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2584. Fig. 889. shows the details of the entablature, &c. and also the profile and front of the Corinthian modillion to a larger scale. On the profile is shown the caisson or sunk panel on the sofite of the corona. The height is six parts, and the projection sixteen. As seen in the figure, a distance equal to three parts and a half is taken for the height of the smaller volute, and on this distance a scale of sixteen equal parts is made; the figure shows the dimensions to be given to the small squares, whose angles serve as centres to describe the curves. Having drawn the line AB, it is divided into four equal parts by lines perpendicular to it, which, meeting vertical lines from A and B, give the points, which serve as centres for striking the curve of the modillions. The acanthus leaf which supports it, as well as the curves which form the profile of the roses in the caisson, are also struck by compasses.
2285. In fig. 890., which exhibits the method of drawing the Corinthian capital, one half of the plan shows the capital in plan, and the other half of it laid down diagonally. Having drawn the axis of the plan correspondent to the axis of the elevation of the capital, with a radius equal to two modules, describe a circle, which divide into sixteen equal parts. Their lines of division will each correspond to the centre of each leaf. The vase of the capital is determined by a circle whose radius is 144 parts. The figure shows the circles which bound the leaves upwards on the vase.
2586. The elevation shows the heights whereon are carried the projections of the plan.
Above the leaves come the sixteen volutes, whereof the eight larger ones support the four angles of the abacus, and the eight smaller ones support the flowers which decorate the middle of the abacus. The volutes seen in profile may be drawn geometrically with the compasses, but they are always more agreeable and easy when drawn by the eye with a hand which feels the contours.
The different parts of the capital are as follow: A, plan of the leaves and abacus ; B, plan of the larger and smaller volutes; C, the vase or body of the capital; D, the first tier of leaves ; E, the second tier of leaves ; F, the caulicolus; G, the larger volute; H, the smaller volute; I, the flower ; K, the abacus; L, the lip of the vase.
2587. Vitruvius is scanty in the information he gives on the Corinthian order, and what he says respecting it relates more to the origin of the capital and the like than to the proportions of the detail. He makes the capital only 1 diameter high, and then forms upon the plan a diagonal 2 diameters long, by means whereof the four faces are equal according to the length of the arc, whose curve will be the ninth part in length and its height the seventh part of the capital. He forms the order with a pedestal, with base and cornice, as Daniel Barbaro would have it. The whole height given to it in our measures is about 27 modules and 2 parts.
2588. Palladio uses the pedestal with its ordinary subdivisions, making it between a third and fourth part of the height of the column, including its base and capital. To the base he gives 1 module, the shaft of the column a little less than 8 diameters, and places twenty-four flutes upon it, which two thirds downwards are channelled, and on the other or lower third neatly fitted with convex pieces of segments of cylinders called cablings. He makes the capital i diameter and a sixth in height, giving it two tiers of leaves, caulicoli, and abacus. To the architrave, frieze, and cornice he assigns a little less
than a fifth part of the column, including the base and capital. The whole height given to the order by this author is about 27 modules and 10 parts of our measures.
2589. Serlio makes his pedestal pretty nearly as the rest. To the base of the column he assigns half a diameter for the height, when that is about level with the eye, but when much above it he directs all the members to be increased in height accordingly, as where one order is placed above another, he recommends the number of parts to be diminished. To the shaft of the column he gives a little more than 7 diameters, and to the capital the same height as that given by Vitruvius, whom, nevertheless, he considers in error, or rather that some error has crept into the text, and that the abacus ought not to be included in the height. The height of the architrave, frieze, and cornice he makes a little less than a fourth part of the column, including its base and capital. The whole of the order, according to him, is 28 modules and a little more than 1 part of our measures.
2590. Scamozzi gives to the pedestal of this order the height of 3 diameters and one third, composing it with the usual parts of base, die, and cornice; to the base of the column the same height and mouldings as Palladio. To the shaft of the column he assigns the height of 8 diameters and one third, and diminishes it on each side an eighth part of its thickness at bottom. The capital is of the same height as that by Palladio. The architrave, frieze, and cornice he directs to be a little less than a fifth part of the height of the column. By our measures the whole height of his order is 30 modules and 20 parts.
THE COMPOSITE ORDER.
2591. The Composite order, as its name imports, is a compound of others, the Corin. thian and Ionic, and was received into the regular number of orders by the Romans. Philander, in his notes on Vitruvius, has described its proportions and character. Its capital consists, like the Corinthian, of two ranges of acanthus leaves distributed over the surface of a vase, but instead of the stalks or branches, the shoots appear small and as though flowering, adhering to the vase and rounding with the capital towards its middle. A fillet terminates the vase upwards, and over the fillet an astragal is placed, and above that an echinus, from which the volutes roll themselves to meet the tops of the upper tier of leaves, on which they seem to rest. A large acanthus leaf is bent above the volutes, for the apparent purpose of sustaining the corner of the abacus, which is dissimilar to that of the Corinthian order, inasmuch as the flower is not supported by a stalk seemingly fixed on the middle of each face of the abacus. The principal examples of
the order are at Rome, in the temple of Bacchus, the arches of Septimius Severus, of the Goldsmiths, and of Titus; also in the baths of Dioclesian.
2592. Fig. 891. (see preceding page) is a representation of Vignola's profile of the order. Its measures are subjoined in the following table :
Members composing the Order.
A, Cornice, 36 parts.
51 51 46 451 431 43 41 33 S2 28 29 23 22
B, Frieze, 27 parts.
17 164 15 15 22
www OD 1960 19v
22 20 20 173 17 163 15
Capital, 42 parts.
Column, 16 mod. 12 parts.
16 mod. 12 parts.
18 20 20
E, Base of column, 18 parts.
21] 203 23 25 26