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2293e Slater on Tuler. Cover the rid:yes with so: keted roll Staffo: dshire ridge tiles

set in cement; the tiles to be grooved for cresting (if any). Cover the hips with proper lapping hip tiles or rolled lip tiles. Provide ornamenal tile cresting (if

any), and fix same on ridges where shown on elevations, Cover the roofs with good sound plain tiles, combined with ornamental tiles, to form

patterns, as shown ; every tile to be pegged with a good English oak peg, and laid

in mortar to a 3-inch lap. Cover the roofs with best Bangor slates; the bands and diapers to be formed of Car.

narvon or Westmoreland green, or other coloured slates; or courses to be laid ot

slates cut to a notched pattern. The slater to provide slates to form damp-proof course in walls; and for the bottoms

of hot water pipe channels (if any). 2293f. Smith. Providle and fix 4-inch square saddle bars to all the windows, with lead

lights; to be fixed on an average 12 inches apart. Provide and tix to outside of windows, where necessary, l-inch square stancheons, not

more than 6 inches apart, with ornamental heads forged to drawing, let into (frames

or) stone sill at bottom, and passed through saddle bars with mortises formed thereon. For church windows with tracery heads, provide and build in across the springing of the arch of all windows of 3 lights and upwards, wrought iron bars 2 inches by

-inch, corked, and rell turned up 2 feet from jambs, on each side; these bars to be well galvanized, and fixed with play for expansion or strain, in notches through

the mullions. Provide ..., wrought iron hopper (or other) casements, and fix one to each light of

each window (or as many as necessary). If hoppers are used they are to rest on the sill, and be hinged next to it, so that when closed the exterior glazing may be

flush, and to be fitted with opening racks and fastenings. Provide all requisite straps, bolts, nuts, and washers for the various roofs. Where

visible, the straps are to be worked to detail drawings; and the washers and nuts to

be notched and stamped as directed. Provide and fix according to drawing, the wrought (or cast) iron vanes, crosses ridge

cresting, guards to areas, balconies, &c. ; all to be securely fixed; the vanes and gable crosses to have stems as long as possible, and to be leaded into the stone or

screwed to the roof timbers, as the case may be. Provide and fix ornamental wrought iron hinges, latches, key-plates, closing rings,

&c., on doors, as specified in carpenter's work, all to be strictly worked according

to detail drawings. Provide and fix an ornamental cast iron grating to pattern, to cover hot water pipe

channels. Provide and fix to all overhanging eaves 4-inch cast iron eaves gulter, with all neces

sary angle pieces, valley pans to internal angles, swan-necks, and socket pipes cast on the gutter to lead into heads of rain water pipes. The gutters to be fixed on strong wrought iron brackets screwed to the feet of the rafters, and the joints to be screwed together and bedded in red lead putty. Rectangular down pipes are now

frequently used, with ornamental ears or bands. Provide and fix Newall's (or other) copper wire lightning conductor with point,

properly secured, to .... (the highest portion of the building), and brought down with all requisite insulators; the end to be carried into the earth for a depth of 3 feet from the surface.

22939. Glazier. Glaze all the windows (of the church) and tracery heads (if any)

with quarries and borders in strong church lead 3-inch wide. The lead to be secured to the saddle bars and stancheons with strong copper wire, soldered to lead, and securely twisted round the saddle; the glazing to be properly cemented, to be

let into the grooves of stonework, and neatly pointed with lime and stone dust. The glass to be Powell's quarries, or Hartley's patent rough cathedral glass, f-inch

thick. The quarries to be of one tint, and the borders of another tint (as for instance, green and yellow). Skylights and windows, in exposed situations, where much light is not required, may

be glazed with. Hartley's rough plate glass, 4-inch thick, or less. Water-closet and similar windows (where privacy is desired), with Hartley's patent

rough plate glass, f-inch thick ; with fluted glass; or with diapered, or with cm

bossed glass. Any other windows to be glazed with ribbed, enamelled, embossed, or stained glass

must be enumerated. Provision to be made in window s'lls and skylights (where practicable), for conveying

condenses water to the exterior of the building,

2293h. PAINTER, Stop with coloured stopping, twice oil with linseed oil, and twice

varnish with best copal varnish, the exterior doors and frames. Stop with stained stopping, and knot with coloured knotting, the wrought woodwork

of roofs ; brush the whole twice with boiled oil, and once varnish the same. Piek out the chamfers and mouldings in roofs with vermillion, cobalt blue, chocolate, pale

yellow, and white, in two oils, and stencil patterns thereon, according to drawing. Deal seats, or benches, are to be knotted with stained knotting, stained with

slain (approved by the architect), and twice varnished with tackless varnish. In a dwelling bouse ;-all the wrought woodwork (except the floors, and the work

executed in oak) to be stained with .... stain, once coated with linseed cil, and twice varnished with the best copal varnish. Or, if the deal has been picked, it may be left plain, and only varnished. Or, if selected with much care, the deal and pine may be polished. Inside oak work is best left to obtain an effect by use,

but where immediately desirable, it may be once or twice oiled. Pick out the ornamental ironwork on doors, roofs, screens, &c., in black or dark blue.

A pattern or diaper is sometimes done in gold leaf upon it. All paint and varnish to be of the best quality; sizing and mineral turpentine will

not be allowed. 2293i. BELLHANGER. The front (and side) entrance doors to have bold pendant

mediæval wrought iron pull, according to detail drawing. The pulls in the principal rooms to be bronze or iron lever pulls of mediæval cha

racter, and very strong; the wire of strong copper, to be conveyed in zinc secret tubing; the cranks to be best horn cranks. Floor boards over bell wires to be screwed (not nailed) down for ready removal.

2293j. Gas FITTER. Lay on from the main, strong wrought iron welded tubing of the

necessary diameter, with all necessary bends; junctions, stopped ends, T pieces, &c. Provide and fix in each of the principal rooms a pendent corona of ... lights, value

. . s. each, fitted with balance weights and a ball and socket joint. Fix bronzed (or

brass) bracket burners in passages (or where else required), value . .8. each. Church lights are of wrought iron, bronze, or brass, standards, coronæ, brackets, &c.,

according to their situations, for gas or for candles (specify value of each). All lights to be fitted with argand, fish-tail, or batswing burners. Ground glass, os

figured glass globes, where stated, are sometimes included by the architect. 2293k. We now close this general outline of a specification (which has been submitted

as nothing more than a skeleton for filling up as different cases may require) by adding a general form of a contract, with the usual conditions. This requires as much variation to meet each particular case, as does the specification.

in the year

2294. Conditions. That all the works shall be executed in the best and most workmanlike manner, to the satisfaction of [Here add employer's name), or his architect, without reference thereon to any other person. If any alterations should hereafter be made by order of (the employer), or his architect, by varying from the plans or the foregoing specifi. cation, either in adding thereto or diminishing therefrom, or otherwise however, such alter. ations shall not vacate the contract hereby entered into, but the value thereof shall be ascertained by the said architect, and added to or deducted from the sum hereinafter mentioned, as the case may be ; nor shall such alterations, either in addition, diminution, or otherwise, supersede the condition for the completion of the whole of the works, but the contractor shall, if such alterations, ɔí whatever sort, require it, increase the number of his workmen, so that the same, as well as the works contained in the above particulars, shall be completely finished, and so delivered up to (the employer), on or before the day of

on failure whereof the contractor shall forfeit and pay to (the employer), the sum of for every day that the work remains unfinished and undelivered as aforesaid, which sum the said (the employer) shall be allowed to stop as liquidated damages out of any moneys that may be due and owing to the said contractor on account of the works.

If any doubt or doubts should arise during the execution of the works, or at measuring the extras should any occur, or at making out the accounts as to any extras or other works for which the contractor may consider he may have a claim, over and above the sum hereinafter mentioned, the admission and allowance of any such claim or claims shall be judged of, determined, and adjusted solely by the architect to (the employer), without reference in any way to any other person; it being the intention of these conditions that all such works of every kind that may be necessay for completely finishing the works proposed, for the rectification of any failure from whatever cause arising, and the well maintaining, sustaining, and supporting the whole of the works, as well as alterations and additions, should such be made, so that the whole may remain sound and firm, are implied in the foregoing specification, although the same may not therein be specifically expressed.

in the year

If the contractor shall neglect or refuse to carry on the works with such dispatch as is thought proper by the architect, it shall be lawful for (the employer) or his architect, and either of them is hereby empowered to employ such other person or persons as (the employer) or his architect, or either of them, may think fit or necessary, to finish and complete the several unfinished works, after having given notice thereof in writing six days before employing such person or persons, such notice to be left either at the contractor's shop, counting-house, or usual place of abode, without effect, and the amount or amounts of the bill or bills of any artificers that may be so employed shall be deducted out of any moneys that may be due and owing to the said contractor, or any part thereof, as the case may be, It is hereby agreed, this day of

between (the employer), on the one part, and (the contractor) on the other part, that he, the said

(the contractor), for his executors, administrators, and assigns, doth hereby promise and agree to and with the said (the employer), to do and perform all the works of every kind mentioned and contained in the foregoing particulars, and according and subject to the conditions above recited, and according to the plans prepared and referred to, at and for the sum of pounds; and the said (the contractor) doth hereby agree to abide by and be subject to the several clauses, conditions, and penalties hereinbefore mentioned and contained.

In consideration whereof the said (the employer) doth hereby promise and agree to pay to the said

(the contractor), on the certificate of the architect, the aforesaid sum of pounds, in separate payments, it being agreed that neither of the said payments, except the last, shall amount to more than two-thirds of the value of the work done at the time of such certificate being given.

In witness whereof the said parties have hereunto set their hand, the day and year above written.

A. B. (the employer.) Witness, E. F.

C. D. (the contractor.)

Sect. XIV.

MEASURING AND ESTIMATINQ.

2295. The practice of measuring is dependent on rules already given under Mensuration, in Sect. VI. Chap. I. of this Book (1212, et. seq.), in which are described the methods of ascertaining the superficial and solid contents of any figure. The application of them to architecture, in the practice of measuring and estimating the different parts of a building, forms the subject of this section.

2296. For the purposes of measuring, the common instruments are a pair of 5-feet rods, divided into feet, inches, and half inches, and a 2-feet rule divided into inches and eighths and twelfths of inches, beyond which subdivision, measurements are rarely carried in this country.

2297. The mode of what is called squaring dimensions, as usually practised by duo. decimals, will be now explained.

2297a. Duodecimals are a series of denominations beginning with feet, wherein every inch in the lower denomination makes twelve in that next above it; they form a series of fractions, of which the denominations are understood, but not expressed. The dimensions are taken in feet, inches, and twelfths of an inch, but not nearer, except in works of the greatest nicety. Feet and inches are marked with their initial letters, but twelfths or seconds by a double accent, thus 2", and thirds by a triple accent, thus 5'".

22976. To multiply duodecimals together, write down the two dimensions to be multiplied in such way that the place of feet may stand under the last place of the multiplicand; begin with the right hand denomination of the multiplier, and multiply it by every denomination of the multiplicand, throwing the twelve out of every product, and carrying as many units as there are twelves to the next. Placing the remainders, if any, under the multiplier, so that the like parts in the product may be under like parts of the multiplicand, proceed with every successive figure of the multiplier towards the left, in the same manner, always placing the first figure of the product under the multiplier. Then the sum of these partial products will be the whole product. In duodecimals there will be as many denominations below feet as in both the factors taken together.

Example 1.-Multiply 7 ft. 5 in. by 3 ft. Example 2.-Multiply 24 ft. 8 in. 8' by 4 in.

3 ft. 7 in. 7: 5

24 : 8

3:7 2:5:8

14 : 5:0:8 22 : 3

74 : 2:0 94 : 8:8

88 : 7:0:8

8

3:4

2297c. In example 1. there is only one place of duodecimals in each factor ; there are therefore two places in the product. In the second example there are two places of duodecimals in the multiplicand and one in the multiplier, which make, together, three ; there are therefore three denominations in the product. This method of placing the denominations of the factors gives the correct places of the product at once; since like parts of the product stand under like parts of the multiplicand. It also shows the affinity between duodecimals, decimals, and every series or scale of denominations whereof any number divided by the radix of the scale makes one of the next towards the left hand. The consideration is, moreover, useful in discovering, readily the kind of product arising from the multiplication of any two single denominations together.

2297d. When the number of feet runs very high in the factors, it will be better to write down the product of each multiplication, without casting out the twelve, and add together those of each denomination beginning on the right, and divide by 12, to carry to the next higher place, then add these, and so on, as often as there are places in the whole product.

Thus, under inches, the products being set down and Example.—Multiply 262 ft.

added, they amount to 2369, which, divided by 5 in. by 54 ft. 8 in.

twelve, gives 197 to carry to the place of feet, and 262 5

5 remainder. Then adding the feet together with 54 : 8 the quantity carried, it gives the whole number of 2099 : 4

feet; while the operation is extremely simple and

free from the troubles of either side operations or 1048 20

useless stress on the memory. 13100 250

2297e. The division of the foot into 12 parts 2369 197

renders the application of the rules of practice very

valuable in the computation of duodecimals. The 14345 : 5 : 4

practical rule is to set down the two dimensions one

under the other, that is, feet under feet and inches under inches, and multiply each term in the multiplicand by the feet in the multiplier, beginning at the lowest ; and, if the numbers be large, put down the inches without carrying 1 for every 12 from inches to feet. Then, instead of multiplying by the inches, take such aliquot parts of the multiplicand as the inches are of a foot; after which add the lines together, carrying 1 for every 12 inches. Example 1.-Multiply 7 ft. 5 in.

Example 2.- Multiply 262 ft. 5 in. by 3 ft. 4 in.

by 54 ft 8 in. 4 in. = 5 7:5

8=j: 262 : 3:4

54 : 8 22 : 3

1048 : 270 2:5:8

1310 24:8:8

87 :

5:8 87 : 5:8

281:4

12 14345: 5:4

12

5

23=

The same examples have been used to show the relative advantages of the two methods.

2297f. Thus far we have treated of the squaring of dimensions to obtain the superficies of work. To learn the solidity of certain materials, such as timber, stone, and some others, the dimensions have to be cubed. The process is similår to the above, and is continued a further step. One example will suffice to explain the method, and we will take the figures given in the above system.

Example.—What is the cube of a block of stone, 7 ft. 5 in, wide, 3 ft. 4 in. thick, and 12 ft. long?

2297g. The abridgment of the labours of practical men is always 7:5

a matter of importance-being identical with the saving of time 3:4

which is lost in calculation, and which with the architect is of the

utmost importance, when it is recollected what multifarious duties 2:5:8 he has to discharge. Hence the following table of squares, cubes, 24 ; 8:8 super.

and roots of numbers, up to 1000, will be most acceptable to him. The first column of the table shows the number, the second the

square of such number, the third exbibits its cube. In the fourth 296 : 8:0 cube.

column is found the square root of the number, and in the fifth its cube root. Thus, looking to the number 61 in the first column, its square is found to be 3721, its cube 226981, its square root 7.8102497, and its cube root 3.936497. Again, taking the number 784, we find its square to be 614656, its cube 481890304, its square root 28, and its cube root 9.220872.

22:3

12

No. Square.

Cube.

Square Root. CubeRoot. No. Square.

Cube.

Square Root Cube Koot.

1

4

91

1 1.0

10

64 4096 8 1.4142136 1.259921 65

4225 27 1.7320508 1.442250

66 4356 64 2.0

1.587401 67 4489 125 2.23606801 •709976 68 4624 216 2.4494897 1.817121 69 4761 343 2.64575131.912935 70 4900 512 2.8284271 20

71 5041 729 30

2.080084 72 5184 1000 3:1622777 2.154435

73

5329 1931 3.3166248 2.223980 74 5476 1728 3.4641016 2.289428 75 5625 2197 3.6055513 2.351935 76 5776 2744' 9.7416574 2.410142 77 5929 3375 3.8729833 2.466212 78 6084 4096 4.0 2:51 9842 79 6241 4913 4.1231056 2.571282 80 6400 5832 4.24264072.620741 81 6561 6859, 4:3588989 2.668402 82 6724 8000 4.4721360 2.714418 83 6889 9261 4:5825757 2.758923 84 7056 10648 4.6904158 2.802039 85 7225 12167 4.7958315 2.843867 86 7396 13824 4.8989795 2.884499 87 7569 15625 50 2.924018 88 7744 17576 5.0990195 2 962496 89

7921 19683 5.1961524 3.0

90 8100 21952 5.291502613.036589 8281 24389 5.3851648 3.072317 92 8464 27000 5.4772256 3:107232 93 8649 29791 5.5677644 3:141381 94 8836 32768 5.6568542 3.174802

9025 35937) 57445626 3.207534 96 9216 39304 5.8309519 3.239612 97 9409 42875 5.9160798 3.271066 98 9604 46656 60

3:301927 99 9801 50653 6.0827625 3.332222 100 10000 54872 6.1644140 3.361975 101 10201 59319 6.2449980 3.391211 102 10404 64000 6.3245553 3419952 103 10609 68921 6.4031242 3:448217104 10816 74088 6.4807407 3.476027 105 11025 79507 6.5574385 3.503398 106 11236 85184 6.6992496 3:530348 107 11449 91125 6.7082039 3:556893 108 11664 97336 6.7823300 3.583048 109 11881 103823 6.85565463*608826 110 12100 1105921 6.9282032 3.634241 111 12321 117649 7.0 9.659306 112 12544 125000 7.0710678 3.684031|113 12769 132651 7.1414284 3:708430|114 12996 140608 7.2111026 3.732511|115 13225 148877 7.2801099 3.756286|116 13456 157464 7.9484692 3.779763117) 13689 166375 704161985 3.802953 118 13924 175616 7.4833148 3.825862 119 14161 185193 7.5498344 3.848501 120 14400 195112 7.6157731 3.870877|121 14641 2053797.6811457 3.892996 122 14884 216000 77459667 9.914867 123 15129 226981 7.81024973.936497 124 15376 238328 7.8740079 3.957892 125 15625 2500471 7.9372539 3.979057126 15876

16 25

36 7 49 8 64 9 81 10 100 11

121 12 144 13

169 14 196 15 225 16 256 17 289 18 324 19 361 20 400 21 441 22 484 23 529 24 576 25 625 26 676 27

729 28 784 29 841 30 900 31 961 32 1024 33 1089 34 1156 35 1225 36 1296 37 1969 38 1444 39 1521 40 1600 41 1681 42 1764 43 1849

1936 45 2025 46 2116 47 2209 48 2304 49 2401 50 2500 51 2601 52 2704 53 2809 54 2916 55 3025 56 3136 57 3249 58 3364 59 3481 60 9600 61 3721 62

9844 63 3969

95

262144 80 40 274625 8 0622577 4.020726 2874.96 8:1240384 4041240 300763 8.1853528 4 061548 314432 8.2462113 4.081656 328509 8.3066239 4.101566 343000 8.36660034•121285 357911 8.4261498 4.140818 373248 8.4852814 4.160168 389017| 8.5440037 4:179939 405224 8.6023253 4•198336 421875 8.6602540 4.217163 438976 8.7177979 4.235824 456533 8.7749644 4.254321 474552 8.8317609 4.272659 493039 8.8881944 4.290841 512000 8.9442719 4.308870 531441 9.0

4.326749 551368 9.0553851 4-344481 571787 9:1104336 4.362071 592704 9.16515144.379519 614125 9.2195445 4•396830 636056 9.2736185 4.414005 658509 9.3273791 4.431047 681472 9:3808315 4.447960 704969 9.4339811 4.464745 729000 9.4868330 4.481405 753571 9.53939204.497942 778688 9.5916630 4.514357 804357 9.6496508 4.530655 830584 9.6953597 4.546836 857375 9.74679434.562903 884736 9.7979590 4.578857 912673 9.8488578/4.594701 941192 9.8994949 4.610436 970299 9.9498744 4.626065 1000000 10.0 4.641589 103030110-0498756 4.657010 1061208 10.0995049 4.672330 1092727 10.14889164.687518 1124864 10.1980390 4.702669 1157625 10.2469508 4.717694 1191016 10.2356301 4.732624 1225043 10.3440804 4•747459 1259712 10.3923048 4762203 1295029 10-4403065 4.776856 1331000 10.4880885 4•791420 136769110.5356538 4.805896 1404928 10.5830052 4.820284 144289710.6301458 4.894588 1481544 10.6770783 4.848808 1520875 10•7238053 4.862944 156089610.7703296 4.876999 1601613 10.8166538 4.890973 1643032 10.8627805 4.904868 1685159 10.9087121 4.918685 172800010-9544512 4.932424 1771561 110 4.946088 1815848 11.0453610 4.959675 1860867 11.0905365 4.973190 190662411•1355287 4.986631 1953125 11.1803399 5.0 2000376/11 .2249722 5013298

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