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At Berhampore - The ladies learn fancy work, read in Bengali, and show more or less interest in subjects of a religious character.” At Midnapore,—" Some of the Zenana women, there is reason to believe, have a strong desire for improvement." Calcutta and vicinity afford yet more cheering news. One writes, _"The native ladies are in general eager for instruction in needle-work, less so for book-learning. They are willing to pay large fees for competent teachers.” Another says,—"In all the houses where we visit, the ladies are most deeply anxious for social improvement, and in most for religious improvement also. Quite a large number of our Zenana ladies have been brought by their husbands to spend the evening with us.” Another says,—“I must tell you a little about a house to which I was truly grieved to be denied entrance, where I had one pupil only, but she was so intelligent, and seemed so glad of religious instruction, that it seemed like sowing seed in good ground.” Another says,-"From conversations that have been reported to me I should incline to the belief that some of them are feeling after the truth.” Another writes,--"I cannot mention any cases of baptism in the Zenanas, but I feel sure that there are two or three who have sought and found our precious Saviour.” Another says,—" In No. 1 English spelling book our Lord is represented in a picture bearing his Cross. One of the ladies asked me, Who was this? I explained. “Yes,' she said, “I know all about him,' and at my request she went on to speak of his birth, sufferings, death, burial, resurrection, and ascension. I asked her where she acquired this history. She replied, From a Bengali Bible lent me by a lad who was studying in the Bhowanipore Institution, but he has taken it


from me.' Much more might be said, but this will suffice to show that a better day is dawning upon the benighted Zenana. The word of God is to-day taught in hundreds of Hindu and Mussulman homes, and will surely, though silently, overturn the works of darkness.

An important auxiliary in the work for the women of India is the schools for native girls, which are now steadily on the increase throughout the country.

In this connection a very brief notice of these will suffice. I will at first mention statis

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tics. Mr. Monteith in his “Note on the state of Education in India" says, that_" In Bengal there are three Government schools, for the Education of native girls, with 153 pupils; and 217 private schools with 5559. pupils." And win the North West Provinces there are 497 Government schools for girls with 9269 pupils, and 77 private schools with 1494 pupils.” Besides this Missionary societies are doing an important work. Where Zenanas are visited girl's schools are almost invariably found, and in many places the latter exists without the former. At Delhi, Agra, Futtehgurh, Lucknow, Allahabad, Benares, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, and many smaller stations, are large, vigorous schools for native Christian, Hindu and Mussulman girls. The vast majority of these are day-schools. In these tuition fees are fast becoming the rule. The Mission boarding schools are of course supported mainly by foreign funds. I have no reliable statistics of these. But it is safe to calculate that there are at present no less than 2500 native Christian girls in these alone.

This shows that several thousand native girls are now under instruction in India. In all save the Government schools and the private Hindu schools, the Bible is a text-book and is faithfully taught by Christian men and women. The intelligent reader will at once perceive the power for good which these schools must exert in this pagan land. In them are being trained the teachers who shall carry on the noble work for woman in India. Already have many in the Mission schools become disciples of Christ, and some of these to-day hold positions of public responsiblity in connection with the Missionary enterprise in their native land.

In the foregoing pages I have tried to give a view of what is being done for woman in India, and now it may be well to point out in conclusion a few cheering signs which greatly encourage the toiler in this interesting field.

The first cheering thing that should be noted, and for which every Christian will devoutly thank God, is the fact that the natives of India are beginning to perceive what is woman's er place in society and to feel that she should be helped to reach it. Among the more enlightened Bengalis very few will be


found to uphold the ancestral system of keeping woman out of sight and in total ignorance. Those of this class who do speak in favor of the old way do it more to please the fathers than because they think so themselves. It is more the special pleading of an advocate than the passionate devotion of a believer.

Not long ago a babu called on me, whose views interested me much. He was upwards of fifty years of age and in the Bengal civil service. So completely has this Hindu changed his postion on the woman question that he now openly advocates all that we could wish. He fairly grew eloquent over the topic as he pictured the good results of the Zenana and girls' schools. As he was a Brahmin I was the more surprised and pleased at this. Why,” said the old man our wives will soon be returning the calls of your good ladies who are now regularly visiting them at our homes. I am doing all I can to bring this about. In my native village I have opened a girls' school and I do wish you would send me a native Christian teacher, I will cheerfully pay her good wages.”

Here in Midnapore a small girls' school has been opened in the bazar and many of the babus patronize it. It is enough to make one thank God aloud to see the dear little heathen girls so happily walking home from school at evening, their books neatly tied up in a cloth, swinging their slates as they go merrily along. Many such schools are springing up all over India today. They will exert an untold influence over the generation to come by breaking up the strongholds of superstition and preparing the way for the Gospel.

Another very hopeful sign is the encouragement which the British Government affords this enterprise. Many of the Zenana schools and Mission Boarding schools for girls receive grantsin-aid from the state. And many schools, which I have cited above, are supported entirely by Government. Could our rulers be persuaded to place the Bible in all their schools, the prospect would be still more cheering. Normal schools for girls are now being organized in Calcutta and at other prominent centres. The administration of Sir John Lawrence will be gratefully remembered by all for its intelligent and liberal policy in regard to the education of the masses in India.

Still another token for good must be mentioned, and this will here suffice. It is the right hearty and faithful service which some of the native Christians are rendering this enterprise. I could cite many illustrations but select a single one. Last month (May, 1868), the Weekly News, a Bengali newspaper, issued its first sheet in Calcutta. The Editor is Babu Parbati Charan Bandopadhai, a native Christian and a man of scholarly ability and attainments. His paper has as yet but a small circulation, but this man is already dealing heavy and telling blows on Hindu sins and superstitions. Here is an extract or two from a recent leader on “ Woman's Education." « Life without learning is a desert. Every body admits that knowledge is priceless wealth. How supremely selfish are the people of Hindostan! They are diligent to acquire knowledge themselves in order that they may carry out life's chief end, but they allow the cruel custom to prevail that robs woman of all knowledge. Alas! is not the heart of the merciful moved with pity upon seeing her miserable state?” Then after comparing Hindu women with their European and American sisters, he says,—“O when will Hindus look in mercy upon their own wives? When will their folly cease? When will they strive for the welfare of the state by educating their daughters ?”

These are some of the signs of the times that cheer us in India. This work of blessing woman and making her a blessing to society is the work of God, and just so far as His Holy Word prevails in this pagan land will the movement we have described prove successful. The greatest of Hindu lawgivers declared centuries ago that “ Women must be honored by their fathers, their husbands and their brethren, if they seek abun-dant prosperity. Where woman is honored there the deities are pleased, but where dishonored, there all religious acts become fruitless.Manu's words shall yet be heeded in his fatherland, and this picture realized in all its power and beauty, from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin.




There has been considerable controversy about the destination of this epistle—whether it was sent to Ephesus, Laodicea, or to some other church. It is not necessary to enter into the discussion of this question as it does not materially affect our present purpose. There is no question of its genuineness. It is not at all improbable that a copy was sent both to Ephesus and Laodicea. Our attention will be confined particularly to the first chapter. For the sake of convenience this chapter may be divided into three parts, and each part be considered by itself. The first contains the apostle's salutation including the first two verses; the second refers to God's dealing with the first believers and the ground of their confidence, and extends from the third to the twelfth, inclusive; and the third is concerning those Christians whom Paul addressed, and comprehends the remainder of the chapter. Or what, perhaps, is better, it may be treated in three sentences : 1. the salutation, 2. the doctrine, and 3. the prayer.

We will commence with the first sentence. tle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus ; Grace be to you, and peace fom God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.” Here the author styles himself “ an apostle of Christ," thereby giving the authority of his office to what he is about to utter; and he adds the authority of God, by saying that he is an apostle by the will or command of God. This is a common mode of salutation with Paul in his epistles.

Notice those addressed are styled saints (holy), a term synonymous with Christians and employed to designate the people of God before the latter term was introduced, and the faithful (or believers). Some suppose he means to address the church at Ephesus and other believers ; but where is the proof? He does not say so.


with Barnes that it is evident, does not prove it, neither does it follow because in his first epistle to the Cor. he includes all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus

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