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as we have adopted them, shall be in his own words. “ Among the intercolumniations there are some in the second orders extremely wide, such as the Ionic interval over the Doric aræostyle ; the Composite and Corinthian intervals over the Ionic and Composite aræostyle, which, having a weak meagre appearance, and not being sufficiently solid, excepting in small buildings, are seldom to be suffered, and should seldom be introduced. The most eligible are the eustyle and diastyle for the first order, which produce nearly the diastyle and aræostyle in the second." Speaking of the use of pedestals in orders above orders, the author thus proceeds : -“ Many architects, among which number are Palladio and Scamozzi, place the second order of columns on a pedestal. In compositions consisting of two stories of arcades this cannot be avoided, but in colonnades it may and ought; for the addition of the pedestal renders the upper ordonnance too predominant, and the projection of the pedestal's base is both disagreeable to the eye and much too heavy a load on the inferior entablature. Palladio, in the Barbarano palace at Vicenza, bas placed the columns of the second story on a plinth only, and this disposition is best ; the height of the plinth being regulated by the point of view, and made sufficient to expose to sight the whole base of the column. In this case the balustrade must be without either pedestals or half balusters to support its extremities, because these would contract and alter the form of the column ; its rail or cap must be fixed to the shafts of the columns, and its base made level with their bases; the upper torus and fillet of the columns being continued in the interval, and serving as mouldings to the base of the balustrade. The rail and balusters must not be clumsy; wherefore it is best to use double-bellied balusters, as Palladio has done in most of his buildings, and to give the rail a very little projection, that so it may not advance too far upon the surface of the column, and seem to cut into it. In large buildings the centre of the baluster may be in a line with the axis of the column; but in small ones it must be within it, for the reason just mentioned. The height of the balustrade is regulated in a great measure by its use, and cannot well be lower than three feet, nor should it be higher than three and a half or four feet. Nevertheless, it must necessarily bear some proportion to the rest of the architecture, and have nearly the same relation to the lower order, or whatever it immediately stands upon, as when a balustrade is placed thereon chiefly for ornament. Wherefore, if the parts are large, the height of the balustrade must be augmented, and if they are small it must be diminished; as is done in the Casino at Wilton, where it is only two feet four inches high, which was the largest dimension that could be given to it in so small a building. But that it might, notwithstanding its lowness, answer the intended purpose, the pavement of the portico is six inches lower than the bases of the columns, and on a level with the bottom of the plat-band that finishes the basement."

We must here leave this subject, recommending the student to an intimate acquaintance with the rarious examples that have been executed, and further advising him to test each of the examples that may fall under his notice by the principles first adverted to in this section, as the only true means of arriving at a satisfactory result.

SECT. XII.

ARCADES ABOVE ARCADES. 2653. As the disposition of one arcade upon another is, under certain regulations, subject to the same laws of voids and solids as the simple arcade of one story, which has formed the subject of a previous section, we shall no further enter into the rules of its combination than to offer a few general observations on the matter in question; and herein, even with the reproach of a want of originality, we shall draw largely on our much-quoted author, Chambers, whose language and figures we are about to use. So sound, indeed, is the doctrine of Chambers in this respect, and so well founded on what has been done by those whom we consider the greatest masters, that we should not be satisfied without transferring his dicta to these pages, and that without any alteration.

2654. “ The best,” says Chambers, “and, indeed, the only good disposition for two stories of arcades, is to raise the inferior order on a plinth, and the superior one on a pedestal, as Sangallo has done at the Pallazzo Farnese ; making both the ordonnances of an equal height, as Palladio has done at the Basilica of Vicenza.”

2655. “ Scamozzi, in the thirteenth chapter of his sixth book, says that the arches in the second story should not only be lower, but should also be narrower, than those in the first; supporting his doctrine by several specious arguments, and by the practice, as he says, of the ancient architects in various buildings mentioned by him. In most of these, however, the superior arches are so far from being narrower, that they are either equal to or wider than the inferior ones. In fact, his doctrine in this particular is very erroneous, entirely contrary to reason, and productive of several bad consequences; for if the upper arches be narrower than the lower ones, the piers must of course be broader, which is opposite to all rules of solidity whatever, and exceedingly unsightly. The extraordinary breadth of the pier on each side of the columns in the superior order is likewise a great deformity; even when the arches are of equal widths it is much too considerable. Palladio has, in the Carità at Venice, and at the Palazzo Thiene in Vicenza, made his upper arches wider than the lower ones, and I have not hesitated to follow his example ; as by that means the weight of the solid in the superior order is somewhat diminished, the fronts of the upper piers bear a good proportion to their respective columns, and likewise to the rest of the omposition."

2656. “In a second story of arcades there is no avoiding pedestals. Palladio has, indeed, omitted them at the Carità, but his arches there are very ill proportioned. The extraordinary bulk and projection of these pedestals are, as before observed, a considerable defect; to remedy which in some measure they have been frequently employed without bases, as in the theatre of Marcellus, on the outside of the Palazzo Thiene, and that of the Chiericato in Vicenza. This, however, helps the matter but little ; and it will be best to make them always with bases of a moderate projection, observing at the same time to reduce the projection of the bases of the columns to ten minutes only, that the die may be no larger than is absolutely necessary; and in this case particular care must be taken not to break the entablature over each column of the inferior order, because the false bearing of the pedestal in the second order will by so doing be rendered far more striking, and in reality more defective, having then no other support than the projecting mouldings of the inferior cornice. There is no occasion to raise the pedestals of the second order on a plinth, for as they come very forward on the cornice of the first order, and as the point of view must necessarily be distant, a very small part only of their bases will be hid from the eye."

2657. “ The balustrade must be level with the pedestals supporting the columns; its rail or cornice and base must be of equal dimensions, and of the same profile with theirs. It should be contained in the arch and set as far back as possible, that the form of the arch may appear distinct and uninterrupted from top to bottom; for which reason, likewise, the cornice of the pedestals must not return nor profile round the piers, which are to be contained in straight perpendicular lines from the imposts to the bases of the pedestals. The back of the rail may either be made plain or sunk into a panel in form of an open surbase, for so it will be most convenient to lean upon, and it should be in a line with or somewhat recessed within the backs of the piers. The back part of the balustrade may be adorned with the same mouldings as the bases of the piers, provided they have not much projection; but if that should be considerable, it will be best to use only a plinth crowned with the two upper mouldings, that so the approach may remain the inore free."

2658. In fig. 919. is a Doric above a Tuscan arcade, from the example given by Chambers, whereon, before giving the dimensions of the different parts, we shall merely observe of it that the voids or arcades themselves are in round numbers to the solids as 295 to 205, being vastly greater. We are inclined to think that the voids in this case are rather too great in volume, and that, had they been reduced to one half their height exactly, the

Fig. 919.

proportions would have been somewhat more pleasing. It is true that a trifling irregularity would have been introduced into the triglyphs of the upper order, or rather the metopæ between them; but that might have been easily provided against by a very trilling alteration in the height of the frieze itself. This fault of making the voids too large pervades Chambers's examples, and but that we might have been thought too presuming we should have slightly altered the proportions, little being requisite to bring them under the laws which we have thought to be founded on reason and analogy. We have indeed throughout this work refrained from giving other than approved examples, preferring to confine ourselves to observations on them when we have not considered them faultless.

2659. In the figure the clear width of the lower arcade is 73, and its height 144 modules. The width of each pier is 1 module. Of the upper arcade the width is 94, and the height 18.233 modules. The width of the piers is 14 module each. The height of the plinth of the lower order is i{ module, that of the column, including base and capital, 144 modules, the entablature 3. The height of the pedestal of the upper order is 3.733 modules, of the column with its base and capital 16, and of the entablature 3.733 modules. In the proportions between the voids and solids above taken the balustrade is not considered as a solid, because, in fact, it is nothing more than a railing for the protection of those using the upper story. As we have expressed our desire to give the examples of others rather than our own, we feel bound to recommend the student to set up the diagram in question, with the simple alteration of reducing the solids nearly to an equality with the voids, which may be done with sufficient accuracy by assigning to the lower arcade a module less in width than Chambers has done ; and we venture to say that he will be surprised at the difference, as regards grace and elegance, which will result from the experiment. It is to be understood that no change is proposed in the other dimensions of the ordonnance, the width of piers, orders, entablatures, all remaining untouched.

.2660. In fig. 920. we give another example from Chambers, which, in our opinion, requires a rectification to bring it into proper form. Herein the Ionic is used above the Doric arcade, and the voids to the solids are as 3.33 to 2.98, being much more than equal to them. In this, as in the former example, we should have preferred a greater equality between the solids and voids, though in that under consideration there is a nearer approximation to it.

2661. In the figure the clear width of the lower arch is 8, and its height 164 modules; the width of each pier is module. Of the upper arcade the width is 10), and the height 201 modules. The width of the piers is 14 module each. The height of the plinth of the lower order is 14 module that of the column, including the base and capital, 164 modules, and of the entablature 4 modules.

The height of the pedestal of the upper order 4 modules, of the column, including base and capital, 18 modules, and of the entablature 4, and of the balustrade above it 3.

2662. The dimensions of the Ionic and Corinthian arcades in fig. 921. are as follow: Clear width of lower arch 9 modules, its height 18% modules. The width of each pier is 1 module. Of the upper arcade the width of an arch 153 modules, and its height 23 modules. The width of

[graphic]

Fig. 920,

Fig. 21.

the piers is 14 module each. The height of the plinth to the lower order is 12 module ; of the column, including base and capital, 18 modules; the entablature 4 modules. The pedestal of the upper order is 4modules high; column, including base and capital, 20 modules ; entablature 44 modules ; and, lastly, the balustrade is 3} modules in height.

2663. Fig. 922. is an arrangement adopted by Palladio in his basilica at Vicenza, being the dimensions, or nearly, of the arcades on the flanks. The intermediate ones are much wider. In the basilica, however, the entablature breaks round the columns of the orders. The width between the axes of the columns of the lower order is 15 of their modules. The arch is 15 modules high and 75 wide. The order wherefrom the arch springs is 10% modules high; from axis to axis of the small columns in the lower arcade is 9 modules. The height of the plinth is 1} module, of the principal columns, including bases and plinths, 161 modules, and of their entablature 4 modules. In the upper arcade the distance between the axes of the principal columns is 18 of their modules. Their pedestals are 4 modules high, the columns, including bases and capitals, 18 modules, and entablature 4 modules high. The width of the arch is 9 modules, and its height 204 modules. The height of the small columns is 11.733 modules high, including their entablature,

2664. The use of arcades above arcades seems from its nature almost confined to public buildings, as among the ancients to their theatres and amphitheatres. In the in

Fig. 992. terior quadrangles or courts of palaces they have been much employed on the Continent, and in the magnificent design made by Inigo Jones for the palace at Whitehall are to be found some very fine examples.

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Sect. XIII.

BASEMENTS AND ATTICS,

2665. When the order used for decorating the facade of a building is placed in the middle or second story, it is seated on a story called the basement. The proportion of its height to the rest must in a great measure depend on the use to which its apartments are to be appropriated. “In Italy,” observes Chambers, "where their summer habitations are very frequently on that floor, the basements are sometimes very high. At the palace of Porti, in Vicenza, the height is equal to that of the order placed thereupon; and at the Thiene, in the same city, its height exceeds two thirds of that of the order, although it be almost of a sufficient elevation to contain two stories; but at the Villa Capra, and at the Loco Arsieri, both near Vicenza, the basement is only half the height of the order ; because in both these the ground floor consists of nothing but offices.” It may hence be gathered that no absolute law can be laid down in reference to the height of a basement story. Yet we may state, generally, that a basement should not be higher than the order it is to support, for it would in that case detract from the principal part of the composition, and, in fact, would be likely to interfere with it. Besides which, the principal staircase then requires so many steps that space is wasted for their reception. “Neither,” says Chambers, “should a basement be lower than half the height of the order, if it is to contain apartments, and consequently bave windows and entrances into it; for whenever that is the case the rooms will be low, the windows and doors very ill formed, or not proportional to the rest of the composition, as is observable at Holkham : but if the only use of the basement be to raise the ground floor, it need not exceed three, four, or at the most five or six feet in height, and be in the form of a continued pedestal.”

2666. Basement stories are decorated generally with rustic work of such various kinds, that we fear it would be here impossible to describe or represent their varieties. Many are capriciously rock-worked on their surface, others are plain, that is, with a smooth sur. face. The height of each course, including the joints, should on no account be less than one module of the order which the basement supports ; their length may be from once and a half to thrice their height. As respects the joints, these may be square or chamfered off. When square joints are used, they should not be wider than one eighth part of the

height of the rustic itself, nor narrower than one-tenth, their depth not exceeding their width. When the joints are chamfered, the chamfer should be at an angle of forty-five degrees, and the whole width of the joint from one third to one fourth of the height of the rustic,

2667. The courses are sometimes (often on the Continent) laid without showing vertical joints; but, as Chambers says, this “ has in general a bad appearance, and strikes

as if the building were composed of boards rather than of stone. Palladio's method seems far preferable, who, in imitation of the ancients, always marked both the vertical and the horizontal joints; and whenever the former of these are regularly and artfully disposed, the rustic work has a very beautiful appearance." We shall presently make a few remarks on the subject of rustics; but here, to continue and finish that more immediately under consideration, have to add, that when a high basement is used, it is not uncommon to crown it with a cornice, as may be seen in fig. 909. ; but the more common practice is to use a platband only (as in fig. 91 1.), whose height should not be greater than that of a rustic exclusive of the joint. Of a similar height should be made the zoccolo or plinth ; but this may, and ought, perhaps, to be somewhat higher. When arches occur in basements, the platband, which serves for the impost, should be as high as a course of rustics, exclusive of the joint ; and if the basement be finished with a cornice, such basement should have a regularly moulded base at its foot ; the former to be about one thirteenth of the whole height of the basement, and the base about one eighteenth, without the plinth.

2668. The Attic - which is used instead of a second order where limits are prescribed to the height of a building, examples whereof may be seen at Greenwich Hospital, and in the Valmarano palace, by the great Palladio, at Vicenza — should not exceed in height one-third of the order whereon they are placed, neither ought they to be less than one quarter. Bearing some resemblance to a pedestal, the base, die, and cornice whereof they are composed may be proportioned much in the same way as the respective divisions of their prototypes. They are sometimes continued without, and sometimes with, breaks over the column or pilaster of the order which they crown. If they are formed with pilasters, such ought to be of the same width as the upper diameter of the order under them, never more. In projection they should be one quarter of their width at most. They may be decorated with sunk moulded panels if necessary; but this is a practice rather to be avoided, as is most especially that of using capitals to them - a practice much in vogue in France under Louis XV.

2669. We now return to the subject of the rock-worked rustic, whereof, above, some notice was promised. The practice, though occasionally used by the Romans, seems to have had its chief origin in Florence, where, as we have in a former Book (329.) observed, each palace resembled rather a fortification than a private dwelling. Here it was used to excess ; and if variety in the practice is the desire of the student, the buildings of that city will furnish him with an almost infinite number of examples. The introduction of it gives a boldness and an expression of solidity to the rustics of a basement which no other means afford. In the other parts of Italy it was sparingly applied, but with more taste. Vignola and Palladio seem to have treated it as an accident productive of great variety rather than as a means of decoration. The last-named architect has in the Palazzo Thiene carried it to the utmost extent whereof it is susceptible. Yet, with this extreme extent of application, the design falls from his hands full of grace and feeling. To imitate it would be a dangerous experiment. De Brosse failed at the Luxembourg, and produced an example of clumsiness which in the Palazzo Pitti does not strike the spectator.

2670. Rustics and rockwork on columns are rarely justifiable except for the purpose of some particular picturesque effect which demands their prominence in the scene, or street view, as in the gateway at Burlington House in Piccadilly,-of which a good view, with the house itself, is to be seen in the “ Builder" for 1854, p. 559. It was pulled down about 1867.

Sect. XIV.

PILASTERS.

2671. Pilasters, or square columns, were by the Romans termed anta, by the Greeks parastata. This last word implies the placing one object standing against another, a sufficiently good definition of the word, inasmuch as in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred they are engaged in or backed against a wall, or, in other words, are portions of square columns projecting from a wall.

2672. It is usual to call a square column, when altogether disengaged from the wall, a pillar or pier; and we are inclined to think, notwithstanding the alleged type of trees, that the primitive supports of stone buildings were quite as likely to have been square

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