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science keep his better character alive,- spirit of natural and cultivated nobleness, that indefinable spirit which, in its inti- sweetened by boundless friendship for mate and essential nature, has little to do the world and all that lives therein ; just with the number of facts discovered, or and true to all men worthy or unworthy, theories accepted ; a spirit which merely proud without vanity, industrious withexercises itself in research, and accepts out haste, stating its own griefs as lightly discoveries as delightful accidents; a as an angel might, and generously bringspirit which walks the paths of science, ing help to the discouraged and forlorn. not as if they were turnpikes converging In every one of us there is this genius, if upon some smoky and squalid focus of we did but know it; and, as Einerson well toil-wearied population, but as if they says: “The moral is the measure of its had been gravelled and flower-bordered health.” for it through some princely park; a



HE suggestion I am about to whom) or look upon what is considered make has no novelty, but to a good picture; or read an extract conan intelligent man or woman, taining an allusion that you do not whether young or middle- understand; or hear a name, apparently

aged, if faithfully followed, it well known to others, but conveying no will make him or her a person of intellec- meaning to you, — look it up! Perhaps tual resources, an intelligent listener, that bit of marble may open up to you a and, if one is not naturally tongue-tied, most delightful chapter in ancient mytha bright, pleasant talker. Though hereology, or a portion of history belonging let me say that good listeners are more to your own country or times, that you generally appreciated than good talkers. really ought to know all about.

Perhaps your early education has been Find out who painted the picture; neglected, and you feel that your igno- whether it is by an old or modern artist, rance of many things you hear talked - and learn all you can about it, and about in the best society is a great draw- him. The extract you have come across, back. Or, it may be, that you have been when looked into and sifted, may reveal so engrossed in household or business a nugget of pure gold, or put you on the cares, that you have forgotten much that track of something you would not have you learned in your youth, and only now missed for anything. The name you begin to realize that you have completely heard mentioned may be that of a man dropped out of the procession of students or woman, of whom it is perfectly inexand thinkers; and that you are really in- cusable in you to be ignorant. capable of taking any part in conversa- When you have a half hour or more to tion, outside of your own particular, spare, spend it in transferring the inevery-day affairs.

formation you have obtained from your Now, at the opening of the winter read- small to your large notebook. The ing season, is an excellent time to seek latter you may divide into sections for to remedy all that.

And I would say to different subjects, and arrange as nicely you, begin with the determination to con- as you choose. The re-writing will be tinue the course I shall now lay out for great aid in fixing the items in your you, at least during the ensuing winter. memory. If you do, you will in another season lay In addition to this choose an author out a still better and more extended plan one worth choosing – and make a for yourself, and perhaps thank me for study of his life and works, during the having given you a start in the right long winter evenings. If you have a direction.

friend or two to join you, so much the First, provide yourself with a good- better; or perhaps you can get together sized blank book, and a small pocket a choice circle — not too large- of those note-book and pencil. Carry the latter who are really desirous of self-improvetwo articles with you wherever you go; ment. and whenever you see a piece of statuary, As the reading season closes, if you (representing you know not what, or have pursued your purpose faithfuily,

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you will find yourself possessed of a much if the false or impure can ever obdegree of knowledge and culture that tain the same hold over it, as would have will be a surprise, even to yourself. been possible without that foundation.

Many distractions

among them of I had thought to stop here, with the late is the bicycle craze are, I am aware, setting forth of my modest suggestion; causing a diminution of the reading but a few words directed especially to habit. I am not sure that I altogether the young may not prove amiss. In regret it, for, really, so much trash has continuing I would like to say some of late been sifted through the minds of practical words to those whose literary our young people - yes, and of older tastes are, more or less, unformed. people, too - that, in too many cases, the

Good literature may be safely set down poor sieves themselves will never be of as a large source of pure, unfailing en- much good again. But nature herself joyment. My readers are doubtless famil- has a cure for this. The education that iar, to some extent, it may be, with our comes in through the sight of flowing standard authors — Scott, Emerson, Car- brooks, placid lakes, hill and dale, wood lyle, Hawthorne, Irving, Thackeray, and open field, as they greet the tired Dickens, our beloved “Autocrat,” Vic- eyes, and freshen the jaded sensibilities tor Hugo ; and among the poets, I hope of the omnivorous reader as he glides they have read enough of Milton to, at past or through,on his noiseless steed, may least, speak intelligently of “Paradise give tone to his thoughts; and enable Lost ;' and of Shakespeare, so as hon- him, by and by, to see the beauty of the estly to enjoy his plays. Of good Sir strong and true, and understand and apWalter, I should be glad to have you preciate the really artistic in literature. know much of him by heart— his “ Lady Of course, new books will be devoured, of the Lake,” especially, for, if you do, but I cannot help saying that it is a pity you are sure to read more of his poems. that present-day authors are read almost I would say the same of our revered exclusively. Whether your author is a


. Longfellow, our Whittier and Bryant humorist who endangers your buttons and Holmes. But how can I place an with the hearty laughter he provokes ; adjective before one of those honored or the pathetic writer, who draws tears names and not before all ? And, as I from your eyes, and awakens the deepwrite, still others, of the great and good est sympathy of your heart; or the hisin the world of letters rise and claim torian, who turns your history into a a place in one's loving remembrance. I delightful story; you may soon apthink of many more, of whom I hope praise his moral standard, and I would you are saying, “Why was not his name advise you to determine largely by that mentioned? Or her name,- for you whether to accept or reject him from may be thinking of great women -per- your list of favorite authors, whose haps of Mrs. Stowe, Mary Wilkins, or books you rush to secure as soon as George Eliot.

issued. I would have all our young people Observe what stand your author takes know intimately, at least the poets of our on the great moral questions of the day. own country ; for to know them is to Is his heroine so lovely and so fascinatlove them; and, knowing and loving ing that she commands your whole symthem, the desire must instinctively reach pathy and admiration ; and yet, at the out to the poets and tuneful singers of same time, is she false in word, and false other lands. It is a positive injustice to in life and conduct ; and directly the opa child to allow him to grow up without posite of all you have hitherto considered a love for one or more of those great and good and womanly? If so, shun that inspiring writers, for surely, no child, author. He will do you harm. If again judiciously treated to one selection after you find your author habitually making another from those authors, can avoid his mean men Sabbath school teachers falling in love with everything that is or superintendents, and his most connoble and good ; and that love will be temptible characters church members ; fruitful in inculcating good taste and while his manly, noble fellows drink and judgment in literature. Where the love swear and gamble, throw his books aside, of a young heart is once gained by a even though they delight you. The truly great and good author, I doubt more charming they are, the worse they

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are. And this, no matter who or how thinkers and writers of the past who popular the author may be. God is in gave to us, not only pure language, the heavens, beholding the works of men. - full of grace and beauty; but whose Right is right; and wrong is wrong, no living soul within these vestments shines matter how covered, or clothed upon forth always pure and true.

All honor, with the color or drapery of beautiful, too, to the men and women of the presgraceful language.

ent, who use their genius, talent, skill, When, on the other hand, your author whether it be with pen or brush, to upshows you that he is on the side of lift humanity; to show to men and wofreedom, purity, temperance and reli- men that vice is always and everywhere gion you may be sure that he will ugly, contemptible and morally ruinous, do you good, and not evil, all the and that, as the old adage expresses it, days of his life ;- and he lives for- “ virtue is its own reward.ever. All honor, I say, then, to those



HE Navy Department at the sacrifice. As President Cleveland

Washington has called to its once said, “the nation that cannot resist aid, in the forming of opinion aggression is constantly exposed to it.” anent the increase of the Since the Civil War we perhaps owe

United States navy, the utter- to President Arthur the most urgent ances of over a dozen Presidents from the appeal for an efficient navy, and with his era of Washington to that of Benjamin administration the foundation of our Harrison. These utterances are culled

present naval defense was laid. In his from Presidential messages, and appear, message to Congress, issued in December, with an introduction by Theodore Roose- 1881, President Arthur said: velt, the present Assistant Secretary of the Navy, in a brochure just issued from

“I cannot too strongly urge upon you my

conviction that every consideration of national the Government Printing Office, entitled, safety, economy, and honor, imperatively de“The Naval Policy of America as Out- mands a thorough rehabilitation of our navy. lined in Messages of the Presidents." Nothing can be more inconsistent with true In this bellicose age, and especially in

public economy than withholding the means

necessary to accomplish the objects entrusted view of the vast national interests of the

by the Constitution to the national Legislature. United States at home and abroad, it One of these objects, which is of paramount imshould require little argument to con

portance, is declared by our fundamental law to vince the nation of the necessity for a

be the provision for the “common defense."

Surely nothing is more essential to the defense sufficient and efficient navy. Neverthe

of the United States and of all our people than less, the little government publication is the efficiency of our navy. If we heed the timely and effective, while it is interest- teachings of history we shall not forget that in

the life of every nation emergencies may arise ing as an expression of high official

when a resort to arms can alone save it from opinion on the policy of the Administra

dishonor.” tion in regard to seaboard defense and on the effectual means of preserving peace.

Ten years later, President Harrison The situation to-day is of course very expressed himself with like emphasis different from what it was in the early when he said: years of the Republic, and with the prog- “There should be no hesitation in promptly ress of the nation the need has grown completing a navy of the best modern type, immensely not only for an efficient de- large enough to enable this country to display fense for our three thousand mile coast

its flag in all seas for the protection of its citi

zens and its extending commerce. It is essenline, but for a navy strong enough to

tial to the dignity of this nation and to that command respect for our flag abroad peaceful influence which it should exercise on and the full protection of the country's this hemisphere that its navy should be aderights. The creation and the mainte- quate, both upon the shores of the Atlantic and

of the Pacific." nance of an adequate navy must necessarily involve a large expenditure of Happily, more than a beginning has money, but the dignity and honor of the been made in elevating the nation into a nation, no less than its security, demand naval power.

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ANNIBAL HAMLIN had land, Maine, the senior member of the

marked natural gifts that are firm being General Fessenden, one of bestowed on men who are the first presidents of the New England called to wide careers, and he Anti-Slavery Society, and father of

was reared under conditions William Pitt Fessenden. that contributed to shape his course. He Hamlin settled in Hampden, Me., and had a striking personality ; in his prime he began the practice of his profession in was six feet in height and was endowed that town. While he remained at the with immense physical strength and en- bar he was very successful, but he endurance. His swarthy complexion, dark, tered politics too soon to develop his piercing eyes, and simplicity of manner, powers as a jurist. Yet circumstances gave him the appearance of an Indian indicate that he attracted the attention sachem. His democratic ways bespoke of able men who regarded him as a kind heart and deep interest in our lawyer of uncommon promise. Sidney common humanity. He was descended Bartlett, for many years at the head of from good New England revolutionary the Boston bar and one of the greatest stock. His grandfather was Eleazer lawyers New England ever produced, Hamlin, of Harvard, Massachusetts, was associated with Hamlin in several who was an officer of note in the Conti- suits, and as a result strongly urged him nental army.

He had three sons in his to remain in the practice of his profescompany at one time, and one, Colonel sion. But Hamlin was a born politician, Africa Hamlin, was among the founders an Andrew Jackson Democrat, and he was of the Society of the Cincinnati. Han- elected to the Legislature within a few nibal Hamlin's mother, Anna Livermore years after he had settled in Hampden. Hamlin, was related to Samuel Liver- He served five consecutive terms and more, a member of the Constitutional Con- was thrice Speaker of the House, being gress, President Pro Tem. of the United the youngest man who had filled this States Senate for several terms, and position up to that time. finally Chief Justice of New Hampshire. In the Legislature, Hamlin's career as

Born at Paris Hill, Me., August 27, an anti-slavery leader began, and it is 1809, Hannibal Hamlin lived in his the most picturesque and interesting featearly years in the heart of nature among ure of his political life. At this period the yeomanry of Maine. Owing to the the abolitionists were becoming active, death of his father, young Hamlin was though they were bitterly denounced as deprived of a thorough education. The disunionists and repelled by both politicare of his mother's farm fell on his cal parties. One method of procedure shoulders, but this served to stimulate the abolitionists had in ventilating their his ambition to obtain what schooling he opinions was to bombard Congress and could and proceed to a profession. Al- the State legislatures with petitions to though he had to rise at five o'clock abolish slavery. To stop this, Congress in the morning, take care of the cattle, passed the infamous gag law. The proand work all day the farm, yet he slavery Democrats of Maine upheld this managed to snatch a few hours a day law — at least they approved its purpose for his studies. Not infrequently he – but they were unwilling to allow the could be seen reading law and hoeing abolitionists to present petitions to the corn at the same time. Hamlin learned Maine Legislature. Hamlin said many a surveying, taught school, and also pub- time: “I hope to see this accursed thing lished a

weekly newspaper for six of slavery die out; I certainly believe months with Horatio King * in order God in His own good time and way will to earn money to support himself while extinguish it ; I will always fight it; but, completing his legal studies in a well- while I believe in abolition and expect it established office. Finally he was able to come, I do not believe in the abolito spend a year in an office in Port- tionists and their methods.”+ Never*Postmaster-General during the latter part of

theless, Hamlin desired that the aboliBuchanan's Administration.

†Public speeches reported in newspapers.

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years old.


tionists should have justice, and taking known as an anti-slavery man.

He the floor on one occasion he said, in sub- therefore asked David Wilmot to present stance : “You must hear these people. the proviso, and Wilmot being popular They are American citizens, and the with the Southern members of the House, Constitution guarantees them the rights on account of his free trade views, obof free speech and petition."

tained the floor. The House passed the The Abolitionists were heard, though bill, but the Senate, as we know, did not the pro-slavery men

incensed act. At the next session Wilmot, though against Mr. Hamlin ; and then began prepared to introduce the proviso again, that long fight between him and the did not appear when the time came for slave party in Maine which ended only action. He always claimed that Presiwhen the civil war abolished the “ pecu- dent Polk purposely detained him in the liar institution.”

White House. The anti-slavery men Hamlin was first nominated for Con- placed Hamlin in charge of the Proviso, gress in 1840, when he was thirty-one and, after a severe parliamentary fight

He beat the party machine and a dramatic scene, Hamlin succeeded in convention, but was defeated at the in presenting the now historic measure. polls by Elisha H. Allen, the Whig candi- It passed the House, but was defeated date, who was afterwards Chief Justice by the Senate. But the proviso became of the Hawaiian Islands. This, how- the platform of the anti-slavery men of ever, was the year of the Whig cyclone, both parties, and they stood on it together and at the next election Hamlin was to prevent the extension of slavery into chosen. After this he came rapidly to free soil. Eventually it became the the front in the House as a debater, and cardinal principle of the Republican finally became one of the leaders of the party, of which Hamlin was one of the anti-slavery Democracy. The first speech founders. of importance he made was a short, but In 1846, when he was thirty-seven vigorous, attack on the gag law, which years old, Mr. Hamlin became a candihe arraigned as unconstitutional date for the United States Senate. He measure. John Quincy Adams, who was the choice of the majority of his had for ten years led the fight against party, but the pro-slavery Democrats this obnoxious rule, paid Mr. Hamlin marked him as an object of displeasure, marked attention while he was speaking on account of his anti-slavery course in and eulogized him in a warm compli- the House. They bolted from him, and ment. Adams thereafter showed a after the Legislature had balloted for six hearty interest in his young colleague, weeks, Mr. Hamlin was defeated by one while Hamlin always spoke of Adams as vote. Two years later, Senator Fairfield the real father of the Republican party, died, and Mr. Hamlin obtained his party's and one of the greatest and best men he nomination by one vote and was elected. ever knew.

His first speech in the Senate was a Other notable speeches made by Hamlin powerful and convincing effort to prove were in opposition to the annexation of that a so-called compromise bill was a Texas as a Slave State, in exposing the conspiracy to let slavery into Oregon, plot of the slave power to betray Oregon California and New Mexico. Abraham into the hands of the British govern- Lincoln, then a member of the House, ment, and in denunciation of the con- heard the speech, and twelve years afterspiracy to force slavery into Oregon. wards, when Lincoln and Hamlin first The slave party threatened to pass a met, Lincoln recalled the speech and told vote of censure on Hamlin, while Hamlin that it had made a strong imhis anti-slavery Democratic colleagues pression on him. Senator Hamlin at sought to make him their candidate for this period also reviewed at length the Speaker.

conspiracy to prevent California from Perhaps the most picturesque incident becoming a Free State and worked with in Hamlin's two terms in the House was the anti-slavery Senators on all occasions his connection with the Wilmot Proviso. to defeat the plans of the slave power. The credit of devising this measure be- In 1850, Mr. Hamlin was a candidate longs to Jacob Brinkerhoff, of Ohio. He for a full term in the Senate.

He was knew that he could not obtain the floor renominated by two-thirds of his party at the necessary time because he was in the Legislature; but by the accidents

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