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ment in determining the general bearing of it, further than that we may

conclude it to be to the westward of Sanore-Bancapour, because the road from Hydrabad, leads through it; and as the Sanore river (the Toom) was crossed 9

cosses beyond Bancapour, it may probably bear to the northward of west from it, as the rivers in that

part, run to the southward of east (see the map). The distance between Hydrabad and Bancapour (133 coffes) determines the scale of cofles to be at the rate of 39: to a degree ; so that Chinnaputtun is about 56 G. miles from Sanore-Bancapour; most probably, in a WNW direction. We learn one interesting particular, if true, from this route; which is, that the Nizam's territories extend 31 coffes beyond Bancapour.

Bisnagur, or Bijinagur, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Narsinga, is situated near the western bank of the Tungebadra river, and about 30 miles SE or SSE from Bancapour. It was visited by Cæfar Frederick in 1567; and was then a very large city. He reckons it 8 days journey from Goa, which, by the calculation in page 207, should be 144 G. miles ; but it is only 130 by construction. We are told by Ferishta, that Bijinagur was founded by Belaldeo, King of the Carnatic, in 1344. The Carnatic then, included the whole peninsula ; or at least, all that lay to the east of the Gauts. Our histories of the Deccan and Carnatic are very imperfect; and at this day we can hardly distinguish between the kingdoms of Bisnagur and Narsinga; and whether they were two successive, or two coexisting kingdoms. It appears probable, however, that in the 16th century, the kingdom of Bisnagur included the greatest part of the peninsula ; and that on the invasion of the King of Visiapour, and other northern Princes of the Deccan, the King of Bisnagur retired, first to Penuconda and then to Kandighery (or Chandegheri) but still preserved his ancient title of Bisnagur. In 1599, Kandegheri was the residence of a Hindoo King, whose dominion extended over Tanjore and Madura ; and Ee 2


in 1640, a descendant of this Prince reigned there: and permitted the English to settle at Madras.

Ranni-Bedalore, as well as the heads of the Tongebadra river, are' from M. D'Anville. We know generally, that this river is formed out of several smaller ones, that issue from the eastern side of the Gauts, in and about the Bednore country. Further down, it paffes Bisnagar (as is faid above, although Cæfar Frederick calls the river of Bisnagar, Nigonden) and between that and the Kistna, it receives the Hindenny, or Endri river, which passes by Adoni ; as well as several finaller rivers. The general course of the Tungebadra is represented in the map of M. Bussy's northern marches : and that of the Hindenny is marked more particularly, in the map of his southern marches, by D'Anville. It is also described in the map communicated by Mr. Sulivan, as passing under Chitteldroog, Rydroog, Chitrigally, &c.

M. Buffy's route from Seringapatam to Adoni and Rachore is not to be found in the map of his other marches. Those who cast their eyes on that naked part of the map, will regret its being wanting

The route from Goa to Galgala is from Mr. Dalrymple's collection; and appears to have been travelled by some Portuguese, who visited Aurungzebe's camp on the Kistna, in the latter part of the laft century; or early in the present.

The environs of Goa and the country to the foot of the Gauts, are from a Portuguese MS. It is from Goa only, if from any quarter, that we are to expect the geography of the 'tract between the Gauts, Visiapour, and Adoni ; and which yet remains almost a perfect void, in the map.

The general courses of the rivers in the peninsula, indicate that a ridge of high land runs directly across it, from Calaftri to Mangalore: but if we are' to trust report, the country has not a hilly appearance between the Gauts and Bangalore; but that rising sud


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denly from the west, at the Gauts, it declines gradually eastward : so that the Gauts form a sort of a terrace on an immense scale.

The Gauts are marked only in certain places where the different roads cross them, or where they have been viewed from the coast. This famous Appenine, which marks, with more precifion, perhaps, than any other boundary whatever, the line of summer and winter, or rather of dry and wet; extends 13 degrees of latitude ; that is, from Cape Comorin to Surat (with the exception of the gap mentioned in page 196) at unequal distances from the coast: feldom more than 70 miles, and commonly about 40: and within one short space only, it approaches within fix miles. Although the altitude of these mountains is unknown, yet it is sufficiently great to prevent the great body of clouds from passing over them; and accordingly, the alternate N E and SW winds (called the monsoons) occasion a rainy season on one of the

lide mountains only; that is on the windward fide. It would appear, though, that clouds enough do pass over, to occasion a rainy season, at a confiderable distance to leeward, where those clouds descend: as we may suppose them to do, although at the time they passed over the Gauts, they must necessarily have been too high, and of course too light, to condense and fall in rain, there. This, I am led to consider, by Lieut. Ewart's account of the weather at Nagpour, in the very centre of India;, where the seafons differ but little from their usual course, in Bengal, and on the western side of India : that is, the $ W monsoon occasions a rainy season : but the rains are not so violent, nor of such long continuance, as in those places. At the mouth of the Godavery river and its neighbourhood, the SW monsoon occasions a rainy season also; and the Godavery is then swoln and overflows : and this part is about as far to leeward of the Gauts, as Nagpour is. It is possible, however, that the clouds

which 6

which occasion a rainy seafon at the mouth of the Godavery, may come from the east of Cape Comorin : though I rather believe the contrary, as the Cape bears SSW from it, and the reigning winds are much more westerly. The Nagpour clouds, however, must pass over the Gauts. We may, I think, conclude then, that the ridge of the Gauts shelter a particular tract only; beyond which, the light and elevated clouds that pass over it, descend in rain. Madras is within the limits of the sheltered tract, though at least 300 miles to leeward of the Gauts : Rajamundry (near the mouth of the Godavery) and Nagpour, may be about 500. It would be curious to know the exact limit of wet and dry. If I mistake not, until lately it was a general opinioni, that the Gauts extended from the northern (or Bootan) mountains to Cape Comorin ; and occasioned a diversity of seafons, at one and the same time, throughout all India. But the truth is, that different seasons exist at the same moment, only in a part of the peninsula : for the cause ceases in the parallel of Surat ; where the SW wind, no longer opposed by a wall of mountains, carries its supplies of moisture uninterruptedly, both far and near, over the whole face of the country. For some particulars refpecting the northern extremity of the Gauts, see page 179.

As the peninsula, or tract discussed in this section, contains more interesting matter than could well be comprised within the space furnished by such a scale, as could conveniently be applied to a general map, of fo large a tract as India; it was judged necessary to form another

of the peninsula, on a much larger scale: but an accident has retarded the publication. Those who may hereafter become possessed of it, will find the account of its construction in this Memoir: which is common to both maps, throughout this whole fection; and also in the first section, as far as the map of the peninfula is concerned. The scale of this map, is just double that of the general one.





The Countries between HINDOOSTAN and CHINA.


T has been said before (page 48) that the first ridge of moun.

tains towards Thibet and Bootan, form the limits of the survey to the north: to which I may now add, that the surveys extend no farther eaftward, than to the frontiers of Affam and Meckley.

The Jesuit's map of China, as given in Du Halde, places the western boundary of Yunan (the westmost of the provinces of China) between the 97th and 98th degrees of east longitude, in the parallel of 24°: so that the eastern frontier of Bengal (Silhet) is within 350 British miles of the western part of China ; or to speak comparatively, the same distance as Silhet is from Calcutta. Here one is apt to wonder, that considering their proximity to each other, there should be no communication between the two countries. The reasons probably are, that Yunan does not produce such manufactures as are in request among foreigners; and that the courses of the great navigable rivers in those parts, are unfavourable to å com munication by water. The space between Bengal and China, is occupied by the province of Meckley, and other districts, subject to the King of Burmah, or Ava.

The river Nou-Kian, little, if at all, inferior to the Ganges, runs to the south, through that angle of Yunan which approaches nearest to Bengal; where the Jesuits, who formed the map

of China, left it, in its course to the south-west. This river, M. D'Ans ville conceived to be the same with that of Pegu ; in like manner


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