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(lib. iv. c. 3.) tells us that Hermogenes, “after having prepared a large quantity of marble for a Doric temple, changed his mind, and, with the materials collected, made it of the Ionic order, in honour of Bacchus." We are bound, however, to observe upon this, that the story is not confirmed by any other writer. It is probable that this splendid building was raised after the Persian invasion ; for, according to Strabo (lib. xiv.), all the sacred edifices of the Ionian cities, Ephesus excepted, were destroyed by Xerxes. Besides this octastyle temple, those of Apollo Didymæus, near Miletus, built about 376 B.C., and of Minerva Polias, at Priene, dedicated by Alexander of Macedon, are the chief temples of this order of much fame in the colonies. We shall therefore confine our remaining remarks to the three Ionic temples at Athens, and shall, as in the Doric order, subjoin a synoptical view of their detail.

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154. We here see that the Ionic column varies in height from eight diameters and nearly a quarter to nearly nine and a half, and the upper diameter in width between 8 and 816 The dissimilarity of the capitals renders it impossible to compare them. The mean height of the entablature is about a fourth of the height of the whole order. The height of the Grecian Ionic cornice may be generally considered as two-ninths of the whole entablature.

155. The age of the double temple of Minerva Polias (fig. 102.) and Erectheus has



Fig. 102. not been accurately ascertained. From the earliest times these personages were held in high veneration by the Athenians, and it is more than likely that a confusion has arisen between the ancient and modern edifices. The former was partially destroyed by Xerxes, and there is no certainty that the latter was restored by Pericles.

156. In the bases applied to the order in the Athenian buildings there are two tori, with a scotia or trochilus between them, a fillet below and above the scotia separating it from the tori. The lower fillet generally coincides with a vertical line let fall from the extreme projection of the upper torus. In the temple on the Ilyssus the lower fillet projects about half the distance between the hollow of the scotia and the extremity of the inferior torus. The height of the two tori and scotia are nearly equal, and a bead is placed on the upper

torus for the reception of the shaft of the column. The temples of Erectheus and that on the Ilyssus have the lower tori of their bases uncut, whilst the upper ones are Auted horizontally. In that of Minerva Polias, the upper torus is sculptured with a guilloche. The base just described is usually denominated the Atric Base, though also used in the colonies. The bases, however, of the temples of Minerva Polias at Priene, and of Apollo Didymæus near Miletus, are very differently formed.

157. The VOLUTE, the great distinguishing feature of the order, varies considerably in the different examples. In the edifices on the Ilyssus and at Priene, as well as in that of Apollo Didymæus, the volute has only one channel between the revolutions of the spiral ; whilst in those of Erectheus and Minerva Polias, at Athens, each volute is furnished with two distinct spirals and channels. In the temple on the Ilyssus, the capital is terminated a little below the eye of the volute; in the others it reaches below the volutes, and is decorated with honeysuckle flowers and foliage. The number of Autes, which on the plan are usually elliptical, is twenty-four, and they are separated by fillets from each other. In some examples they descend into the apophyge of the shaft.

158. The tomb of Theron, at Agrigentum, in which Ionic columns and capitals are crowned with a Doric entablature, has, by some, been quoted as an example of the lonic order ; but we do not believe it to be of any antiquity, and, if it were, it is so anomalous a specimen that it would be useless to pursue any inquiry into its foundation.

i59. In the anta or pilasters of this order, as well as of the Doric, their capitals differ in profile from the columns, and are never decorated with volutes. Their breadth is usually less than a diameter of the coluinn, and they are not diminished.

160. The highest degree of refinement of Greek architecture is exhibited in its examples of the Corinthian order, whose distinguishing feature is its capital. We have, in a preceding page (139), given Vitruvius's account of its origin; but we much doubt whether Callimachus was its inventor. 161. The capitals of Egyptian columns are so close upon the invention, that we ap

prehend it was only a step or two in advance of what had previ. ously been done. The palm leaf, lotus flower, and even volutes, had been used in similar situations in Egypt, and the contour of the lotus flower itself bears no small resemblance to the bell of the Corinthian capital.

162. We are inclined to assign the period of the latter part of the Peloponnesian war as that in which the order first came into

We find from Pausanias (Arcad. c. 45.) that Scopas, the celebrated architect of Paros, rebuilt the temple of Minerva at Tegæa, which was destroyed by fire about 400 years B.C., and that, according to that author, it was the largest and most beautiful edifice in the Peloponnesus. The cell, which was hypæthral, was surrounded by two ranks of Doric columns, which were surmounted by others of the Corinthian order. The peristyle of this temple was Ionic,

163. The delicacy of formation of this order has, doubtless, subjected its examples to earlier destruction and decay than have attended the other orders : hence our knowledge of it is almost confined to the examples we meet of it in the Tower of the Winds, and the Choragic monument of Lysicrates (fig. 103.), both at Athens; the former whereof can scarcely be considered Corinthian, and the latter not very strictly so. It was erected about 330 years B.C., as appears from the inscription on the frieze. These Choragic buildings, usually of small dimensions, were erected in honour of those who, as choragi or leaders of the chorus in the musical games, were honoured with the prize, which was a tripod. The following

are the proportions observed in the Choragic monument of LyFig. 103. CHIOR IDIC MONUMENT OF

sicrates :
Height of columns in English feet
Height of columns in terms of lower diameter
Height of capital in terms of lower diameter
Upper diameter of shast in terms of the lower diameter
Height of the architrave in terms of the lower diameter
Height of the frieze in terms of the lower diameter

Height of cornice in terms of the lower diameter

Total height of entablature in terms of the lower diameter From which it appears that the entablature is less than a fifth of the total height of the order. The intercolumniations are 2.200 diameters. The base is little different from that used in the Ionic order. 164. In the ornaments applied for the decoration of the sacred edifices of the Greeks,









they imitated the real and symbolical objects used in their worship. Thus, at the temple of Apollo at Teos, the lyre, tripod, and griffin oceur; in the Temple of the Winds at Athens, the winds are personified on the walls; the Choragic monuinent of Lysicrates exhibits the consequences of a contempt of music; on the temple of Victory, at the entrance of the Acropolis, was recorded, on the very spot, the assault and repulsion of the Amazons ; the Lapithæ are vanquished again in the temple of Theseus, the founder of the city; and lastly, in the Parthenon is brought before the eye, on a belt round the cell of the temple, the Panathenaic procession, which, issuing from the door of the cell, biennially perambulated the edifice, whilst its pediment perpetuates the contest between Neptune and Minerva for the honour of naming the city, and calls to remembrance the words of Cicero, “ De quorum," (Atheniensium,) “ urbis possessione, propter pulchritudinem etiam inter deos certamen fuisse proditum est,” &c. În the capitals of the Corinthian examples just noticed the leaves are those of the olive, a tree sacred to the tutelary goddess of Athens, and on that account as well as its beauty of form and simplicity adopted by a people whose consistency in art has never been excelled.

165. Besides the method of supporting an entablature by means of columns, the employment of figures was adopted, as in the temples of Erectheus and Minerva Polias before mentioned (see fig. 102.). They were called Caryatides; and their origin, according to the account of it by Vitruvius (lib. i. c. 1.), was that Carya, a city of Peloponnesus, having assisted the Persians against the Grecian states, the latter, when the country was freed from their invaders, turned their arms against the Caryans, captured their city, put the males to the sword, and led the women into captivity. The architects of the time, to perpetuate the ignominy of the people, substituted statues of these women for columns in their porticoes, faithfully copying their ornaments and drapery. It is, however, certain that the origin of their application for architectural purposes is of far higher antiquity than the invasion of Greece by the Persians, and in the above account Vitruvius is not corroborated by any other writer. Herodotus (Polymnia), indeed, observes that some of the states whom he enumerates sent the required offering of salt and water to Xerxes; but no mention is made of Carya, whose conduct, if punished in such an extraordinary manner, would have been too curious a matter to have been passed over in silence. Whether the use of statues to perform the office of columns travelled into Greece from India or from Egypt, we will not pretend to determine. Both, however, will furnish examples of their application. In the latter country we find them employed in the tomb of King Osymandyas (Diodorus, tom. i. f. 56. Wesseling). Diodorus also, speaking of Psammcticus, says that having obtained the whole kingdom, he built a propylæum on the east side of the temple to the god at Memphis, which temple he encircled with a wall; and in this propylæum, instead of columns, substituted colossal statues (KOAOTTOÙS Únoottoas) twelve cubits in height.

166. The application of statues and representations of animals is a prominent feature in the architecture of Egypt, whereof the temple at Ipsambool is a striking example, though in that the figures do not absolutely carry the entablature (see fig. 71.). In India many instances of this use of statues occur, as in the excavations of the temple near Vellore described by Sir C. Mallet (Asiat. Res. vol. vi.), wherein heads of lions, elephants, and imaginary animals apparently support the roof of the cave of Jugnath Subba; and at Elephanta, where colossal statues are ranged along the sides as high as the underside of the entablature (see fig. 39.). But as the settlement of the claims of either of these countries to the invention is not our object, we shall proceed to consider how they obtained in Greece the name that has been applied to them long before the period of which Vitruvius speaks.

167. Kapúa, the nut tree (Nux juglans), which Plutarch (Sympos. lib. ii.) says received its name from its effect (kápos, sopor) on the senses, was that into which Bacchus, after cohabitation with her, transformed Carya, one of the three daughters of Dion, king of Laconia, by his wife Iphitea. The other daughters, Orphe and Lyco, were turned into stones for having too closely watched their sister's intercourse with the lover. Diana, from whom the Lacedemonians learnt this story, was on that account, as well perhaps as the excellence of the fruit of the tree, therefore worshipped by them under the name of Diana Caryatis. (Servius, note on 8th Ecl. of Virgil, edit. Burman.) Another account, however, not at all affecting the hypothesis, is given of the name of Diana Caryatis in one of the old commentators of Statius (Barthius, lib. iv. v. 225.). It is as follows. Some virgins threatened with danger whilst celebrating the rites of the goddess, took refuge under the branches of a nut tree (Kapva), in honour and perpetuation whereof they raised a temple to Diana Caryatis. If this, however, be an allusion to the famous interposition of Aristomenes in protecting some Spartan virgins taken by his soldiers, it is not quite borne out by the words of Diodorus. Salmasius (Exercit. Pliniana, f. 603. et seq.) says, that Diana was worshipped at Carya, near Sparta, under the name of Diana Caryatis; and that at her temple and statue the Lacedemonian virgins had an anniversary festival, with dancing, according to the custom of the country.

168. But to return more closely to the subject, we will give the words of Pausanias (Laco

nics) on the teinple to the goddess at Carya. “ The third turning to the right leads to Carya, and the sanctuary of Diana; for the neighbourhood of Carya is sacred to that goddess and her nymphs. The statue of Diana Caryatis is in the open air; and in this place the Lace. demonian virgins celebrate an anniversary festival with the old custom of the dance." Kuhnius on the passage in question, after reference to Hesychius, says, “ Caryatides etiam dicuntur Lacænæ saltantes, sinistrâ ansatæ, uti solebant Caryatides puellæ in honorein Dianæ,”

169. From the circumstances above mentioned, we think it may be fairly concluded that the statues called Caryatides were originally applied to or used about the temples of Diana ; and that instead of representing captives or persons in a state of ignominy, they were in fact representations of the virgins engaged in the worship of that goddess. It is probable that after their first introduction other figures, in buildings appropriated to other divinities, were gradually employed; as in the Pandroseum (attached to the temple of Minerva Polias),

for instance, where they may be representations of the virgins called Canephoræ, who assisted in the Panathenaic procession. Fig. 104. is a representation of one of those used in the Pandroseum (see also fig. 102.); and fig. 105, is from the Townley collection, now in the British Museum. Piranesi conjectured that this last, with others, supported the entablature of an ancient Roman building restored by him from some fragments found near the spot where they were discovered, which is rather more than a mile beyond the Capo di Bove, near Rome. Four of the statues were found; and on one of the three, purchased by Cardinal Albani, the following inscription was found: - ΚΡΙΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΝΙΚΟΛΑΟΣ ENOIOTN; showing that it was the work of Greek artists.

170. The republican spirit of Greece tended to repress all ap

pearance of luxury in their private dwellings. The people seem to Fig. 104.

Fig. 103.

have thrown all their power into the splendour and magnificence of their temples; and it was not till a late period that their houses received much attention. Except in the open courts of them, it is difficult to conceive any application of the orders. It is certain that they frequently consisted of more than one story; but beyond this all is conjecture. In the time of Demosthenes (Orat. adv. Aristocratem) the private houses had begun to be increased in extent; and the description of them by Vitruvius, who knew Athens well, proves that they were then erected on an extent implying vast luxury.

171. Within the last few years discoveries have been made at Athens, which would lead us to the belief that it was the practice of the Greeks to paint in party colours every portion of their temples, and that in violently contrasted colours. This has received the name of polychrome architecture. It is rather strange that no ancient writer has spoken of the practice, and the only way to account for the omission is by supposing it to have been so common that no one thought of mentioning it. From late investigations (Inst. of Brit. Architects, Trans. i., 1836.), it appears that many parts of the Parthenon were painted or gilt. Thus the coffers of the ceiling were painted, and its frieze ornamented with a fret in colours. The whole building, says M. Schaubert, as well as other temples, was thickly painted, in the metopæ, in the pediment, on the drapery of the figures, on the capitals, and on all the mouldings. So that, as he says, with great simplicity, with its mouldings and carvings variously coloured, the simple Doric temple of Theseus was in effect richer than the most gorgeous example of Corinthian; and it would be worth the trouble to restore with accuracy a polychrome temple. From M. Quast (Mittheilungen über Alt und Neu Athen, Berlin, 1834), we learn that the colour was not used in a fluid state merely for the purpose of staining the marble, but in a thick coat, so that the material was completely covered; and that in the temple of Theseus this is more traceable than in any other. Though the colours, that of blue smalt more especially, have left but a grey crust, yet their original tone is still apparent. In this building deep blues and reds are the predominant colours, so as to relieve one another. The corona was deep blue, and the guttæ of a brown red; the foliage of the cymatium was alternately streaked with blue and red, the ground being green, which colour is applied to the small leaves on some of the lesser mouldings. Some of the coffers are coloured of a red inclining to purple, on which the ornament is given ; others exhibit a blue ground, with red stars. The architrave of the portico was a bright red; the figures in the frieze were painted in their proper natural colours : traces of the colour show that the walls were green. It was not discovered that in the columns more than the arrises of the Autes were painted, although the echinus was. We do not doubt the accuracy of MM. Semper and Quast, later writers on the same subject, but after all it is possible that all this painting may have been executed at a period much later than that of the buildings themselves.

172. The most ancient theatres of Greece were constructed in a temporary manner; but the little security from accident they afforded to a large concourse of persons soon made the Greeks more cautious for their security, and led to edifices of stone, which, in the end, ex

ceeded in magnitude all their other buildings. Their form on the plan (see fig. 106.) was rather more than a semicircle, and consisted of two parts; the ornvi, scena, and Kolov.




Fig. 106.

The scena was at first merely a partition for the actors reaching quite across the stage, dressed with boughs and leaves, but in after times was very differently and more expensively constructed. It had three principal gates, two on the sides and one in the centre; at which last the principal characters entered. The whole scene was divided into several parts, whereof the most remarkable were— the Bportelov, bronteum, under the floor, where were deposited vessels full of stones and other materials for imitating the sound of thunder; the encorhviov, episcenium, a place on the top of the scene, in which were placed the machines for changing the various figures and prospects ; the napaokhviov, parascenium, which served the actors as a dressing room ; the poornvlov, proscenium, or stage, on which the performers acted; the opxhotpa, orchestra, was the part in which the performers danced and sang, in the middle whereof was the λογέιον or θυμέλη, pulpitum ; the υποσκήνιον, hyposcenium, was a partition under the pulpitum, where the music was placed ; the kodov, cavea, was for the reception of the spectators, and consisted of two or three divisions of several seats, each rising above one another, the lowest division being appropriated to persons of rank and magistrates, the middle one to the commonalty, and the upper one to the women. Round the cavea porticoes were erected for shelter in rainy weather, the theatre of the Greeks having no roof or covering. The theatre was always dedicated to Bacchus and Venus, the deities of sports and pleasures; to the former, indeed, it is said they owe their origin : hence, the plays acted in them were called Alovvocarà, Dionysiaca, as belonging to Alovuoos, or Bacchus. Every citizen shared by right in the public diversion and public debate; the theatre was therefore open to the whole community.

173. The Athenian ayopal, or fora, were numerous; but the two most celebrated were the old and new forum. The old forum was in the Ceramicus within the city. The assemblies of the people were held in it, but its principal use was as a market, in which to every trade was assigned a particular portion.

174. The supply of water at Athens was chiefly from wells, aqueducts being scarcely known there before the time of the Romans. Some of these wells were dug at the public expense, others by private persons.

175. The first gymnasia are said to have been erected in Lacedemonia, but were after. wards much improved and extended, and became common throughout Greece. The gymnasium consisted of a number of buildings united in one enclosure, whereto large numbers resorted for different purposes. In it the philosophers, rhetoricians, and professors of all the other sciences, delivered their lectures ; in it also the wrestlers and dancers practised and exercised; all which, from its space, they were enabled to do without interfering with one another. The chief parts (fig. 107.), following Vitruvius (lib. v. cap. 11.), are — A, the TPIOTUALOV, peristylium, which included the opaipiotipov, sphæristerium, and nahalotpa, palestru, 1, 2, 3, are the otoal, porticus, with BB, efedpai, erhedra, where probably the scholars used to meet ; 4, 4, is the double portico looking to the south c, epñbalov, ephabeum, where the

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