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mentality, there was one fatal omission some windows well known to the archof a young Scot's equipment, and that æological world for their beauty, as for was health. The seeds of cousumption instance at King's College, Cambridge, were there, and it is only within the at Aylesbury Church, and at Ely CatheOliphants' own domestic circle that the dral; those in the cloister at this Ca. history of the battle with this great thedral were designed by William Dyce, destroyer can be known. Margaret R. A., and painted by Frank Oliphant Oliphant alone knew the secret of that and the Harry Roe before mentioned. fell conflict which in turn robbed her Further that he published a small treatof daughter, of husband, and of both ise entitled “A Plea for Painted Glass;" sons.

that he died in Rome, October 1859, If little is known of the life-work of leaving a widow (the authoress) and Francis Oliphant, perhaps it was the two sons, both of whom died in early wish of her who cherished his memory manhood, the youngest, after the father's and had so sensitive a dread of publicity death, having previously assisted his that little should be known. Those as- mother in her compilation of her “ Vicsociated with him in his art are scattered torian Age of Literature” in 1892. over the globe, and not a few are now All this is meagre enough as biography, beneath the sod with him in earth's final yet it is strange that the authors of even resting-place. Perhaps the man who such material should be subject to miscould most enlighten us is Sebastian taken impressions, for most biographical Evans, an Oxford graduate, who was sketches of the Oliphants (and I have connected during the last year of his read many), nearly all in fact, omit business residence in London with Frank mention of their only daughter, the Oliphant; a man of culture and attain- beautiful girl of whom I have already ment, and a poet of recognized power. spoken, and who died in Rome on her He was one whom the elder Pugin had 15th birthday. The London “Critic" inspired with a love of ecclesiastical art, gets confused concerning Mrs. Oliphant's and who, I believe, is now engaged in husband, telling us that his name was the commerce connected with stained Laurence, not Francis. This is ex glass, in one of the larger towns in Eng- plained by the fact that Laurence, the land. Another man named Harry Roe, great traveller, scientist, and diplomatist, would also be a notable character. He was also a cousin, whose biography was a talented and skilful glass painter Margaret Oliphant wrote, stating that (also a good musician) who painted the she was “related to him both by blood figure work for Frank Oliphant during his and marriage," and by the facts also, , London career.

that her husband (Francis) was less There is a short public record of known to fame, and that it was known

a Oliphant in the “Dictionary of National she married a cousin. Biography" (London), to the effect that Some may consider such a point Francis Wilson Oliphant was born Aug- scarcely worth the settling, save in ust 31st, 1818 and died in 1859 at Rome; justice to a good master and an able that he got his art education, at the artist. The writer, moreover, has the Edinburgh Art School; that he worked temerity to desire that his identity should with Pugin - (this would be the second be connected with that of the great and

— Pugin) — at the windows for the new gifted woman whose loss literature has Houses of Parliament and also for the so much occasion to reget. Wailes', of Newcastle-on-Tyne; that he Margaret Oliphant prefaced "The was not a glass painter only, but had Makers of Modern Rome" with a noble two pictures accepted and favorably dedication to her loved ones. There is noticed in the Royal Academy - one of little wonder at this, since the sevenan historical subject, the meeting of hilled city must be to her but a mausoRichard II. and John of Gaunt, the leum, although a noble and imposing other “the Return of the Prodigal ;" one, for the sepulchring of some of her that he married his cousin Margaret earthly treasures. I would not pry into Wilson Oliphant, “then beginning to be the sacredness of such grief, but now known as a writer and who has since that the chief mourner has departed to achieved a great reputation in many de- the same bourne as her loved ones, my obpartments of literature;' that he painted ject is to add my own humble wreath to

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the many that adorn the great writer's the mere dabblers in the commercial side tomb.

of the stained glass art. To follow too insistently the line The art element in stained glass is connecting stained glass with literature another branch of the subject entirely, would, I fear, make tedious reading, and has been amply dealt with recently while the pretension would be absurd in “The Century” and other magazines that assumed that all artists who devoted by those who speak with authority. We themselves to stained glass were neces- know the good work done by such men sarily of a literary turn. I assigned my- on this continent as La Farge, and self no other task than that of opposing Tiffany, and Will Lowe; and in Britain a loose floating idea in the public mind by Henry Holiday, Walter Crane, Sir in a contrary direction. This is but Burne Jones, and, last but not least, the justice to the many good men connected late William Morris. We know that the with this art.

last named holds deservedly a foremost An ecclesiastical designer is not neces- place in the ranks of literature, and many sarily a man of one idea, full of archi- of the others hold honorable positions tectural pedantry. This estimate, how- among the wielders of the pen; but it ever well it may fit some present apostles may not be generally known, that behind

, of the cult, is at least erroneous and these great leaders, and not so far behind unjust as applied to the pioneers referred either, are good men and true, who have to, who have been, either in their own done more than yeoman service both in persons or through their immediate the cause of literature and in the foreassociates, not without honor in the most of decorative arts, as stained glass realm of letters. Milton's

is conceded to be. It were a tempting Storied windows richly dight

theme to continue biographical remi

niscences of some eminent glass-painters Casting a dim religious light

from the great pioneers mentioned to is an influence that would naturally those of a more recent date, but the attract the votary of the cloister, the subject requires and deserves a separate scholar, and the man of taste rather than paper. SAMUEL MOLYNEUX JONES.

BACTERIA—OUR UNSEEN FRIENDS AND FOES

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F our eyesight were not so of them could dance on the head of a pin, limited we could discern le- if they belonged to the class of beings gions of friends and foes that delight to “trip the light fantasaround us. There are innum- tic."

erable companies of friends Most people start at the mention thronging the air, who, by their ceaseless of bacteria. They think of them as activity, are bestowing incalculable bene- rapacious animals, seeking whom they factions, making the conditions of life may devour, the cause of disease, and favorable, and enhancing the blessings the instruments of death. Last summer of existence. Do you know these our little six-year-old girl went to visit friends ? Let me introduce you. They Grandma. A few recent

few recent raindrops, are known by the family name of Bac- after a “dry spell,” had spotted the winteria. Look about the room or out of dow pane and the little miss, when a window; the air is transparent and invited to take a seat before it, immediseems pure ; but glance obliquely across ately withdrew exclaiming : “Grandma, a ray of sunshine from the window, and why don't you wash your window? there's you see great numbers of floating par- more than a million microbes on it.” In ticles. You will say these particles are like manner, older people start at the dust, lint from the carpet, and the like; suggestion of microbes or bacteria; and and we agree with you. But floating

But floating yet most of these bacteria are valuaabout with them, and carried along in ble friends. Indeed we could not live the same way, are minute organisms, were it not for their existence. You thousands and millions of them perhaps, hesitate to accept this assertion yet it can and so small that of some species 250,000 be readily proven. In the first place,

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But,

bacteria are not animal, as nearly every- and yet have not been cognizant of the one supposes, but, vegetable organisms. fact. Yeast is one form of bacteria. They do not eat their food like the ani- The sponge is set in a warm place to rise. mal, but, like the plant, they absorb nour- Moderate heat being favorable to the ishment from other materials. However, growth of bacteria their cells develop rapthat which serves as food for bacteria idly, the sugar and starch are converted could not be used by plants, as the lat- into alcohol and carbonic acid gas, and it ter do not possess the power of obtaining is this carbonic acid gas that puffs up the their carbonic acid gas, nitrogen, and dough and makes it light. When the other essential elements, from preformed bread is baked, the bacteria are killed by organic matter, as do bacteria.

the heat. through that bacterial activity, well Certain forms of fermentative bacteria known as fermentation and putrefaction, are instrumental in producing vinegar, these complex organic substances are re- and various fermented wines and liquors. solved into the simpler compounds, car- The majority of bacteria act as scavenbonic acid, ammonia and water, and these gers, reducing dead organic matter to in turn are taken up and appropriated by simpler compounds. Were it not for the vegetable kingdom. As the pro- this, all waste or dead organic matter duction of these gases by the animal might remain unchanged, and lying world is insufficient to meet the demands about become a nuisance. It is no doubt of the chlorophyl or leaf-green plants, a blessing that decomposing animal matthe part that bacteria play in nature ter has such an unsavory odor that man in supplying this deficiency is of vital hastens to put it out of reach of the sense importance. Deprive higher vegetation of smell. In this way bacteria may be of the carbon and nitrogen prepared said to guard the citadel of life and from for it through bacterial activity, and the watch-tower sentinels war us of the its development would rapidly cease. approach of danger. Without the food-stuffs supplied by the While by far the greater number of vegetable world, animal life would not bacteria are harmless, there are a few be possible. Why does the farmer or that do produce disease, and these we gardener enrich his land each year? have termed our foes. The materials used are changed, through There are more deaths each year from bacterial activity, into products necessary consumption than any other disease; and to the growth and development of crops. here the tubercle bacillus is the active

It is estimated that one gram (fifteen agent. Pneumonia, diphtheria, typhoid grains ) of dirt may contain from 5,000,- fever, etc., all have their respective germs 000 to 50,000,000 bacteria. In this in- always present in the disease. The teresting process we find the fertilizer mouth is a veritable incubator for microbeing, first, decomposed into nitrogen, organisms of various kinds, and but for and albuminoid ammonia. Nitrogen is the wise provision of nature we should eliminated as free ammonia, which is con- probably suffer more from them than we verted into nitrites, and the nitrites into do; for frequently the bacteria of tunitrates, from which plant life is evolved berculosis, pneumonia, diphtheria, and by aid of the sun's rays. This process others, are found in the mouths of is brought about by nitrifying bacteria, healthy persons. Their presence, howand is known as nitrification. Unless ever, does not necessitate disease, for soil is enriched, it runs out, or becomes the human body in a perfect state of sterile ; for the bacteria die from want health is immune from disease. It is of nourishment, and vegetation cannot when the vitality of the system is lowthrive, as it is then unable to obtain ered, and some of the functions impaired, properly-formed material essential to its that these disease-producing germs find growth.

favorable soil for growth and multiplicaYou can imagine how disgusted many tion. a lady would look should you say to her: We have said that bacteria obtain “Madam, your bread-dough is teeming their nourishment by absorption only; with bacteria." Doubtless it would be how then, can they be destructive to immediately thrown out, although not human life? The disease-producing differing from any other. Women have germs excrete poisonous substances

, long mixed bacteria in their bread-dough termed toxines, which are taken into the

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circulation and poison the system of the ery ailment, and now some enthusiastic invalid. Thus we see that danger lies investigator claims to have discovered more in the products of most disease-pro- the microbe of “old age. Were this ducing germs than in the direct action possible, we are inclined to believe that of the bacteria themselves.

a large percentage of our inhabitants Minor diseases, such as cankered would declare war and neglect their busimouth, suppurative processes, and even ness to investigate means of exterminatdecay of the teeth, are caused by bacteria. ing at least this species of insolent inIt does seem as though a specific bac- vaders. terium has been found for almost ev

L. PRENTISS BETHEL.

A PEASANT PAINTER — JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET*

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HE humanity and poetry of waken, my little François, the little birds

peasant life were the keynotes have long been singing the glory of God, " of Jean François Millet's was the loving réveille which called him painted harmonies.

from slumber. The atmosphere of his gay side of life never shows Gréville home was that of sincere piety itself to me,” he declared. “The gayest and serious tenderness. His father, an thing I know is the calm, the silence, unrhyming, unlettered poet, and an un

, which is so sweet, either in the forest or taught sculptor, directed the attention cultivated land.

You will ad- of his son to the glories of nature, mit that it is very dreamy, and a sad and modelled for him rude figures in dream, though often delicious. Some- clay. The nature of the boy was retimes in a sterile portion you see figures sponsive, sweet, and earnest. A professor hoeing and digging. From time to time in a Versailles High School, who enone rises and straightens his back, wip- countered him during a vacation, reported ing his forehead with the back of his that he “ had met a child whose soul hand. 'Thou shalt eat thy bread in the was as charming as poesy itself.” sweat of thy brow.' Is this the gay, Through the instructions of his uncle, jovial work some people would have us Charles Millet, the village curé, the lad believe? But, nevertheless, to me it is early acquired a taste for the Ecologues true humanity and great poetry. . and Georgics of Virgil. He also took I am a peasant, a peasant!”

great delight in the Latin Bible, copy, Away with him, the portrayer of un- ing its plates with absorbed interest naturalness, the painter of barrenness, the in his times of rare leisure.

He was perpetuator of false uncouthness! This continually sketching on bits of paper, was the spirit of the masters of estab- pieces of wood, anything, indeed, which lished methods, who sought by bluster presented a surface, but the convicand scorn to brush aside the innovator, tion that his son should become an pausing not in their denunciations to artist did not come to the elder Millet catch the spirit, which was the substance, till one evening when the lad, return. of the new productions. How should ye ing from the fields in his father's cominterpret that which has in nowise come pany, snatched up a piece of charcoal and into your hearts or experience? I paint drew with startling distinctness the bent the dull tragedies, the slow imaginings, figure of an old peasant who was hobthe ungaining sacrifices of my own. This

This bling by. was the spirit of Millet. The childhood Millet the younger had at this time of the lad, though bare and colorless, sketched so many Bible scenes with such was not unhappy. His grandmother was skill that the attention and admiration of his nurse while others of the family his townspeople were aroused, and some were afield, and the words, “Waken, of the drawings were taken to the artist

Langlois, in Cherbourg, for his opinion. * See sketch of Millet (1814–1875) in the En- Langlois, recognized the boy's potencyclopædia Britannica, Vol. XVI., page 321,

tialities, and soon afterwards received Also, “ Jean François Millet: His Life and Letters,” by Julia Cartwright (Mrs. Henry Ady).

him as a pupil. It was through the influ-ED, S. C. ence of this artist that later on the town council of Cherbourg voted a hundred and clad, than they had yet been. The hetwenty dollars to send Jean for a year's roic proposition was heroically met, and study in Paris. To this sum the town of the nude painting was abandoned. Gréville, near the Normandy village of Millet had been refused admission to Gruchy, the place of Millet's birth, added the Salon in 1842, but in 1844 he began sixty dollars.

regular exhibitions. In 1848 his “WinAbsorbed in his work the student nower" was hung in the place of honor, heeded but little the privations which his and sold for five hundred francs. Durfirst year's income was insufficient to re- ing this year he was brought near to lieve, but during his second Paris year, death's door by rheumatic fever. While when no funds beyond sixty dollars from he was ill the family suffered much disthe Cherbourg council came to him, he tress, having for some time lacked the often suffered from cold and want of food. bare necessaries of life. Just after this The conventional methods of his instruc- sickness came the February revolution, tor, Delaroche, were utterly at variance bringing with it a time of terrible strug. with all his convictions and tendencies, gle for French artists. It was at this and his attempts to shape his ideas to those period that Millet tried etching, proof his teacher kept him in a state of morbid ducing with the crudest materials some irritability. It must have been a mis- beautifully pathetic designs, most of fortune which had its compensations which, however, he failed to sell. In 1855 when, at the beginning of his second came another time of severe struggle. year, he was obliged to abandon the It was during this year that the almost Delaroche studio on account of inability starving condition of the Millet family to pay his tuition fees.

was relieved by the contributions of Now came a time of great trial. Alone artist friends. His friend M. Sensier in Paris, almost without money, entirely says that when the artist Diaz apwithout friends, he spent his evenings in peared with the money “Millet sat in the library of St. Genevieve reading of his studio on a box, with his back bent artists, and his days wandering about the like a man chilled. When the money Louvre, where he unconsciously gained was handed to him, he replied, “Thank from his prolonged studies of Lesueur, you. It comes in time. We have not Correggio, Fra Angelico, Michael An- eaten for two days, but the children have gelo, and Poussin, the foundation for his had food until to-day;' and calling to own future style. He declared that but his wife, cried, I am going to get wood, for this companionship at the Louvre he I am very cold.'' would have fled from Paris and given up When the insurrection of June came, art, for he was awkward and feared Millet had thirty francs. “On this we ridicule, and spoke to no one.

lived for two weeks,” he said. About He now tried to live by his brush, but this time he exchanged six drawings for his pictures did not sell, and he was a pair of shoes, a picture for a bed, sold glad to receive commissions for signs, and four portraits, among them those of Diaz thankfully prepared illustrations. Un- and Barye, for twenty francs for the lot, der the stress of actual necessity — he was and charming sketches from one to five now married a second time, and had sev- francs each. eral children - he began to paint the nude. In 1859, driven by political turmoil He produced rapidly, and many beautiful and cholera, he left Paris, and in Barbiand delicate, though unrobed, figures zon, near the entrance to the Forest of

, grew beneath his brush. One day he heard Fontainbleau, he established the home from a group of men who were gathered in which he was happiest, and in which near a dealer's window, wherein was ex- he remained till he died. It was at Barhibited one of his nude productions, re- bizon that he found Théodore Rousseau, marks which convinced him that his work a fellow artist, who proved one of the suggested to others thoughts far less pure most helpful and generous friends of his than those with which they were painted. life, himself buying some of his pictures, He hastened to his wife, telling her that and doing a thousand other kindly acts. with her consent he should give up In a dark studio at the end of the painting the nude, though this meant garden which he planted and hoed, Millet that they and their children must be painted most of the works which have colder and hungrier, and more meanly made him famous.

made him famous. Year after year the

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