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of politics a small group of pro-slavery ents. With Benton, in 1848, he strove Democrats, by combining with the to have the Democracy nominate WoodWhigs, managed to hold the balance of bury for President, against candidates power for two months and prevented like Cass, Buchanan, and Douglas, who Mr. Hamlin's re-election as a party man. were identified with the pro-slavery They offered him terms of compromise wing of their party. It was by this and when he was within a few votes of similar action that Mr. Hamlin conelection, but he refused to modify in tinued to fight against the deliverance of the slightest degree his opposition to the party of Jefferson and Jackson into slavery, and was finally elected by the the hands of the slavery propagandists. aid of some Free Soilers, who gave him He was not the man to give up the ship a majority of one vote in the Senate and while there was hope of keeping it afloat. two in the House. This incident shows But the machinery of the party was how real and besetting were the dif- soon in the hands of the Calhoun wing, ficulties Mr. Hamlin had to contend and they were bound to rule or ruin. with in fighting slavery as a party man When they struck down the Missouri and within constitutional lines, and Compromise, that time-honored bulwark also enables one to see the strength against slavery, Senator Hamlin severed of his devotion to principle. William his allegiance with Democracy and in Cullen Bryant, who was

a personal a notable speech in the Senate stated friend of Mr. Hamlin's and at the time his reasons for doing so, at the same editor of the New York “Evening time resigning the chairmanship of the Post, wrote of Mr. Hamlin's triumph : Committee of Commerce. A single refer“With examples of treachery and falter- ence to this speech may be made to note ing around him for the past three years, its incisive and patriotic character. DeMr. Hamlin has not swerved a hair's nouncing the Calhoun doctrine, that breadth from the rectitude of his course “the National flag carries slavery wheras an opponent of slavery extension in ever it floats,” Mr. Hamlin said that every shape in which the scheme has

Drake's national ode should be re-writpresented itself. . . He is a safe, ten to read : comprehensive and rational statesman.”

“Forever float that standard sheet Mr. Hamlin's status in the Senate was Where breathes the foe who fall before us, secured by his appointment as chairman With Slavery's soil beneath our feet, of the Committee on Commerce. This And Slavery's banner streaming o'er us !" body was then Congress's most impor- Mr. Hamlin closed his memorable uttant business arm. The country's rapid terance by saying that “these events growth and development called for the leave me only one unpleasant duty, building of more postoffices, custom which is to declare that I can maintain houses, and for a larger share than is political associations with no party that necessary now of attention to rivers and insists upon such doctrines; that I can harbors. The Committee on Commerce support no man for President who avows had to pass on these and other practical and recognizes them; and that the little questions, and Mr. Hamlin's time as power with which God has endowed me chairman was fully occupied. An in- shall be employed to battle manfully, teresting change was now worked in firmly and consistently for his defeat, dehim. He became a man of action ; he manded as it is by the highest interests was impatient of talk ; he grew taciturn of the country which owns all my alleand ultimately was known as a silent giance." Senator. He said that Congress talked The young Republican party of Maine too much and did not work enough. nominated Mr. Hamlin against his Henceforth he rarely spoke himself, wishes as its candidate for Governor. though occasionally he would rise to cut Then followed a campaign which Thomas the knot of debate. Nevertheless, Sen- B. Reed has described as a "triumphal ator Hamlin became a power in the inner procession from one end of Maine to the circle of the Democratic party, for he other, the like of which the State never was an acknowledged authority on Par- saw before nor has seen since." Up to liamentary procedure, and was inti- this time Maine had been a rock-ribbed mately associated with Thomas H. Ben- Democratic State. Mr. Hamlin was ton, Levi Woodbury, and their adher- elected by a majority of about 20,000 votes. A revolution had been effected. other contradictory statements regarding This was a striking illustration of Ham- Mr. Lincoln's relations with Mr. Hamlin, lin's wonderful power as a speaker among two facts distinctively manifest his prefthe common people. His style was sim- erence for Mr. Hamlin, while they are ple and direct. He never overshot the in harmony with his record of sincerity, mark. The people both understood and honesty and loyalty to his friends. One believed in him. He was now returned was his act in instructing the Illinois delto the United States Senate and held his egation to vote for Mr. Hamlin; another seat until 1860, when he was elected was his tender of the position of SecreVice-President on the same ticket with tary of the Treasury to Mr. Hamlin. Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Hamlin, it should Circumstances however prevented Mr. be said, did not desire this high office; Hamlin from entering the Cabinet. indeed, he was nominated without his When Johnson became President, he, knowledge or consent; though after he at the request of Charles Sumner and was nominated he accepted. He always other Massachusetts Republicans, apaffirmed that he would rather be Senator pointed Mr. Hamlin Collector of the than President, and he did not want to Port of Boston. This was one of the be President.

most lucrative positions under the GovMr. Hamlin enjoyed exceedingly cor- ernment — the salary and emoluments dial relations with President Lincoln. aggregating $30,000 a year. But after It was said that no President and Vice- Mr. Hamlin had held the position for President since the days of Jackson and a brief year, he resigned it because he Van Buren were on closer or more could not see how with honor he could friendly terms. Mr. Hamlin's own words hold the office under a President who in speaking of his relations with Mr. was endeavoring to enforce a national Lincoln prove this. A few of Mr. Lin- policy which he regarded as unpatriotic, coln's acts tell the same story in an inter- if not positively dangerous. Mr. Hamesting manner. The President often lin, in his letter of resignation, arraigned consulted Mr. Hamlin about official and Johnson sharply and spoke of the Presipersonal affairs. For example, Mr. Lin- dent's course in plain and terse English. coln showed Vice-President Hamlin the But Mr. Hamlin did not remain in Proclamation of Emancipation before it private life, for in 1869 he was returned had been seen by any other of his official to the Senate, and again re-elected in or confidential advisers. At Mr. Lin- 1875. During his last two terms in the coln's request, Mr. Hamlin made some Senate, Mr. Hamlin devoted himself to suggestions about the wording of the practical legislation on special lines of instrument and Mr. Lincoln accepted the work, such as those relating to scientific, two emendations he offered. An illus- agricultural and educational subjects. tration of Mr. Hamlin's sense of fairness For example, in the Legislature and the and delicacy is the remark he made as to House he had worked to improve the the authorship of the edict. “The Eman- United States postal service. As chaircipation Proclamation," said he, “was man of the Postoffice Committee in the Mr. Lincoln's own act, and no one else Senate, he was able to accomplish larger can claim any credit in connection with results. As regent of the Smithsonian

. it.” Mr. Hamlin urged the President to Institution and the intimate friend of arm the colored men and received from Professor Joseph Henry, he was able him the order to the War Department to to render him no little service in the give effect to the call. In his turn Mr. interest of science. He also favored the Hamlin assisted Mr. Lincoln in his can- giving of national aid to State coldidacy for renomination. At his sug- leges and took a lively interest in the gestion Mr. Lincoln placed his interests growth of these institutions. A notable in Maine in the hands of James G. Blaine, incident in Mr. Hamlin's closing years who was then coming forward as of service in the Senate was his oppopolitical leader.

sition to the scheme of certain RepubA stampede movement to nominate a lican leaders to abrogate the Burlingame Southern War Democrat for Vice-Presi- treaty with China. He insisted that the dent in 1864 resulted in the choice of nation's honor demanded that the treaty Andrew Johnson. Of all the gossip should be observed. Another incident based merely on hearsay evidence, and that also attracted widespread interest


was Mr. Hamlin's opposition to the House he was chairman of the ComSouthern policy of President R. B. mittee of Elections, and, during the Hayes. He denounced this as party twenty-five years he was in the Senate, dishonor.

he was chairman at different times of Mr. Hamlin declined re-election to the the Committees on Commerce, the Post Senate in 1881. He had served in that Office and on Foreign Relations. In body for a quarter of a century, and had the presidential campaigns of 1860 it been at Washington for thirty-four years. was claimed by the Republican Press President Garfield appointed Mr. Ham- that Mr. Hamlin was the best man of lin Minister to Spain and he accepted the affairs in the Senate.

the Senate. He certainly position on condition that he might re- had a remarkable knowledge of the polsign within a year. After Mr. Hamlin itics as well as of the general business returned from Spain, he retired to pri- of the country. .

The truth is, Mr. vate life and spent the evening of his old Hamlin's comprehensive knowledge of age at his home in Bangor, Me. Occa- affairs and sound and practical statessionally he suffered his repose to be manship were somewhat obscured by broken to make a speech. One such oc- his unique political record. The country casion was when he urged the Legislature saw the characteristic side of the man of Maine, in 1887, to repeal the law his rugged honesty, democratic temper, which imposed capital punishment for simplicity, faith in common humanitymurder. This was a matter he had ar- more clearly than it perceived the imgued for precisely a quarter of a century, portance of his legislative acts. It was insisting that the law of Moses was not the man it saw before it recognized and the law of Christ, and the final repeal of appreciated the statesman, yet the record the statute was his reward. Another in- of Mr. Hamlin's acts and attitude in teresting speech was one he delivered in Congress would comprise volumes. 1891 before the Republican Club of New Many stories are told of Mr. HamYork City, advocating that Lincoln's birth- lin's personal traits, habits and peculiarday should be made a national holiday. ities. At the close of his public career This he first suggested in 1887. To-day he remained as simple and unaffected as the states of New York, New Jersey, when he was an unknown lawyer at Connecticut, Wisconsin, and Washing. Hampden. He would not change even ton, observe Lincoln's birthday as a hol- with the fashion, and to the end of his iday by act of Legislature, as a result of life he wore an old style dress coat. He this movement Mr. Hamlin originated. owned a farm the larger part of his life His argument was that Lincoln was the and, like Coriolanus of old, worked on it saviour of his country and should be hon- himself until within a few years of his ored equally with Washington, its father. death. He also made his sons and This speech was made at Mr. Hamlin's grandsons help him in this work, that last public appearance, and it was his last they might appreciate the dignity of message to the people of his country. manual labor. Moreover, he never Like Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, failed to make his farm pay. He loved Hannibal Hamlin died on the Fourth the plain people and “the boys in blue" of July. The year of his death was 1891. and his last appearances among the latter,

As a statesman Mr. Hamlin is to be when they realized that he was about ranked among

the practical, clear- to pass off the stage, were occasions of sighted, and vigorous men of his day touching scenes. In his closing years, who dealt with events in a rapidly chang- when at home and out of political haring age. Mr. Hamlin's training was ness, he softened and was reconciled to general rather than specific, and it may many former bitter opponents. Silent be said of him, as was said of Benton, about himself and always modest, Mr. while he is not named as the author of Hamlin refused to write a line in way of many great measures, yet he was of im- a memoir. He said : “My memory is mense influence in shaping legislation uncertain and I fear I might do uninduring the country's formative period. tentional injustice to some. For myself, I The various positions Mr. Hamlin held shall be content with whatever estimate while a member of Congress denote the my countrymen place on my services." confidence his colleagues had in him and

CHARLES E. HAMLIN. show the influence he exerted. In the BANGOR, ME.


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N the Encyclopædia Britan- rays it is lost to ordinary telescopic

nica, the late R. A. Proctor vision.
gave an interesting résumé The number of small planets known
of Astronomy up to the pe- to circulate between Mars and Jupiter

riod when the ninth edition of has increased to more than four hunthat colossal work went to press. The dred. The rapid increase of the past following is a brief statement of the four years in the rate of discovery is more salient points in astronomical re- due to the application of the art of search and discovery since the publica- photography. In this work the lead tion of Mr. Proctor's article (See E. B., has been taken by Charlois of Nice Vol. II, pp. 744-823). That extensive and Wolf of Heidelberg. To carry on and important branch of the science which the search a sensitive plate is exposed in consists in the more exact discovery of the focus of a telescope having a short numbers, distances, masses, etc., may be focal length (even a large camera might lightly passed over, in order to devote suffice), so constructed as to have a field attention more especially to new discov- of view several degrees in extent. After eries of facts or laws.

an exposure of one or two hours, innuThe twenty years in question are re- merable small stars will be photographed markable for the addition of three new on the plate. . If a small planet is within satellites to the eighteen previously the region photographed, it may be deknown. Perhaps no discovery during tected either by its image being a line inthe nineteenth century, except that of stead of a point, or by comparing two the planet Neptune, excited more sur- plates taken at a short interval.

The prise and interest, both among astron- principle on which the discovery rests is, omers and the public, than that of the that while the stars remain perfectly at satellites of Mars, by Professor Hall, in rest, the asteroids are in motion. The August, 1877. These satellites are re- number of asteroids already known markable for two features, their extreme which are rediscovered in this way much smallness, and the short period of the exceeds the number of new ones. We inner one. Although Mars is so much conclude, therefore, that the new ones nearer the earth than any other planet yet to be discovered are extremely small, having a satellite, its satellites are among and it may be expected that before many the difficult objects, only to be seen with years a limit will be reached beyond telescopes of considerable size. Their which it is not worth while to seek diameter is probably between five and ten

for more.

Even now it is not possible miles, so that they are the smallest bodies for astronomers to keep an accurate of the solar system, some of the asteroids run of the motions of the four hundred excepted. The inner one makes its rev- known ones. olution in the remarkably short period of 7 h. 39 m. 14 s. — less than one-third The Planet

Great popular interest that of the rotation of the planet on its

has been felt in certain axis. This is a new and remarkable features of the planets, notably Mars. circumstance, of which the consequence We may mention, in this connection, is, that to an observer on Mars the satel- the work of Mr. Percival Lowell's prilite rises in the west and sets in the east. vate observatory, founded at Flagstaff,

Arizona, for the express purpose of Jupiter's New

In September, 1892, a observing Mars during the opposition Satellite

new satellite of Jupiter of 1894. The planet was never before was discovered by Barnard with the studied under conditions more favorgreat telescope of the Lick Observatory. able. The focus of interest has been It is much nearer to Jupiter than the the so-called canals, discovered by Schiafour satellites already known, and makes parelli. The term is, however, a misa revolution in 11 h. 57 m. 23 s.

It can

nomer, because these lines to be visible be seen only with a very few of the at the distance of the earth, must be most powerful telescopes of the world, at least from 50 to 100 miles broad. owing not only to its minutness, but to They are said to consist of a network its closeness to the planet, in whose of fine, dark lines, passing from point


to point on the planet, with dark spots parelli, and in southern France by Perat the points of meeting. It must be rotin. For two centuries it has been said that, owing to the extreme dif- supposed by some that Venus rotated on ficulty of detecting these canals, there its axis in a period not differing much is still some difference of opinion as to from 24 hours. At the same time the their exact nature. Quite possibly, un- more cautious astronomers have always der more perfect atmospheric conditions maintained that the time of rotation than astronomers have hitherto availed was altogether unknown, because the themselves of, the details would appear spots on Venus, if they existed at all, entirely different; indeed, the latest were so indistinct that no one could paper by Barnard indicates that with trace them out, and follow their motion the finest seeing ever available at Mount from night

from night tonight, with entire Hamilton, and the great advantages of certainty. It was therefore not so the 36-inch telescope, the surface of surprising as it might have been, Mars appears entirely different from when Schiaparelli announced that Venus, the drawings of Schiaparelli and others. like our moon, rotated on its axis in the What the latter describe as fine lines, same time that it revolves around the he then saw as irregular, hazy streaks. sun, and therefore always presented the

The question whether Mars has an same face to the sun. Quite recently, atmosphere sufficiently dense to make Perrotin has studied the planet from the its presence evident by the most delicate summit of Mount Mounier, in southern observation, is still an unsettled one. France, with a view of testing SchiaBoth Huyghens and Janssen thought parelli's conclusions, and has convinced they had found evidences of aqueous himself of their correctness. But it is vapor in the atmosphere of Mars. This quite likely that most astronomers will evidence was afforded by those lines still be somewhat sceptical. The fact is, in the spectrum due to such vapor that Venus, when seen through a telebeing better marked than they would scope of high power, even the best, prehave been were the light reflected from sents a glaring aspect, somewhat like the planet itself. But Campbell, at that of burnished metal shining by the the Lick Observatory, made a series light of a strong fire, which prevents the of investigations with the spectroscope, observer from making out anything in under conditions more favorable than the shape of fine details. It is true that those enjoyed by any previous observer, different parts of the surface present owing to the height of his station and very different degrees of brightness, acthe serenity of the air. His observations cording to the way the light is falling were made by comparing the spectrum of upon them, and appearances somewhat Mars and of the moon, when the latter like bright spots are seen near the upper was in the immediate neighborhood of or lower limb. But it is still open to the planet. The moon is well known question whether there is anything to be to have no visible atmosphere. If, then, outlined with such distinctness that an Mars has an atmosphere sufficiently observer can positively identify spots or dense to make the spectral lines much other markings on the planet. stronger, or has sufficient watery vapor The question as to the form and conto produce that effect, there ought to be stitution of the satellites of Jupiter has a difference between the spectrum of given rise to much discussion. Barnard, Mars and that of the moon. Mr. Camp- while observing the transit of the first bell could find none. It does not follow satellite over the disk of the planet, was from this that Mars has no atmosphere, surprised to see it look double. After but only that the atmosphere, if it does long and careful discussion of this apexist, is probably much rarer than that pearance, he concluded that the apparent on the earth, and perhaps is without duplicity was an illusion, produced by a aqueous vapor.

dark belt across the body of the satellite.

Prof. W. H. Pickering, who observed A very careful study of the satellites under exceptionally fine

the appearance of Venus conditions at Arequipa, Peru, found with a view to fixing its time of rotation, them to exhibit irregular and anomalous and ascertaining the nature of its sur- forms at various times, showing a very face, has been made in Italy by Schia- great ellipticity of figure.


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