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favourable circumstance, for the performance of a march over the fame extent of country in the common course of military movements. And we are further informed by the public accounts, that a division of the french army was actually sent forward to Suez soon after the arrival of Buonaparte at Cairo.

He next ridicules the opposition arising from the power of the turks in Egypt, and relates from Savary, that whenever any of the beys are displeased with the viceroy of the grand fignior, their melsengers only pronounce the words Inzil Pacha,' on which he is obliged to fee for safety. He also observes, that the copts, who may form about one-third of the population, profess christianity, and would doubtless join against the mohammedans, their present opprefors.

After this he points out the difference between the state of the country when invaded by king Lewis and general Buonaparte, and animadverts on the greater difficulties encountered by the former, in consequence of the military talents of Nedjim Ud-deen, and the application of the greek fire,' whence incredible mischief was fuftaired by the first adventurers.

The grand obstacle to the enterprise is here said to confift in the difficulty of obtaining vessels in the Red Sea, fufficient to transport the army that may be destined for India. Among the various probable means of accomplishing such a bold scheme, the author points out the following:

P. 33. First, not by engaging the pachas and beys of Egypt to summon their navy to Suez, but perhaps by the operations of a french naval commander in that country, who may have secured all the vessels in the Red Sea, either by purchase or by force*. With respect to the number and description of vessels that may be found there, and the adjacent gulfs of Sinde, &c. I shall not pretend to give any positive opinion; but only observe, that colonel Capper's journal contains an account of vessels of (I think) twelve hundred tons burden being used in the Red Sea to convey pilgrims from Suez to Jedda, the sea-port of Mecca; and I have myself seen very fine ships, of five, fix, and seven hundred tons burden, carrying on commerce in the indian seas, under arabian colours, and navigated and manned by natives of that country alone (I cannot take upon me to say to what particular ports they may have belonged). And although it may be objected to this statement, that vessels constructed like those noticed by colonel Capper are not calculated for diftant navigation in the more open seas, I think it would be rash to conclude, that, vessels which can convey fuch a host of pilgrims the distance between Suez and Jeida che mot dangerous part of the navigation, perhaps, with respect to thoals, &c.) would (not) be cheerfully embarked on by an army, animated with the prospect of a great and glorious achievement. There may doubtless be a risk attending it; and is there any operation of war that is not attended with similar difficulties and

« * Admiral Sercy, with three or four heavy frigates, besides a variety of smaller vessels fitted out as privateers, is still busy in the eastern seas, which he has infefted the greater part of the present war.' TOL. XXVIII,



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dangers, in a greater or lesser degree? Perhaps, further, agents of the french in that quarter (and there is scarcely a part of the world, I believe, where they have not agents of some sort) may have formed an alliance with, and secured the good offices of the sherreif of Mecca, who has always evir.ced a rancorous spirit of jealousy and ill-will towards the english nation, excited, amongst other causes, by the attempts that have been made to establish commercial intercourse in

• And secondly, it may be asked, where are the numerous tips which the french have captured, with successful impunity, in the indian seas, during the present war? Where, but (for the most part, at least) in the hands of the french, ready, for anght we know, to co-operate in the very design in question.

"Amongst a very numerous list of captures above alluded to, which I most sincerely lament, the following stand prominent in my recollection : the Princess Royal, the Pigott, the Triton, (whose capture was a transaction of the most disgraceful nature that perhaps was ever recorded of Britons,) the Raymond and Woodcote, regular english east indiamen; the Fort William country thip, nearly as large as any of the former; the Thomas, a large extra ship of laft season; the Kaunitz, a ship from Europe under genoese colours, captured at the mouth of the Calcutta river; a fine arab ship, with specie on board; and a new ship from Pegue, of about eight hundred tons, captured about the same time and place with the Kaunitz (the end of 1796 and beginning of 1797); besides many others of different descriptions, which I will not venture, from memory, to point out. The Triton was sold at the Mauritius, and said to be bought by an american, and under the colours of that nation the insultingly entered the port of Calcutta a few months after her capture. At all events, she is still trading in those feas; and I should suppose the owners would have no more objection to be taken up at the Ine of France, to bring freight from the Red Sea, than from any other port in India.

• Thirdly; a great number of foreign ships, especially americans and danes, resort constantly to the french illands, and Batavia, and carry thither articles of american and european produce, as well as convey articles of provifion and commerce between those islands and India.

« On an occasion like that under discussion, suppose the governor of the french islands was to engage a number of these ships to bring supplies from the Red Sea, they pollibly might not refuse; and if they did, the well-known want of ceremony practised by modern France will not, I think, allow as to hesitate as to the probability of their being put in requisition.'

Having thus gurled at the mode of conveyance, the aathor alludes to the powers moft likely to co-operate with the frencḥ, and these are Tippoo Sultaun, Zemaan Shah, king of Cabul, and perhaps Almafs Ally Khan. In short, this officer, who evinces much libera. lity and candour, feems to think in the emphatic language of Mr. Hastings, that the fate of India is still suspended “BY A THREAD HO FINE, THAT THE TOUCH OF CHANCE MIGHT BREAK, OR THE BREATH OF OPINION DISSOLVE IT”.


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HISTORY OF ACADEMIES. Art. 1. Amsterdam and the Hague. Verhandeling van het Genoot

chap tot Verdediging van den christelyken Godsdiens, &c. Memoirs of the Society for defending Christianity, at the Hague. For the Year 1795. 8vo. 306 p. 1798.

The publication of the prize essays of this society has hitherto been flow, so that it would have excited no wonder, if the present state of the Netherlands had put a stop to it entirely: but this seems, on the contrary, rather to have operated as a stimulus on the society; for we are informed, in this volume, that the prize essays of 1796 are in the press, and will speedily be followed by those of 1797.

Jen. Allg. Lit. Zeit.



Hanover. The 4th number of the Sertum Hanoveranum [ree our Rev. Vol. xxII, p. 107] is published by Mr. Wendland alone, without the assistance of Mr. Schrader, and he intends to continue it under the title of Hortus Herrenhufanus. The plants given in it are not less beautiful and interesting than those of the preceding numbers. ART. II. Botanische Beobachtungen, &c. Botanical Observations,

with some new Genera and Species, by J. Christ. Wendland, Superintendant of the Royal Electoral Gardens at Herrenhaufen, &c. Small fol. 64 p. 4 pl. ,1798.

Mr. W. here gives us, in three sections, seventy-three observations on botanical subjects, and descriptions of five new genera, and fortythree new species. He likewise promises us a continuation, which will be unqueflionably acceptable to the lovers of botany.

Jen. Allg. Lit. Zeit.

GEOGRAPHY. Art. iv. Weimar. Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden, &c. The

universal Geographical Ephemeris, &c. Nos IV-VI. MarchJune. p. 275--744, with 4 portraits, 2 charts, and a copious index. 1798.

We have already noticed the former two numbers of this interesting publication, conducted by Mr. von Zach [see our Rev. Vol. xxvii, p. 437]. Among the most valuable papers in the present is an account, by Mr. Blumenbach, of the fruitless endeavours of the russians, under captain Billings, to find a northern parsage from the indian seas to Europe. Part of the fix years spent in this enterprize captain Billings employed in a fix months journey by land through the unexplored country of the thouktshies, a narrative of which is now printing under the inspection of the academy of Petersburg. The mechanical performances of these inhabitants Ff2


of the polar regions, we are assured by Mr. Bl., are inexpreffibly clegant. The needle-work of the women, in particular, is of a very superiour kind, bearing an examination with the magnifying glass better than that of our european ladies,

Of the correspondence the letters of Lalande and Burckhardt from Paris are most interesting. From L. we learn, that 17 sheets of his Hiftoire céleste, “ History of the Heavens," are printed ; that his Bibliographie Astronomique, “ Bibliography of Aftronomy,” is pre. paring for the press; and that a history of his own life, begun by Mersais and Dagelet, and brought down to 1798 by himself, is in the hands of Mr. von. Zach. Montucla's Modern History of Mathematics, the printing of which was begun, is at a stand for want of money: but de Borda's Tables of Sines for the centesimal Divifions of the Quadrant, and for every ten thousandth part of a centesimal degree, are already printed; and the logarithms of these fines are in the press. Didot's new edition of Virgil in folio is the greatest masterpiece that ever issued from the press, according to Mr. L. The mensuration of an arc of che meridian in France, which has been carried on with wonderful exertion, perseverance, and precision, by de Lambre and Mechain in particular, is nearly finished. De Lambre is in every respect an extraordinary man. Mechain has injured his health by his labours; yet we may expect a grand work from him on the subject. The attronomer Piazzi of Palermo is also about to measure a degree in Sicily. In praise of Buonaparte, by whom Lalande was Aattered with great delicacy, the learned astronomer cannot say enough. It was proposed to Dr. Burckhardt, to accompany the learned expedition, which was to visit Egypt and the Eait Indies under the auspices of this general; but this he declined by the advice of Lalande. Buonaparte is accompanied by nineteen men of letters, among whom are Berthollet, Dolomieu, and Nouet the astronomer; and eighteen geographical engineers from the Polytechnic School.

We shall conclude with two meteorological observations of the editor.-In Thuringia a fouthern wind occurs, which, like the firocco, fimoom, and harmattan, destroys the transparency of the unclouded atmosphere, so that the stars appear surrounded with a halo, and feems to consist of a peculiar kind of gas.-And, in a clear sky, a powerfully magnifying transit inftrument is a better weather-glass than the barometer: a certain vacillation of the stars in their transit, whether by night or by day, indicating a change of the weather, a whole day before it takes place, with great certainty..

Jen. Aug. Lit. Zeit. ART. v. Pet. Statifik des Königreichs Ungarn, &c. Statistics of

the Kingdom of Hungary. An Esay by Mart. Schwardtner, Prof. of Diplomatics, &c. 8vo. 606 p.

Mr. S. unites to a practical knowledge of public affairs great acuteness of reasoning, his ityle is clear and pleasing, and he contantly endeavours to lupport whatever he advances hy proofs, and, by pointing out the fources from which it is derived. Indeed he displays the qualities of his master, the celebrated Schlözer, and it is long since hungarian literature could boaf & work like the present.


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According to Schlözer's method, the state of the country is first de-
fcribed; next it's constitution, and lastly the administration of it's
government. It would trespass too much on our room, to extract
the various information contained in this work: we shall only ob-
serve, therefore, that prof. S. reckons the population of the country
to be about eight millions and half, of which number 4135952 are
catholics, a million and half calvinists, 800000 lutherans, 1800000
greek diffidents, including the military frontier, and 75000 jews,

Jen. Allg. Lit. Zent.

ART. VI. Dortmund and Leipfic. Unterricht über die Cultur der An-

gorifchen Kaninchen, &c. Inftractions for the Management of the
Angora Rabbit, concerning it's Diseases, and the best Method of
rendering the Animal profitable, by J.C. F. Bährens, Ph. D. &c.
8vo. 48 p. 1796.

This is an useful book on the management of the Angora or filky
haired rabbit, which appears to have become an object of confider,
able attention in Germany. According to Dr. B., fifty grown rab
bits will yield two pounds of wool every fix weeks, or fixteen pounds
a year; which, at the lowest price, or 5 r. [16s. 8d.) a pound, will
amount to 80 r. [131. 6s. 8d). Deducting from this the expense of
keeping zor. (31. 6s. 8d), the clear annual profit will be bor: (101).
The uses of the wool, and the precautions to be taken to avoid the
injurious effects of their effluvia, with others to be observed in their
management, conclude the work.

Jen. Allg. Lit. Zeit.



ART. VII. Leipfic. Goeschen is printing a splendid edition of
Klopstock's Works, with plates, fimilar to that of Wieland (see our
Rev. Vol. XVII, p. 360), in four volumes, two of which, con-
taining his odes, are already published.



Baron Racknitz has published three numbers of his "Representation and History of the Taste of the most diftinguished Countries,Darstellung und Geschichte des Geschmacks der vorzüglichsten Volker (see our Rev. Vol. xxIII, p. 652]. Each contains lix folio coloured plates of insides of buildings, fix of appropriate furniture, and twelve vignettes. The letter-press to the three numbers makes 330 p. 4to. The price of each number is 8 gold frederics [71]. The subjects are greek, roman, ancient german, modern persian, english, french, otaheitean, moorish, turkish, ancient french, kamtfchadale, and mexican. The encouragement the work has expe. rienced, notwithstanding the price; which in fact is low compared with it's intrinfic value, and the unfavourable state of the times for expensive undertakings, is a strong proof of it's merit: and indeed too much cannot be faid in praise either of the literary department of it, or of the plates.

Jen. Allg. Lit. Zeit.

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