.
+ Bhakor or Behker, is the same with the ancient Mansora-Ayin Acbaree.

| That which runs by Nagaz, and falls into the Indus a confiderable distance below Attock ; and which, according to my idea, is the Hir of the Persians,


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