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afterwards observes, “ The woods about Pontus furnish such abundance of timber, that they build in the following manner. Two trees are laid level on the earth, right and left, at such distance from each other as will suit the length of the trees which are to cross and
connect them. On the extreme ends of these two trees are laid two other trees, transversely: the space which the house will enclose is thus marked out. The four sides being so set out, towers are raised, whose walls consist of trees laid horizontally, but kept perpendicularly over each other, the al. ternate layers yoking the angles.
The level interstices, which the thickness of the trees alternately leave, is filled in with chips and mud. On a similar principle they form their roufs, except that gradually reducing the length of the trees which traverse from side to side, they assume a pyramidal form. They are covered with boughs, and thus, after a rude fashion of vaulting, their quadrilateral roofs are forined." The northern parts of Germany, Poland, and Russia still exhibit traces of this method of building, which is also found in Florida, Louisiana, and elsewhere, in various places. See fiy. 2.
6. We shall not, in this place, pursue the discussion on the timber hut, which lias certainly, with great appearance of probability, been so often said to contain within it the types of Grecian architecture, but shall, under that head, enlarge further on the subject.
KARIX TIMBER CONSTRUCTION
7. The construction of the early habitations of mankind required little skill and as little knowledge. A very restricted number of tools and machines was required. The method of felling timber, which uncivilised nations still use, namely, by fire, might have served all purposes at first. The next step would be the shaping of hard and infrangible stones into cutting tools, as is still the practice in some parts of the continent of America. These, as the metals became known, would be supplanted by tools formed of them. Among the Peruvians, at their invasion by the Spaniards, the only tools in use were the hatchet and the adze; and we may fairly assume that similar tools were the only ones known at a period of high antiquity. The saw, nails, the hammer, and other instruments of carpentry were unknown. The Greeks, who, as Jacob Bryant says, knew nothing of their own history, ascribe the invention of the instruments necessary for working materials to Dædalus; but only a few of these were known even in the time of Homer, who confines himself to the hatchet with two edges, the plane, the auger, and the rule. He particularises neither the square, compasses, nor saw. Neither the Greek word apwv (a saw), nor its equivalent is to be found in his works. Dædalus is considered, however, by Goguet as a fabulous person altogether, the word meaning, according to him, nothing more than a skilful workman, a meaning which, he observes, did not escape the notice of Pausanias. The surmise is borne out by the non-inention of so celebrated a character, if he had ever existed, by Homer, and, afterwards, by Herodotus. The industry and perseverance of man, however, in the end, overcame the difficulties of construction. For wood, which was the earliest material, at length were substituted bricks, stone, marble, and the like; and edifices were reared of unparalleled magnificence and solidity. It seems likely, that bricks would have been in use for a considerable period before stone was employed in building. They were, probably, after moulding, merely subjected to the sun's rays to acquire hardness. These were the materials whereof the Tower of Babel was constructed. These also, at a very remote period, were used by the Egyptians. Tiles seem to have been of as high an antiquity as bricks, and to have been used, as in the present day, for covering roofs. 8 The period at which wrought stone was originally used for architectural purposes is
quite unknown, as is that in which cement of any kind was first employea as the medium of uniting masonry. They were both, doubtless, the invention of that race which we have mentioned as cultivators of land, to whom is due the introduction of architecture, properly so called. To them solid and durable edifices were necessary as soon as they had fixed upon a spot for the settlement of themselves and their families.
9. Chaldæa, Egypt, Phænicia, and China are the first countries on record in which architecture, worthy the name, made its appearance. They had certainly attained considerable proficiency in the art at a very early period; though it is doubtful, as respects the three first, whether their reputation is not founded rather on the enormous masses of their works, than on beauty and sublimity of form. Strabo mentions many magnificent works which he attributes to Semiramis; and observes that, besides those in Babylonia, there were monuments of Babylonian industry throughout Asia. He mentions dópoi (high altars), and strong walls and battlements to various cities, as also subterranean passages of communication, aqueducts for the conveyance of water under ground, and passages of great length, upwards, by stairs. Bridges are also mentioned by him (lib. xvi.). Moses has preserved the names of three cities in Chaldæa which were founded by Nimrod (Gen. x. 10.). Ashur, we are told, built Nineveh : and (Gen. xix. 4.) as early as the age of Jacob and Abraham, towns had been established in Palestine. The Chinese attribute to Fohi the encircling of cities and towns with walls; and in respect of Egypt, there is no question that in Homer's time the celebrated city of Thebes had been long in existence. The works in India are of very early date ; and we shall hereafter offer some remarks, when speaking of the extraordinary monument of Stonehenge, tending to prove, as Jacob Bryant supposes, that the earliest buildings of both nations, as well as those of Phænicia and other countries, were erected by colonies of some great original nation. If the Peruvians and Mexicans, without the aid of carriages and horses, without scaffolding, cranes, and other machines used in building, without even the use of iron, were enabled to raise monuments which are still the wonder of travellers, it would seem that the mechanical arts were not indispensable to the progress of architecture ; but it is much more likely that these were understood at an exceedingly remote period in Asia, and in so high a degree as to have lent their aid in the erection of some of the stupendous works to which we have alluded.
10. The art of working stone, which implies the use of iron and a knowledge of the method of tempering it, was attributed to Athôthis, the successor of Menes. It seems, however, possible that the ancients were in possession of some secret for preparing bronze tools which were capable of acting upon stone. Be that as it may, no country could have been called upon earlier than Egypt to adopt stone as a material, for the climate does not favour the growth of timber; hence stone, marble, and granite were thus forced into use ; and we know that, besides the facility of transport by means of canals, as early as the time of Joseph waggons were in vee. (Gen. xlv. 19.) We shall hereafter investigate the hypothesis of the architecture of Greece being founded upon types of timber buildings, merely observing here, by the way, that many of the columns and entablatures of Egypt had existence long before the earliest temples of Greece, and therefore that, without recurrence to timber construction, prototypes for Grecian architecture are to be found in the venerable remains of Egypt, where it is quite certain wood was not generally employed as a material, and where the subterranean architecture of the country offers a much more probable origin of the style.
ARCHITECTURE OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES.
DRUIDICAL AND CELTIC ARCHITECTURE.
11. If rudeness, want of finish, and the absence of all appearance of art, be criteria for judgment on the age of monuments of antiquity, the wonderful remains of Abury and Stonehenge must be considered the most ancient that have preserved their form so as to indicate the original plan on which they were constructed. The late Mr. Godfrey Higgins, a gentleman of the bighest intellectual attainments, in his work on the Celtic Druids (published 1829), has shown, as we think satisfactorily, that the Druids of the British Isles were a colony of the first race of people, learned, enlightened, and descendants of the persons who escaped the deluge on the borders of the Caspian Sea; that they were the carliest occupiers of Greece, Italy, France, and Britain, and arrived in those places by a route nearly
along the forty-fifth parallel of north latitude ; that, in a similar manner, colonies advanced from the same great nation by a southern line through Asia, peopling Syria and Africa, and arriving at last by sea through the Pillars of Hercules at Britain; that the languages of the western world were the same, and that one system of letters — viz. that of the Irish Druids-pervaded the whole, was common to the British Isles and Gaul, to the inhabitants of Italy, Greece, Syria, Arabia, Persia, and Hindostan; and that one of the two alphabets (of the same system) in which the Irish MSS. are written - viz. the Beth-luis-nion-came by Gaul through Britain to Ireland ; and that the other---the Bobeloth—came through the Straits of Gibraltar. Jacob Bryant thinks that the works called Cyclopean were executed at a remote age by colonies of some great original nation; the only difference between his opinion and that of Mr. Higgins being, that the latter calls them Druids, or Celts, from the time of the dispersion above alluded to.
12. The unhewn stones, whose antiquity and purport is the subject of this section, are found in Hindostan, where they are denominated “pandoo koolies," and are attributed to a fabulous being named Pandoo and his sons. With a similarity of character attesting their common origin, we find them in India, on the shores of the Levant and Mediterranean, in Belgium, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, in France, and on the shores of Britain from the Straits of Dover to the Land's End in Cornwall, as well as in many of the interior parts of the country. They are classed as follows: - 1. The single stone, pillar, or obelisk. 2. Circles of stones of different number and arrangement. 3. Sacrificial stones. 4. Cromlechs and cairns, 5. Logan stones. 6. Tolmen or colossal stones.
13. (1.) Single Stones. — - Passages abound in Scripture in which the practice of erecting single stones is recorded. The reader on this point may refer to Gen. xxviii. 18., Judges, ix. 6., 1 Sam. vii. 12., 2 Sam. XX. 8., Joshua, xxiv. 27. The single stone might be an emblem of the generative power of Nature, and thence an object of idolatry. That mentioned in the first scriptural reference, which Jacob set up in his journey to visit Laban, his uncle, and which he had used for his pillow, seems, whether from the vision he had while sleeping upon it, or from some other cause, to have become to him an object of singular veneration ; for he set it up, and poured oil upon it, and called it “ Bethel " (the house of God). It is curious to observe that some pillars in Cornwall, assumed to have been erected by the Phænicians, still retain the appellation Bothel. At first, these stones were of no larger dimension than a man could remove, as in the instance just cited, and that of the Gilgal of Joshua (Josh. iv. 20.); but that which was set up under an oak at Slechem (ibid. xxiv. 26.), was a great stone. And here we may notice another singular coincidence, that of the Bothel in Cornwall being set up in a place which, from its proximi y to an oak which was near the spot, was called Bothel-rac; the last syllable being the Saxon for an oak. It appears from the Scriptures that these single stones were raised on various occasions ; sometimes, as in the case of Jacob's Bethel and of Samuel's Ebenezer, to commemorate instances of divine interposition ; sometimes to record a covenant, as in the case of Jacob and Laban (Gen. xxxi. 48.); sometimes, like the Greek stelæ, as sepulchral stones, as in the case of Rachel's grave (Gen. xxxvi. 20.), 1700 years B.C., according to the usual reckoning. They were occasionally, also, set up to the memory of individuals, as in the instance of Absalom's pillar and others. The pillars and altars of the patriarchs appear to have been erected in honour of the only true God, Jehovah ; but wherever the Canaanites appeared, they seem to have been the objects of idolatrous worship, and to have been dedicated to Baal or the sun, or the other false deities whose altars Moses ordered the Israelites to destroy. The similarity of pillars of single stones almost at the opposite sides of the earth, leaves no doubt in our mind of their being the work of a people of one common origin widely scattered ; and the hypotheses of Bryant and Higgins sufficiently account for their appearance in places so remote from each other. In consequence, says the latter writer, of some cause, no matter what, the Hive, after the dispersion, casted and serit forth its swarms. One of the largest descended, according to Genesis (x. 2.), from Gomer, went north, and then west, pressed by succeeding swarms, till it arrived at the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, and ultimately colonised Britain. Another branch, observes the same author, proceeded through Sarmatia southward to the Euxine (Cimmerian Bosphorus); another to Italy, founding the states of the Umbrii and the Cimmerii, at Cuma, near Naples. Till the time of the Romans these different lines of march, like so many sheepwalks, were without any walled cities. Some of the original tribe found their way into Greece, and between the Carpathian mountains and the Alps into Gaul, scattering a few stragglers as they passed into the beautiful valleys of the latter, where traces of them in Druidical monuments and language are occasionally found. Wherever they settled, if the conjecture is correct, they employed themselves in recovering the lost arts of their ancestors.
14. To the Canaanites of Tyre and Sidon may be chiefly attributed the introduction of these primeval works into Britain. The Tyrians, inhabiting a small slip of barren land, were essentially and necessarily a commercial people, and became the most expert and adventurous sailors of antiquity. It has been supposed that the constancy of the needle to the pole, “ that path which no fowl knoweth, and which tho vulture's eye hath not seen,'
was known to the Tyrians; and, indeed, it seems scarcely possible that, by the help of the stars alone, they should have been able to maintain a coinmerce for tin on the shores of Britain, whose western coast furnished that metal in abundance, and whose islands (the
Scilly) were known by the title of ('assiterides, or tin islands. In this part of Britain there seems unquestion. able evidence that they settled a colony, and were the architects of Stonehenge, Abury, and other similar works in the British islands. In these they might have been assisted by that part of the swarın which reached our shores through Gaul; or it is possible that the works in question may be those of the latter only, of whom traces exist in Britany at the monument of Carnac, whereof it is computed 4000 stones still remain. From among the number of pillars of this kind still to be seen in England, we give ( ng. 3.) that standing at Rudstone, in the east riding of Yorkshire. It is described by Drake, in his Eboracum, as “coarse rag stone or millstone grit, and its weight is computed at between 40 and 50 tons. In forın (the sides being slightly concave) it approaches to an ellipse on the plan, the breadth being 5 ft. 10 in., and the thickness 2 ft. 3 in., in its general dimensions. Its height is 24 ft. ; and, according to a brief account
communicated to the late Mr. Pegge, in the year 1769 (Archæologia, vol. v. p. 95.), its depth underground equals its height above, as appeared from an experiment made by the late Sir William Strickland.”
15. (2.) Circles of Stume.— The Israelites were in the habit of arranging stones to represent the twelve tribes of Israel (Exod. xxiv. 4.), and for another purpose. (Deut. xxvii. 2.) And in a circular form we find them set up by Joshua's order on the passage of the Israelites through Jordan to Gilgal (5252); a word in which the radical Gal or Gil (signifying a wheel) is doubled to denote the continued repetition of the action. In this last case, Joshua made the arrangement a type of the Lord rolling away their reproach from them.
16. Though traces of this species of monument are found in various parts of the world, even in America, we shall confine our observations to those of Abury and Stonehenge, merely referring, by way of enumeration, to the places where they are to be found. Thus we mention Rolbrich in Oxfordshire, the Hurlers in Cornwall, Long Meg and her daughters in Cumberland, remains in Derbyshire, Devonshire, Dorsetshire, at Stanton Drew in Somersetshire, and in Westmoreland. They are common in Wales, and are found in the Western Isles. There are examples in Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and various parts of Germany. Clarke, in his description of the hill of Kushunlu Tepe in the Troad, observes, that all the way up, the traces of former works may be noticed, and that, on the summit, there is a small oblong area, six yards long and two broad, exhibiting vestiges of the highest antiquity ; the stones forining the inclosure being as rude as those of Tiryns in Argolis, and encircled by a grove of oaks covering the top of this conical mountain. The entrance is from the south. Upon the east and west, outside of the trees, are stones ranging like what we in England call Druidical circles. Three circles of stones are known in America, one of which stands upon a high rock on the banks of the river Winnipigon. The stupendous monument of Carnac in Britany, of which we have above made mention, is not of a circular form; the stones there being arranged in eleven straight lines, from 30 to 33 ft. apart, some of which are of enormous size. They are said to have formerly Exiended three leagues along the cost A descrip:ion of this monument is given in vol. xxii. of the Archæologia ; and in Gailhabaud, Monumens, 410, Paris, 1842-52.
17. Abury, or Avebury, in Wiltshire, of which we give a view in a restored statu (fig. 4.), is a specimen of this species of building, in which the climax of magnificence was attained. Stukely, who examined the ruins when in much better preservation than at present, says, “that the whole figure represented a snake transmitted through a circle ;” and that, “ to make their representation more natural, they artfully carried it over a variety of elevations and depressions, which, with the curvature of the avenues, produces sufficiently the desired effect. To make it still more elegant and picture-like, the head of the snake is carried up the southern promontory of Hackpen Hill, towards the village of West Kennet; nay, the very name of the hill is derived from this circumstance;" for acun, he observes, signifies a serpent in the Chaldaic language. Dr. S. then goes on to state, “ that the dracontia was a name, amongst the first-learned nations, for the very ancient sort of temples of which they could give no account, nor well explain their meaning upon it.” The figure of the serpent extended two miles in length; and but a very faint idea can now be formed of what it was in its original state. Two double circles, one to the north and the other to the south of the centre, were placed within the large circle, which formed the principal body of the serpent, and from which branched out the head to Hlackpen Hill, in the direction of
Fixi. West Kennet, as one avenue; and the other, the tail, in the direction of Beckhampton. Dr. Stukely makes the number of stones, 652 in all, as under :
Stones. The great circle
. 100 Central pilar and altar, south Long stone. Cove jambs Outer circle north of the centre 30 circle
2 A stone he calls the ring stone Inner ditto 12 Kennet avenue
. 200 Closing stone of the tail Outer circle, south: 30 Beckhampton avenue Inner ditto 12 Outer circle of Hackpen
652 Corcand altar stone, north circle 41 Inner ditto
18 of these, only seventy-six stones remained in the Kennet avenue in 1722. The large circle was enclosed by a trench or vallum upwards of 50 ft. in depth and between 60 and
70 ft. in width, leaving entrances open where the avenues intersected it. The colossal mound, called “ Silbury hill,” close to the Bath road, was probably connected in some way with the circle we have described, from the circumstance of the Roman road to Bath, made long afterwards, being diverted to avoid
it. Dr. Owen thinks that the Abury 6
circle was one of three primary circles in Great Britain, and that Silbury hill was the pile of Cyvrangon (hcaping) characterised in the 14th Welsh triad; but the conjecture affords us no assistance in determining the people by whom the monument was raised. If it be in its arrangement intended to represent a serpent, it becomes immediately connected with ophiolatry, or serpent worship, a sin which beset the Israelites, and which would stamp
it as proceeding from the central
N stamen of the hypothesis on which Fig. 5.
Mr. Higgins sets out. See Observalions on Dracontia, by the Rev. John Bathurst Deane, Archæol. vol. xxv.
“ Æoliam Pitanen a læra parte relinquit,
Factaque de saxo longi simulacra Draconis,"-OviD, Met, vil, 357. which is a picturesque description of Abury.
18. Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain, about seven miles from Salisbury and two miles