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with openings for the bees in front, and a door behind, which is kept locked for security. Sometimes it is an area wherein each particular beehive is chained down to a post and

padlocked. APODYTERIUM. ('Anododal, Gr., to strip oneself.) The apa rtment at the entrance of the

ancient baths, or in the Palæstra, where a person took off his dress, whether for bathing or gymnastic exercises. In the baths of Nero, these apartments were small, but in those of Caracalla the apodyterium was a magnificent room with columns and other

decorations. APOPHYGE. (Gr., signifying flight.). That part of a column between the upper fillet or

annulet on the base and the cylindrical part of the shait of a column, usually moulded into a hollow or cavetto, out of which the column seems as it were to fly or escape

upwards. The Freuch call it congé, as it were, leave to go. APOTHECA. (Gr.) A storehouse or cellar in which the ancient Greeks deposited their

oil, wine, and the like. APPROACH. A curved or graduated road leading to a building situated some distance

within the grounds. APRON, or PITCHING PIECE. A horizontal piece of timber, in wooden double-flighted

stairs, for supporting the carriage pieces or rough strings and joistings in the half

spaces or landings. The apron pieces should be firmly wedged into the wall. Apsis, or ABSIS. (Gr., signifying an arch.) A term in ecclesiastical architecture, denot

ing that part of the church wherein the clergy was seated or the altar placed. It was so called from being usually domed or vaulted, and not, as Isidorus imagines, from being the lightest part (apta). The apsis was either circular or polygonal, and domed over ; it consisted of two parts, the altar and the presbytery or sanctuary. At the middle of the semi-circle was the throne of the bishop, and at the centre of the diameter was placed the altar, towards the nave, from which it was separated by an open balustrade or railing. On the altar was placed the ciborium and cup. The throne of the bishop having been anciently called by this name, some have thought that thence this part of the edifice derived its name; but the converse is the fact. The apsis gradata implied more particularly the bishop's throne being raised by steps above the ordinary stalls.

This was sometimes called exhedra, and in later times tribune. AQUARIUM. A case to contain sea or fresh water, in which to preserve living objects of

natural history. From a small glass case for a drawing-room, they havo increased in size until buildings are erected to contain a number of crystal tanks for the purpose of exhibition--such are those at Brighton, and at the Crystal Palace, in England; and at Hamburgh. London, Liverpool, and other cities are now seeking to establish them. The term is also used for the tanks formed for growing the Victoria Regia and other

plants, as at Syon, Kew, Botanic Gardens in the Regent's Park, and elsewhere. AQUEDUCr. (Lat. Aquæ ductus.) A conduit or channel for conveying water from one

place to another, more particularly applied to structures for the purpose of conveying the water of distant springs across valleys, for the supply of large cities. The largest and most magnificent aqueducts with the existence of which we are acquainted, were constructed by the Romans, and many of their ruins in Italy and other countries of Europe still attest the power and industry of that extraordinary nation. The most ancient was that of Appius Claudius, which was erected in the 442nd year of the city, and conveyed the Aqua Appia to Rome, from a distance of 11,190 Roman paces (a pace being 58-219 English inches), and was carried along the ground, or by subterranean lines, about 11,000 paces, about 190 of which were erected on arches. The next, in order of time, was the Anio Vetus, begun by M. Curius Dentatus, about the year of Rome 481. The water was collected from the springs about Tivoli; it was about 43,000 paces in length. In the 608th year of the city, the works of the Anio Vetus and Aqua Appia had fallen into decay, and much of the water had been fraudulently abstracted by individuals, the prætor Martins was therefore empowered to take measures for increasing the supply. The result of this was the Aqua Martia, the most wholesome water with which Rome was supplied. It was brought from the neighbourhood of Subiaco, twenty miles above Tivoli, and was 61,710 Roman paces (about 61 miles), whereof 7,463 paces were above ground, and the remainder under ground. A length of 463 paces, where it crossed brook and valleys, was supported on arches. To supply this in dry seasons, was conducted into it another stream of equal goodness by an aqueduct 800 paces long. About nineteen years after this was completed, the Aqua Tepula was brought in, supplied also from the Anio ; but not more than 2,000 paces in length. In the reign of Augustus, Agrippa collected some more springs into the Aqua Tepula, but the latter water flowing in a separate channel, it preserved its name. This was 15,426 paces long, 7,000 above ground, and the remainder of the length on arcades. To this was given by Agrippa the name of Aqua Julia. In the year 719 of the city, Agrippa restored the dilapidated aqueducts of Appius, of Martius, and of the Anio Vetus, at his own expense, besides erecting fountains in the city. The Aqua Virgo, which receives

Aqua Julia

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its name from a girl having pointed out to some soldiers the sources of the stream from which it was collected, was brought to Rome by an aqueduct 14,105 paces in length, 12,865 of which were under ground, and 700 on arches, the remainder being above ground. The Aqua Alsietina, called also Augusta, was 22,172 paces from its source to the city, and 358 paces of it were on arcades. The seven aqueducts above mentioned being found, in the time of Caligula, unequal to the supply of the city, this emperor, in the second year of his reigų, began two others, which were finished by Claudius, and opened in the year of the city 803. The first was called Aqua Claudia, and the second Anio Novus, to distinguish it from one heretofore mentioned. The first was 46,406 Roman paces, of which 10,176 were on arcades, and the rest subterranean. The Anio Novus was 58,700 paces in length, 9,400 whereof were above ground, 6,491 on arches, and the rest subterranean Some of the arches of these are 100 Roman feet high. All the aqueducts we have mentioned were on different levels, and distributed accordingly to those parts of the city which suited their respective elevations. The following is the order of their heights, the highest being the Anio Novus, 159 feet above level of Tiber; Aqua Claudia, 149 feet; Aqua Julia, 129 feet; Aqua Tepula, Aqua Martia, 125 feet; Anio Vetus, Aqua Virgo, 34 feet; Aqua Appia, 27 feet; and the Aqua Alsietina on the lowest level. The Tiber at Rome being 91-5 feet above the level of the Mediterranean, the mean fall of these aqueducts has been ascertained to be about 0.132 English inches for each Roman pace (58.219 English inches), or 1 in 441. Vitruvius directs a fall of 1 in 200, but Scamozzi says the practice of the Romans was 1 in 500. The quantity of water furnished by six of the aqueducts, as given by Frontinus from a measurement at the head of each aqueduct, is as follows :Anio Vetus - 4,398 quinariæ.

· 1,368 quinariæ. Aqua Martia - - 4,690

Aqua Claudia

• 4,607 Aqua Virgo - 2,621

Anio Novus • 4,738 The whole supply is given as 14,018 quinariæ, after much fraudulent diversion of the water by individuals; but the diminished quantity is supposed to have been 27,743,100 English cubic feet, or, estimating the population of Rome at one million of inhabitants, 2774 cubic feet per diem for each inhabitant, or about 170 gallons English.

The aqueducts required constant repairs, from the nature of their construction, especially those on arches. The spaces between the piers varied much in width, and necessarily in height. Some of the arcades are as much as 27 feet in diameter.

There are remains of Roman aqueducts in other parts of Europe, even more magnificent than those we have mentioned. One, or the ruins of one, still exists at Metz, and another at Segovia in Spain, with two rows of arcades, one above the other. This last is about 100 feet high, and passes over the greater part of the houses of the city. The most remarkable aqueduct of modern times was that constructed by the order of Louis XIV. for conveying the waters of the Eure to Versailles. It is 4,400 feet in length, and contains 242 arcades, each of 50 feet span. The Romans do not appear to have been aware of the fact of water rising at a distance to its level at the fountain head. The introduction of water pipes has now superseded the erection of these expensive

structures. ARABESQUE. The term is commonly used to denote that sort of ornament in Saracenic

architecture consisting of intricate rectilinear and curvilinear compartments and mosaics which adorn tho walls, pavements, and ceilings of Arabian and Saracenic buildings. It is capricious, fantastic, and imaginative, consisting of fruits, flowers, and oth · objects, to the exclusion in pure arabesques of the figures of animals, which the religion forbade. This sort of ornament, however, did not originate with the Arabians; it was understood and practised by the ancients at a very early period. Foliage and griffios, with ornaments not very dissimilar to those of the Arabians, were frequently employed on the friezes of temples, and on many of the ancient Greek vases, on the walls of the baths of Titus, at Pompeii, and at many other places. To Raffaele, in more modern times, we are indebted for the most elaborate and beautiful examples of a style of decoration called Arabesque, which he even dignified, and left nothing to be desired in it. Since the time of that master it has been practised with varying and inferior degrees of merit, especially by the French in the time of Louis XVI. Arabesques lose their character when applied to large objects, neither should they be employed where gravity in

the style is to be preserved. ARADIAN ARCHITECTURE. See SARACENIC ARCHITECTURE. ARABO-TEDESCO. A term used chiefly by the Italians. An example of this style may be

quoted in the baptistery at Pisa (fig. 152), erected by Dioti Salvi in 1152. It is a circular edifice, with an arcade in the second order composed of columns with Corinthian capitals and plain round arches. Between each arch rises a Gothic pinnacle, and above

it is finished by sharp pelliments enriched with foliage, terminating in a trefoil. AuxOSTYLE. (Gr. Apaloso, wide, and Tudos, a column.) One of the five proportions used by

the ancients for regulating the intercolumniations or intervals between the columns in porticoes and colonnades. Vitruvius does not determine precisely its measure in terms of the diameter of the column. His commentators have tried to supply the deficiency; and, following the progression observable in the intercolumniations he does describe, each of which increases by a semidiameter, the aræostyle would be three diameters and a half. Perrault, in his translation of Vitruvius, proposes that the interval be made equal to four diameters, which is the interval now usually assigned to it. It is only,

or rather ought only to be, used with the Tuscan order. ARÆOSYSTYLE. (Gr. Apaios, wide, ovv, with, otulos, a column.) A term used by the

French architects to denote the method of proportioning the intervals between columns coupled or ranged in pairs, as invented by Perrault, and introduced in the principal façade of the Louvre. It was also adopted by Sir Christopher Wren in the west front

of St. Paul's. Arc. In geometry, a portion of a circle or other curve lino. The arc of a circle is the

measure of the angle formed by two straight lines drawn from its extremities to the

centre of the circle. ARC-BOUTANT. (Fr.) An arch-formed buttress, much employed in sacred edifices built

in the Pointed style, as also in other edifices, and commonly called a flying buttress, whose object is to counteract the thrust of the main vault of the edifice ; it is also

called arched buttress and arched butment. It was used in the Baths of Diocletian. Arc DOUBLEAU. (Fr.) An arch forming a projection before the sofite of a main arch

or vault, in the same manner as a pilaster breaks before the face of a wall. ARCADE. (Fr.) A series of apertures or recesses with arched ceilings or sofites. But the

word is often vaguely and indefinitely used. Some so designate a single-arched aperturo or enclosure, which is more properly a vault; others use it for the space covered by a continued vault or arch supported on piers or columns; and, besides these, other false meanings are given to it instead of that which we have assigned. Behind the arcade is generally a walk or ambulatory, as in Covent Garden, where the term piazza is ignorantly applied to the walks under the arcade instead of to the whole place (Ital. piazza) or square.

The piers of arcades may be decorated with columns, pilasters, niches, and apertures of different forms. The arches themselves are sometimes turned with rock-worked, and at other times with plain rustic, arch stones or voussoirs, or with a moulded archivolt, springing from an impost or platband; and sometimes, though a practice not to bo recommended, from columns. The keystones are generally curved in the form of a console, or sculptured with some device. Scamozzi made the size of his piers less, and varied his imposts or archivolts, in proportion to the delicacy of the orders he employed;

but Vignola made his piers always of the same proportion. ARCADE. In mediæral architecture, an ornamental dressing to a wall, consisting of colon

nettes supporting moulded arches. Sometimes they stand sufficiently forward to admit

of a passage behind them. Arcæ. In ancient Roman architecture, the gutters of the cavedium ; arca signifying a

beam of wood with a groove or channel in it. ARCELLA. (Lat.) In mediæval architecture, a cheese room. ARCH. A mechanical arrangement of blocks of any hard material disposed in the line of

some curve, and supporting one another by their mutual pressure. The arch itself is formed of voussoirs or arch stones cut in the shape of a truncated wedge, the uppermost whereof is called the keystone. The seams or planes, in which two adjacent voussoirs are united, are called the joints. The solid extremities on or against which the arch rests are called the abutments. The lower or under line of each arch-stone is called the intrados, and the superior or upper line the extrados. The distance between the piers or abutments is the span of the arch, and that from the level line of the springing to the intrados its height, or versed sine. The forms of arches employed in the different

styles and periods of architecture will be found described under the sereral heads. ARCHITECT. (Gr. Aogos and TEKTW , chief of the works.) A person competent to design and

superintend the execution of any building. The knowledge he ought to possess forms the subject of this work; whatever more he may acquire will be for the advantage of his employers ; and when we say that the whole of the elements which this work contains should be well known and understood by him, we mean it as a minimum of his qualifications. To this we may add, that with the possessions indicated, devotedness, faithfulness, and integrity towards his employer, with kindness and urbanity to those whose lot it is to execute his projects, not however without resolution to check the dishonesty of a builder, should ho meet with such, will tend to insure a brilliant and

happy career in his profession. ARCHITECTURE. The art of building according to certain proportions and rules determined

and regulated by nature and taste. ARCHITRAVE. (Gr. Apxeir, to govern, and Lat. Trabs, a beam.) The lower of the three

common sewer.

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principal members of the entablature of an Order, being, as its name imports, the chief beam employed in it, and resting immediately on the columns. It is called in Grecian architecture, Epistylium, from eni, upon, and otud s, a column. The height of the

architrave varied in the different Orders, as also in different examples of the same Order. ARCHITRAVE CORNICE. An entablature consisting of an architrave and cornice only,

without the interposition of a frieze. It is never used with columns or pilasters, unless

through want of height. It is, however, allowable. ARCHITRAVE OF A DOOR OR WINDOW. A collection of members and mouldings round

either, used for the decoration of the aperture. The upper part, or lintel, is called the

traverse, and the sides the jambs. See ANTEPAGMENTA. ARCHIVOLT. (Lat. Arcus volutus.). The ornamental band of mouldings round the voussoirs,

or arch-stones of an arch, which terminates horizontally upon the impost. It is decorated, as to the members, analogously with the architrave, which, in arcades, it may be

said to represent. It differs in the different Orders. ARCHIVOLTUM. In mediæval architecture, an arched receptacle for filth. A cesspool or ARCH MOULDINGS. The series of mouldings forming the decoration of an arch is used

in mediæval architecture. The illustration of the Early

English period, is from St. Mary's Church, Lincoln. ARCHWAY. An aperture in a building corered with a vault.

Usually an arched passage or gate wide enough for carriages ARCUS ECCLESIÆ. In mediæval architecture, the arch dividing

the nave of the church from the choir or chancel. ARCUS PRESBYTERII, In mediæval architecture, the arch orer

the tribune marking the boundaries of its recess. ARCUS TORALIS. In mediæval architecture, the lattice sepa

rating the choir from the nave in a basilica. AREA. In Architecture, a small court or place, often sunk

below the general surface of the ground, before windows in the basement story. It is also used to denote a sinall court

or yard, even when level with the ground. AREA. In Geometry, the superficial content of any figure.

Fig. 1365. ARENA. The central space in a Roman amphitheatre, wherein

the gladiators fought. See AMPHITHEATRE. ARMOURY. An apartment destined to the reception of instruments of war. A RONADE. Embattled; a junction of several lines forming indentations like the upwarl

boundary of an embattled wall, except that the middle of every raised part is terminated by the convex arch of a circle, which arch does not extend to the length of that

part. ARRIÈRE VOUSSURE. A secondary arch. An arch placed within an opening to form a

larger one, and sometimes serving as a sort of discharging arch. ARRIS (probably abbreviated from the Ital. a risega, at the projection, or from the Sax. · apifan, to rise). The intersection or line on which two surfaces of a body forming an

exterior angle meet each other. It is a term much used by all workmen concerned in building, as the arris of a stone, of a piece of wood, or any other body. Though, in common language, the edge of a body implies the same as arris, yet. in building, the word edge is restrained to those two surfaces of a rectangular parallelopipedal body on which the length and thickness may be measured, as in boards, planks, doors, shutters,

and other framod joinery. Arris Fillet. A slight piece of timber of a triangular section, used in raising the slates

against chimney shafts, or against a wall that cuts obliquely across the roof, and in forming gutters at the upper ends and sides of those kinds of skylights of which the planes coincide with those of the roof. When the arris fillet is used to raise the slates,

at the eaves of a building, it is then called the caves' board, eaves' lath, or eaves catch. Arris GUTTER. A wooden gutter of this V form fixed to the eaves of a building. ARSENAL. A public establishment for the deposition of arms and warlike stores. ARTIFICER. (Lat. Ars and Facio.) A person who works with his hands in the manufacture

of anything. He is a person of intellectual acquirements, independent of mere operation by hand, which place him above the artisan, whose knowledge is limited to the

general rules of his trade. ARTIFICIAL STONE. A material produced by the use of cement and other substances, such

as Austin's artificial stone, which is not burnt. Ransome's silicious stone was formed of silicate of soda mixed with sand, clay, and some flint, made into castings of the des red form, and burnt in a kiln. His concrete stone is formed of silicate of soda, mixed with clean pit sand and chalk, and formed into a stiff putty; then pressed into a mould, and saturated with a solution of chloride of calcium, forming a solid substance.

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ASAROTUM. In ancient architecture, a species of painted parement used by the Romans

before the invention of Mosaic work. Asular or Ashler. (Ital. Asciare, to chip.) Common or free-stones as brought from the quarry of different lengths and thicknesses.

Also the facing given to squared stones on the front of a building. When the work is smoothed or rubbed so as to take out the marks of the tools by which the stones were cut, it is called plain ashlar. Tooled ashlar is understood to be that of which the surface is wrought in a regular manner, like parallel flutes, and placed perpendicularly in the building. But when the surfaces of the stones are cut with a broad tool without care or regularity, the work is said to be random-tooled. When wrought with a narrow tool, it is said to be chiselled or boasted, and when the surface is cut with a very narrow tool, the ashlar is said to be pointed. When the stones project from the joints, the ashlar is said to be rusticked, in which the faces may have a smooth or broken surface. In superior work, neither pointed, chiselled, nor random-tooled work are employed. In some parts of the country herring-bone ashlar and herring-bone random-tooled ashlar

are used. ASHLARING. In carpentry, the short upright quartering fixed in garrets about two feet

six inches or three feet high from the floor, being between the rafters and the floor, in order to cut off the acute angle formed by the rafters. The upright quarterings seen in

some open timber roofs between the inner wall plate and the rafters, is also so called. ASPECT. (Lat. Aspicio.) The quarter of the heavens which the front of a building

faces. Thus a front to the north is said to have a north aspect. ASPHALTE. A bituminous substance found in various places. When used for floors or

roadways, it is either poured on in a liquid state, forming when set a hard substance, impervious to damp; or it is placed on the ground in powder, in a hot state, and prossed

down by hot iron rammers. ASSEMBLAGE. The joining or uniting several pieces together, or the union of them when

so joined. Carpenters and joiners have many modes of accomplishing this, as by

framing, mortise and tenon, dovetailing, &c. ASSEMBLAGE OF THE ORDERS. The placing of columns upon one another in the several

ranges. Assyrian ARCHITECTURE. Little more is known of the buildings of Assyria and Baby

lonia than the thick walls forming halls and chambers lined with carvings, and having carved stone pavements. The roofing is supposed to have been formed with wood pillars supporting the framework of the roof, the spaces between the pillars allowing

the entry of light and of fresh air. ASTRAGAL. (Gr. Aotpayados, a die or huckle bone.) A small moulding of a semicircular

profile. Some have said that the French call it talon, and the Italians tondino; but this a mistake, for the term is properly applied only to the ring separating the capital from the column. The astragal is occasionally cut into representations of beads and berries. A similar sort of moulding, though not developed in its profile as is the

astragal, is used to separate the faces of the architrave. AstyLAR. A design made without the introduction of columns or pilasters is termed an

astylar composition. ATKINSON'S CEMENT. A quick-setting cement similar to Parker's or Roman cement,

formerly obtained from nodules found near Whitby in Yorkshire. ATLANTES or ATLANTIDES. Figures of males used instead of columns for the support of

an entablature. In some modern works figures resembling Persians have been intro

duced, and hence that name has been applied to them. CARYATIDES. Atrium. In ancient Roman architecture, a court surrounded by porticoes in the interior

part of Roman houses. According to Scaliger it is derived from the Greek atopios exposed to the air. By some it has been considered the same apartment as the vestibule,

and Aulus Gellius intimates that in his time the two words were confounded. ATTIC, or ATTIC ORDER. It is employed to decorate the facade of a story of small height,

terminating the upper part of a building; and it doubtless derives its name from its resemblance in proportional height and concealed roof to some of the buildings of Greece. Pliny thus describes it after speaking of the other orders: “Præter has sunt quæ vocantur Atticæ columnæ quaternis angulis pari laterum intervallo.” We, however, find no examples of square pillars in the remains of ancient art, though almost all the triumphal arches exhibit specimens of pilastral attics, having no capitals save the cornice breaking round them. In modern architecture the proportions of the attic order have never been subject to fixed rules, and their good effect is entirely dependent on the taste and feeling of the architect. The attic is usually decorated with antæ

or small pilasters. Artic Base. The base of a column consisting of an upper and lower torus, a scotia and

fillets between them. It is thus described by Vitruvius, " It must be so subdivided that the upper part be one-third of the thickness of the column, and that the remainder be

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