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JUDEA, ROME, GREECE, AND ASIA AS
SOURCES OF CULTURE*
HE idea of monotheism and same reverence.

That which religion the principle of purity might was to the Jew, including even the seem hardly enough to be the formalism which encrusted and fettered chief results of so systematic it, law was to the Roman.

Jusa discipline as that of the tinian's laws have penetrated into all Hebrews. But, in reality, they are the modern legislation, and almost all imcardinal points in education. The idea provements bring us nearer to his code. of monotheism (the doctrine that there Much of the spirit of modern poliis but one God) outtops all other ideas tics came from Greece; much from the in dignity and worth. The spirituality woods of Germany.

. But the skeleton of God involves in it the supremacy of

and framework is almost entirely Roman. conscience, the immortality of the soul, And it is not this framework only that the final judgment of the human race. comes from Rome. The moral sentiFor we know the other world, and can ments and the moral force which lie at only know it, by analogy drawn from the back of all political life, and are our own experience. With what, then, absolutely indispensable to its vigor, shall we compare God? With the spirit are, in great measure, Roman, too. It is ual or the fleshly part of our nature? On true that the life and power of all morthe answer depends the whole bent of ality whatever will always be drawn our religion and of our morality.

from the New Testament; yet it is in the The people whose extraordinary tough- history of Rome rather than in the Bible ness of nature has enabled it to outlive that we find our models and precepts of Egyptian Pharaohs, and Assyrian kings, political duty, and especially of the duty and Roman Cæsars, and Mussulman ca- of patriotism. St. Paul bids us follow liphs, was well matched against a power whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever of evil, which, undermining domestic things are of good report. But, except ,

, virtue, has battled with the human through such general appeals to natural spirit ever since the creation, and has feeling, it would be difficult to prove from inflicted and may yet inflict, more deadly the New Testament that cowardice was blows than any other power we know of. not only disgraceful but sinful, and that Such was the training of the Hebrews. love of our country. was an exalted duty

To the chief elements of civilization of humanity. That lesson our consciences Rome contributed her admirable spirit have learnt from the teaching of ancient of order and organization. To her had Rome. been given the genius of government. To Greece was entrusted the cultivation She had been trained to it by centuries of the reason and the taste. Her gift of difficult and tumultuous history. to mankind has been science and art. Storms which would have rent asunder There was little in her temper of the the framework of any other polity only spirit of reverence. Her morality and practiced her in the art of controlling her religion did not spring from the conpopular passions; and when she began science.

science. Her gods were the creatures of to aim consciously at the Empire of the imagination, not of spiritual need. Her world, she had already learned her lesson. highest idea was not holiness, as with She had learned it as the Hebrews had the Hebrews, nor law, as with the Rolearned theirs, by an enforced obedience mans, but beauty. Even Aristotle, who to her own system.

In no nation of assuredly gave way to mere sentiment as antiquity had civil officers the same un- little as any Greek that ever lived, placed questioned authority during their term the Beautiful at the head of his moral of office, or laws or judicial rules the system, not the Right nor the Holy.

Greece, in fact, was not looking at an* An excerpt from the article on “The Edu- other world, nor even striving to organize cation of the World," contributed to the now the present, but rather aiming at the famous “Essays and Reviews,” by the present Archbishop of Canterbury, when its writer (Rev.

development of free nature. The highest Dr. Temple) was headmaster of Rugby School.

possible cultivation of the individual, the - ED. S.C. most finished perfection of the natural

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faculties, was her dream. It is true that ment to teach the Hebrews the doctrine the philosophers are ever talking of sub- of the Immortality of the Soul; for whatordinating the individual to the state. ever may be said of the early notions on But in reality there never has been a this subject, it is unquestionable that in period in history nor a country in the Babylon the Jews first attained the clearworld, in which the peculiarities of indi- ness and certainty in regard to it which vidual temper and character had freer we find in the teaching of the Pharisees. play. This is not the best atmosphere

The Western nations are always for political action; but it is better than tempted to make reason not only supreme, any other for giving vigor and life to the but despotic, and dislike to acknowledge impulses of genius, and for cultivating mysteries even in religion. They are inthose faculties, the reason and taste, in clined to limit all doctrines within the which the highest genius can be shown. confines of spiritual utility, and to refuse

To the Greeks we owe the logic which to listen to dim voices and whispers from has ruled the minds of all thinkers since within, those instincts of doubt, and revAristotle. All our natural and physical erence, and awe, which yet are, in their sciences really begin with the Greeks, place and degree, messages from the and, indeed, would have been impossible depths of our being. Asia supplies the had not Greece taught men how to reason. corrective by perpetually leaning to the To the Greeks we owe the corrective mysterious. When left to herself, she which conscience needs to borrow from settles down to baseless dreams, and somenature. Conscience, startled at the awful times to monstrous and revolting fictions. truths which she has to reveal, too often But her influence has never ceased to be threatens to withdraw the soul into felt, and could not be lost without serious gloomy and perverse asceticism; then damage. is needed the beauty which Greece taught Thus the Hebrew may be said to have us to admire, to show us another aspect disciplined the human conscience, Rome of the Divine Attributes.

the human will, Greece the reason and The discipline of Asia was the never- taste, Asia the spiritual imagination. ending succession of conquering dynas- Other races that have since been admitted ties, following in each other's track like into Christendom also did their parts. waves, an ever-moving yet never-advan- And others may yet have something to cing ocean. Cycles of change were suc- contribute; for though the time of discessively passing over her, and yet at the cipline is childhood, yet there is no preend of every cycle she stood where she cise line beyond which all discipline had stood before, and nearly where she ceases. Even the gray-haired man has stands now. The growth of Europe has yet some small capacity for learning like dwarfed her in comparison, and she is a child ; and even in the maturity of the paralyzed in presence of a gigantic world the early modes of teaching may strength younger but mightier than her yet find a place. own. But in herself she is no weaker

FREDERICK TEMPLE, D.D. than she ever was. The monarchs who once led Assyrian, or Babylonian, or Persian armies across half the world, impose

These are days of popular manuals. A new

series entitled, "Masters of Medicine," has just on us by the vast extent and rapidity of

appeared in London, under the supervision of their conquests; but these conquests had, Dr. Ernest Hart, editor of the “ British Medical in reality, no substance, no inherent

Journal,” the purpose of which is to record the strength. This perpetual baffling of all lives, the difficulties, and the triumphs of those

who have done most for the advancement of earthly progress taught Asia to seek

medical science in modern times. The first her inspiration in rest. She learned to

volume of the series to appear deals with “ John fix her thoughts upon another world, Hunter, Man of Science and Surgeon," and has and was disciplined to check, by her silent been written by Mr. Stephen Paget, with an in

troduction by Sir James Paget, the eminent protest, the over-earthly, over-practical

surgeon. John Hunter is the father of modern tendency of the Western nations. She

scientific surgery. He created pathology, or was ever the one to refuse to measure the science upon which all surgery is based, for Heaven by the standard of earth. Her it deals with the principles of disease. The teeming imagination filled the church

series is intended for the general public as well with thoughts “undreamt of in our

as for the medical profession. The next vol

ume will be on Harvey, the discoverer of the philosophy." She had been the instru- circulation of the blood.

A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF
FOREIGN MISSIONS

HE literature of missionary ively to view. So rich is his grouping enterprise has, in Dr. James of facts touching all phases of his subS. Dennis's “Christian Mis- ject, and scientific his method of classisions and Social Progress" fying and emphasizing the meaning and

(New York and Chicago: trend of them, and of bringing out their Fleming H. Revell Co.), received a sociological bearing, that the author may unique contribution of high interest and well be termed the Herbert Spencer of extreme value. Nowhere else have we Missions. found so thorough a marshalling of facts The chief feature of Dr. Dennis's work or so philosophic a handling of the in- is, as we have hinted, its presentation of teresting subject. The author, who was the subject from the view-point of the for some time attached to the Syrian out- sociologist. The term sociology is, we post of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign believe, newly applied in relation to misMissions at Beirut, comes to his work sions, and it is well to understand just admirably equipped for the task of writ- what is meant by it. In using it, the ing, from the standpoint of the sociolo- author simply adheres to what has begist, an account of Christian missions in come its accepted philosophic meaning, foreign lands, of portraying the debased as the science of social phenomena, by social life of heathenism, with all its de- which facts bearing upon social life in all grading and corrupting rites and cus- its aspects are investigated, correlated and toms, and of setting forth, in emphatic recorded. We can see Dr. Dennis's meanterms, the well-attested power and influ- ing by referring to the opening chapter. ence of Christianity in its uplifting and The work deals not only with the reregenerating work.

sults of matter gathered and facts ascerThe basis of the book is a course of tained from missionaries in the field, but lectures, since greatly expanded, deliy- with the grouping of these facts, and the ered by the author at Princeton and enforcement of the lessons to be deduced other theological seminaries. The lec- from them, with suggestive remedies for tures attracted great attention, owing to the evils treated of. The scope of the the masterly treatment of the subject, in latter will be seen from the chapter deits sociological aspects, in Dr. Dennis's voted to the “ Social Evils of the Nonhands; to the lecturer's elaborate review Christian World,” which includes those of the service rendered by missions in that result not only from the vices, ignothe spheres of education, literature, phil- rance, and brutality of heathenism, but anthropy, social reform, and national de- those that are produced from the tyranny velopment; and to his instructive setting of custom, idolatry and superstition, and forth of the influence of the great ethnic from the low commercial standards, or religions of the world upon the higher defective industrial methods, for which life of society, and the impressive con- even civilization is responsible in its contrast presented in the power of Christian- tact with Oriental countries. The chapity to purify and elevate the moral life ter which follows the latter on “ Ineffectof the nations. The lectures, as origi- ual Remedies and the Causes of Their nally delivered, were but the framework Failure," is obviously of much practical of what their author has, with infinite interest, and shows that, according to and manifest labor, now presented in a the author, social regeneration is not to greatly developed and enriched form. A be looked for in education merely, or in glance at the scheme of the book will any attempt at civilizing benighted races suffice to show how thoroughly the before the work of Christianization has author has studied his subject, how vo- been accomplished. The pictorial emluminous, though highly important, are bellishments of the work add greatly to his gleanings of facts from foreign fields, its interest for the lay reader and to the and how interesting and telling are the graphic realization of what the missions deductions drawn from his observation, are doing in the contact of its many and research, and inquiry, in the varied mis- zealous workers with barbarism. sionary fields which he opens so instruct

G. M. A.

SOME DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERS OF
THE HUMAN STRUCTURE: AN ADDRESS* (Conduded)

: (

BY SIR WM. TURNER, PRESIDENT OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL SECTION OF THE

BRITISH SCIENCE ASSOCIATION

Brain

HE power of assuming the Weight of the

We have abundant evierect attitude, the specializa

dence of the weight of tion of the upper limbs into in- the brain in Europeans, in whom several struments of prehension, and thousand brains have been tested. In

of the lower limbs into col- the men the average brain-weight is from umns of support and progression, are not 49 to 50 oz. (1,390 to 1,418 grm.). In in themselves sufficient to give that dis- the women, from 44 to 45 oz. (1,248 to

tinction to the human 1,283 grm.). The difference in weight The Directing

body which we know is, doubtless, in part correlated with difMechanism

that it possesses. They ferences in the mass, weight, and stature must have co-ordinated with them the of the body in the two sexes, although controlling and directing mechanism it seems questionable if the entire differplaced in the head, known as the brain ence is capable of this explanation. It and organs of sense.

is interesting to note that even in newThe head, situated at the summit of born children the boys have bigger heads the spine, holds a commanding position. and heavier brains than the girls. Dr. Owing to the joints for articulation with Boyd gives the average for the girl inthe atlas vertebra being placed on the fants as 10 oz. and for boys 11.67 oz. A under surface of the skull and not at the distinction in the brain-weight of the back of the head, and to the great reduc- two sexes is obviously established, theretion in the size of the jaws, as compared fore, before the child is born, and is not with apes and quadrupeds generally, the to be accounted for by the training and head is balanced at the top of the spine. educational advantages enjoyed by the The ligaments supporting it and con- male sex being superior to those of the nected with it are comparatively feeble, female sex. and do not require for their attachment The brains of a number of men of strong bony ridges on the skull or mas- ability and intellectual distinction have sive projecting processes in the spine, been weighed and ascertained to be from such as one finds in apes and many other 55 to 60 oz. In a few exceptional cases, mammals. The head, with the atlas ver- as in the brains of Cuvier and Dr. Abertebra, can be rotated about the axis verte- crombie, the weight has been more than bra by appropriate muscles. The face 60 oz., but it should also be stated that looks to the front, the axis of vision is brains weighing 60 oz. and upwards have horizontal and the eyes sweep the ho occasionally been obtained from persons rizon with comparatively slight muscular who had shown no signs of intellectual effort.

eminence. The cranial cavity, with its contained On the other hand, it has been pointed brain, is of absolutely greater volume in out by M. Broca and Dr. Thurman that man than in any other vertebrate, except if the brain falls below a certain weight in the elephant and in the large whales, it cannot properly discharge its functions. in which the huge mass of the body de- They place this minimum weight for mands the great sensory-motor centres in civilized people at 37 oz. for the men, the brain to be of large size. Relatively, and 32 oz. for the women. These weights also, to the mass and weight of the body, are, I think, too high for savage men, the brain in man may be said to be in more especially in the dwarf races. We general heavier than the brains of the may, however, safely assume that if the lower vertebrates, though it has been brain-weight in adults does not reach 30 stated that some small birds and mam- oz. (851 grm.), it is associated with mals are exceptions to this rule.

idiocy or imbecility. There would seem, * Continued from the December issue (page therefore, to be a minimum brain-weight, 252).

which is necessary in order that the

a

mental functions may be actively dis- brain, by the blood vessels and the charged.

cerebro-spinal fluid. A small deduction We have, unfortunately, not much evi- from the total capacity will have to be dence of the weight of the brain in the made on their behalf. uncultivated and savage races. The There is a general consensus of opinion weighings made by Tiedemann, Virchow, amongst craniologists that the mean inReid, and Peacock give the mean of the ternal capacity of the cranium in adult brain in the negro as between 44 and 45 male Europeans is about 1,500 c.c. oz., a weight which corresponds with that (91.5 cub. in.). The mean capacity of of European women, whilst in the ne- the cranium of fifty Scotsmen that I have gress the mean weight is less than in the measured by a method which I described female sex in Europeans. In two Bush some years ago, was 1,493 c.c. (91.1 cub. girls from South Africa, — representa- in.). The most capacious of these skulls tives of a dwarf race, the brain is said was 1,770 c.c. and the one with the smallto have been 34 and 38 oz., respectively. est capacity was 1,240 c.c. Thus, in a

From the weighings which have been highly civilized and admittedly intellecpublished of the brains of the orang and tual people, the range in the volume of chimpanzee, it would seem that the brain- brain space amongst the men was as weight in these apes ranges from 11 to 15 much as 530 c.c. in the specimens under oz. (312 to 426 grm.), and the brain- examination, none of which was known weight appears to be much about the or believed to be the skull of an idiot or same in the gorilla. These figures are imbecile, whilst some were known to be greatly below those of the human brain, the crania of persons of education and even in so degraded a people as the position. In twenty-three Scotswomen dwarf Bush race of South Africa. They the mean capacity was 1,325 c.c., and closely approximate to the weight of the range of variation was from a maxinewly-born male infants, in whom, as mum 1,625 to a minimum 1,100 c.c. has just been stated, the average weight viz., 523 C.C. was 11.67 oz. For the purposes of ape Again, I have taken the capacity by life, the low brain-weight is sufficient to the same method of a number of crania enable the animal to perform every func- of the Australian aborigines, a race intion of which it is capable. Its muscular capable apparently of intellectual imand nervous systems are so accurately provement beyond their present low state co-ordinated that it can move freely from of development. In thirty-nine men tree to tree, and swing itself to and fro; the mean capacity was only 1,280 c.c. it can seize and retain objects with great (78.1 cub. in.). The maximum capacity precision and can search for and procure was 1,514 C.C., the minimum 1,044 c.c. its food. In all these respects it presents The range of variation was 470 c.c. In a striking contrast to the infant, having twenty-four women the mean capacity was an almost similar brain-weight, which 1,115.6 c.c., the maximum being 1,240 lies helpless on its mother's knee.

and the minimum 930, and the range vari

ation was 310 C.C. It is noticeable that Capacity of the Another line of evidence in this series of sixty-three Australian Cranium

of which we may avail skulls, all of which are in the Anatomical ourselves, in order to test the relative size Museum of the University of Edinburgh, of the brain in the different races of men eight men had a smaller capacity than and in the large apes, is to be obtained by 1,200 c.c. and only four were above 1,400 determining the internal capacity of the C.C. Of the women's skulls ten were cranium. Examples of the brains of dif- below 1,100 C.C., four of which were beferent races (except Europeans) are few tween goo and 1,000 c.c., and only three in number in our collections, but the were 1,200 c.c. and upwards. crania are often well represented, the Space does not admit of further detail volume of the cavity in which the brain on the cranial capacities of other races of is lodged can be obtained from them, and men. Sufficient has been said to show an approximate conception of the size the wide range which prevails, from the and weight of the brain can be estimated. maximum in the Europeans to the miniIn pursuing this line of inquiry, account

in the Australians, and that has, of course, to be taken of the space amongst persons presumably sane and occupied by the membranes investing the capable of discharging their duties in

mum

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