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and vague are from the same root as gives Scarcely less interesting is the evoluus extravagant.

tion of the meaning of our word salary A parasol, in its origin becomes a from the word “salt-money," which was weapon in a duel between its user and Sol, part of the pay given to the Roman solthe sun. It rather implies a sword, for it is dier; or of person, from persona,

; used to parry the force of Sol's weapon, mask.” The English root of the word is

. his rays. An umbrella is less combative, “sound," and per (through) sound is a in its idea of umbra, a shade," thrown sound through something, in this case a into the diminutive, by means of the mask. Tracing the origin farther back, modification, "ella” as stream is affected we see that the word once referred to an by the addition of the syllable, let. actor, who in those days wore a mask. An umbr(a)-ella, then, simply casts “a

а Then, from that it came to designate the little shade.'

body, as the cover or house of the real The change in the meaning of rivals being, the soul: as, “Her person is is very pronounced. From rivus, "a comely," and from that it broadened to brook” it once meant neighbors having take in the individual, himself. Locke the use of the same brook. Now, it ap- says, Consider what person stands for plies to any antagonist. Archbishop - a thinking, intelligent being, that has Trench, in his "Study of Words," says, reason and reflection." with regard to the adoption of its present In the word abundance, we see unda, meaning: :

"a wave;" in digression, gradi, "to “Since, as all experience shows, there walk;" in desultory, salire, "to leap;"


' is no such fruitful source of contention in candle and candid, candere, "to shine;" as a water-right, it would continually in bibulous, bibere, to drink;”in attracts, happen that those occupants of the oppo- trahere, to draw;" in comfort, allied to

, site banks would be at strife with one fort, a place of defense, fortis, “strong," another, in regard to the periods during and so on, ad infinitum. which they severally had the right to the Hence the assertion, made at the outuse of the stream — and, thus, rivals came set, that we speak in hidden figures, and to be used of any” (persons) — “who in doing so, intelligently, we speak were in unfriendly competition with one tersely, forcefully, energetically. another.”



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Disbelief, n., denial of belief, incredulity.

Syn. : unbelief, scepticsm, infidelity.
Ant. : faith, credence, trust, assent.

Syn. dis. : Unbelief is negative ; disbelief is
positive; unbelief may arise from want of
knowledge, but disbelief rejects as false. Un-
belief is the absence, disbelief the refusal of
credit. Incredulity and infidelity are used, the
former to signify absence of belief where it is
possible, the latter absence of belief where it is
right. Incredulity may be therefore right
where it denotes a proper reluctance of assent
to what ought not to be easily believed, or not
believed at all; infidelity is, by the force of the
term, wrong. Scepticism implies disbelief or
inability to believe, and commonly expresses a
doubting of the truth of revelation or of the
Christian religion.
Distinguished, adj., noted or celebrated for

some superior or extraordinary quality ;

marked, famous. Syn. : eminent, illustrious, conspicuous, prominent.

Ant. : common, commonplace, obscure, ordinary.

Syn. dis. : Distinguished directly relates to persons and to deeds, and to persons for the sake of their deeds : it conveys the idea of social eminence or prominence as the result of public services rendered, or merit publicly exhibited. Eminent is only employed of persons — those who stand above their fellows: when things stand out conspicuously they are called prominent; e.g., the eminent characters of history, and the prominent events. Illustrious is used strictly only of persons, inasmuch as human acts or character can alone make things illustrious, as being the agents or recipients of what is illustrious ; thus we speak of illustrious heroes, nobles, titles. If we speak of illustrious deeds or events, it is as being done or brought about by human agency. Docile, adj. (do'-sîl or dos'-11), easily instructed

or managed ; teachable; willing or ready to

learn. Syn, : tractable, amenable, compliant, tame.

Ant. : stubborn, dogged, intractable, ob stinate,

Syn. dis. : Docile (lit. easy to teach (im. plies more than tractable (easy to handle): tractable denotes no more than the absence of refractoriness, docile the actual quality of meet. ness. Amenable is commonly used of human


*(Continued from the September issue, Vol, V., p. 570.)

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beings who are willing to be guided by per- orator, and, in an extended sense, the combined suasion, entreaty, and reason, without requiring productions of the orators, as the oratory of coercion. The docile are easily taught or led; Greece and Rome.' Rhetoric is strictly the the tractable easily managed; the amenable theory or science of which oratory is the praceasily governed and persuaded.

tice. By poetic license, we sometimes speak Economy, n., the frugal and prudent manage

of eloquence in a mute sense, as 'the sileni eloment of a family or household ; the judi

quence of a look.' cious management of the affairs of an office Envious, adj., feeling uneasiness at the supeor a nation.

riority or happiness of another; full of or inSyn.: frugality, parsimony, thrift.

fected with envy. Ant. : liberality, generosity:

Syn. : invidious, jealous, suspicious. Syn. dis. : Economy implies management; Ant. : unselfish, trusting, disinterested. frugality implies temperance; parsimony im- Syn. dis. : Invidious signifies looking at with plies simply forbearing to spend, which is in an evil eye ; envious is literally only a variation fact the common idea included in these terms. of invidious, which, in its common acceptation, Effect, n., result or consequence of a cause of

signifies causing ill-will; while envious signiagent. (Do not confound with affect.]

fies having ill-will. Jealous is a feeling of envy

mixed with rivalry : we are jealous, not only Syn. : result, consequence. Syn. dis. : Effect applies either to physical

of the actual but the possible, whence the al.

liance between jealousy and suspicion. The or moral objects; consequence, only to moral

latter term relates more commonly to thoughts subjects. An effect is that which necessarily flows out of the cause, – the connection between

of the character, conduct, and designs of other the cause and the effect being so intimate that

persons, and wears an inauspicious or unfavor.

able air. we cannot think of the one without thinking of the other. A consequence, on the other hand, Equivocate, v., to make use of expressions admay be either casual or natural ; it is that on mitting of a two-fold interpretation. which we can calculate.

Syn. : prevaricate, evade, quibble, shuffle. Effective, adj., having the power to effect ;

Syn. dis. : These words designate an artful producing effect.

mode of escaping the scrutiny of an inquirer.

We evade by artfully turning the subject or Syn. : .effectual, efficient, efficacious. Ant. : weak, futile, inoperative, nugatory.

calling off the attention of the inquirer; we Syn. dis. : An end or result is effectual, the

equivocate by the use of equivocal or ambig. are efficacious. Efficient is actively

uous expressions; we prevaricate by the use of

loose or indefinite statements, shuffling or quiboperative, and is used of persons, of things, and of causes, in a philosophical sense, as

bling so as to avoid disclosing the truth. efficient cause,' 'an efficient officer.' Effective

Error, n., a deviation from truth ; involuntarily is producing a decided effect, as “an effective

wandering from the truth. remedy,' an effective speech. Effectual is

Syn.: mistake, blunder. finally effective, or producing, not effect gen- Ant. : truth, accuracy, correctness. erally, but the desired effect in such a way as

Syn. dis. : Error, in its universal sense, is to leave nothing to be done. Efficacious is pos- the general term, since every deviation from sessing the quality of being effective, which is

what is right, and, we may add, from what latent in the thing until it is put into operation. is true, just or accurate, in rational agents is It is not employed of persons.

termed error, which is strictly opposed to truth. Eligible, adj., fit or deserving to be chosen.

A mistake is an error committed under a misapSyn. : desirable, preferable.

prehension or misconception of the nature of a Ant. : worthless, ineligible, undesirable.

An error may be from absence of knowlSyn. dis. : Eligible means primarily worthy

edge; a mistake is from insufficient or false of being or qualified to be, chosen ; it denotes,

observation. Blunder is a practical error of a therefore, an alternative — that of choosing some

peculiarly gross or awkward kind, committed thing else, or not choosing this. Desirable is through gross or glaring ignorance, heedlessof wider application, and conveys no idea of

ness, or awkwardness. Mistake is an error of comparison or selection. Preferable is that choice; blunder, an error of action. which is comparatively desirable or specifically eligible. What is eligible is desirable in itself,

Essay, n., in literature, a written composition what is preferable is more desirable than an

or disquisition upon some particular point other. There may be many eligible situations

or topic, less formal than a treatise. out of which perhaps there is but one preferable:

Syn. : treatise, dissertation, tract, monograph. of persons, however, we say rather that they are

Syn. dis. : Essay is a modest term to express eligible to an office than preferable.

an author's attempt to illustrate some point of

knowlege or learning by general thoughts upon Elocution, n., the management and quality of it. It is tentative rather than exhaustive or

the voice in the utterance or delivery of scientific. A treatise is more formal and scienwords.

tific than an essay. A dissertation is of an Syn. : eloquence, oratory, rhetoric, declama- argumentative character, advancing views upon tion.

a subject capable of being regarded in different Syn. dis. : Elocution turns more upon.

the lights. A tract is of a simpler and shorter characcessory graces of speaking in public, into- acter, simply didactic, and commonly, as now nation, gesture, and delivery in general ; elo- used, of a religious nature. A monograph quence on the matter, and the natural gifts or the word is recent—is a treatise or description the attainments of the speaker. Oratory com- limited to a single being or object, or to a single prehends both the art and the practice of the branch of a subject.


Evidence, n., that which demonstrates or taken in a good sense. It is not so much per.

makes clear that a fact is so; that which sons as things which exceed; both persons and makes evident or enables the mind to see things surpass; persons only excel. Transcend truth.

is to excel in a signal manner, soaring, as it Syn. : testimony, proof, illustration, sign. were, aloft, and surmounting all barriers. OutAnt. : surmise, conjecture, disproof, fallacy. do is a simple Saxon compound for the Latin

Syn. dis. : The words evidence and testimony, or French surpass. It is accordingly a familiar though differing widely in meaning, are often term, with a familiar application; hence, it has used indiscriminately by careless speakers : evi- sometimes the undignified force of to get the dence is that which tends to convince ; testimony better of another in no very honorable way, as is that which is intended to convince. Proof, a synonym of outwit. To outdo is simply to being a simpler word than testimony and evi- do something better than another, and to reap dence, is used more generally of the ordinary some personal advantage by the fact. facts of life. Testimony is strictly the evidence

Excite, v., to call into action; to rouse, to of a witness given under oath ; evidence is a term

animate. of higher dignity, and is applied to that which is moral and intellectual, as the evidences of

Syn. : rouse or arouse, incite, awaken, stimu

late. Christianity; or the body of proofs, or alleged

Ant. : allay, quiet, appease, soothe, pacify. proofs, tending to establish facts in law.

Syn. dis. : To excite is said more particularly Examination, n., careful observation or inspec- of the inward feelings; incite is said of the extion ; scrutiny by study or experiment.

ternal actions. To excite is to call into greater Syn. : search, inquiry, research, investigation, activity what before existed in a calm or calmer scrutiny.

state, or to arouse to an active state faculties or Syn. 'dis. : Examination is the most general powers which before were dormant: the term is of these terms, which all agree in expressing an also used of purely physical action. Awaken active effort to find out that which is unknown. is to rouse from a state of sleep, or, analogously, An examination is made by the aid either of to stir up anything that has lain quiet; rouse the senses or the understanding, the body or is to awaken in a sudden or startling manner. the mind; a search is principally a bodily action; To incite is to excite to a specified act or end the inquiry is mostly intellectual : an examina- which the inciter has in view ; to stimulate is to tion is made for the purpose of forming a judg- spur into activity (stimulus, a spur) and to a ment; a search is made for ascertaining a fact; certain end. an inquiry has much the same meaning. Re- Excuse, v., to overlook on giving an explanasearch is laborious and sustained search after

tion or apology. objects, not of physical, but of mental observation and knowledge; investigation is literally

Syn. : pardon, forgive, acquit, remit, excula mental tracking ( of facts or appearances );

pate, condone. scrutiny is confined to minute examination of

Ant. : charge, condemn, accuse.

Syn. dis. : We excuse whenever we exempt what is known and present; exploration is to

from the imputation of blame: when used rerange in inquiry, or to direct one's search over

flectively it sometimes means no more than to an extensive area.

decline, or to take such exemption to oneself. Exasperate, v., to excite to great anger; to We excuse a small fault; we pardon a great enrage or provoke greatly.

fault or a crime; we excuse commonly what reSyn. : aggravate, irritate, provoke, enrage, lat to ourselves; we pardon offences against inflame, embitter.

rule, law, or morals. Forgive differs from both Ant. : soothe, conciliate, assuage, alleviate, in relating only to offences against oneself. mitigate.

Omissions and neglects or slight commissions Syn. dis. : Both persons and feelings are said to may be excused; graver offences and crimes be exasperated, but more commonly the former : pardoned; personal insults and injuries forit is to provoke bitter feeling, or to aggravate it. given. The term condone implies the forgiveAggravate is to make heavy, and so to make ness or overlooking of an offence or offences by worse, to make less tolerable or excusable, and outward acts; in the law, the term has special is properly applied only to evils or offences, force as a bar to action in suits for divorce. though it has come, incorrectly, to be used in

Expedient, n., that which serves to promote or the sense of irritate and exasperate. In this help forward any end or purpose. latter sense it is to be presumed that the idea is to make to feel a burden or a grievance. To

Syn.: resource, shift, contrivance, resort. irritate is less strong than the other terms, and

Syn. dis. : An expedient is a contrivance more denotes the excitement of slight resentment

or less adequate, but irregular, and sought for against the cause or object. To provoke is

by tact and adaptation to the peculiar circum

stances of the case. It is a kind of unauthorstronger, and expresses the rousing of a feeling of decided anger and strong resentment by in

ized substitute for more recognized modes of jury or insult, such as naturally tends to active

doing things. A shift is an expedient which retaliation. To exasperate is stronger still, and

does not profess to be more than temporary and denotes a provocation to unrestrained anger or

very imperfect, a mere evasion of difficulty.

Makeshift expresses this idea best. A resource resentment, based upon a determined ill-will.

is that to which one resorts : it is often, thereExceed, v., to pass or go beyond ; to surpass. fore, that on which the others are based. So it

Syn. : excel, outdo, transcend, surpass. may be a test of skill in contrivance to find an Syn. dis : To exceed is a relative term, im- adequate expedient in limited resources. Shift plying some limit, measure or quantity already usually relates to objects trivial and external, existing : in its limited acceptation, it implies no contrivance to matters of more importance, moral desert; surpass and excel are always and expedient to those even of the highest.




BOTTLE of hot water will re- tity of heat applied. That is to say, if a tain its heat, as every nurse certain quantity of heat will cause a rise knows, longer than a hot of one degree, twice that quantity will flat-iron or a hot brick. The raise the temperature two degrees; three

reason is that, weight for times the quantity, three degrees, and so weight and at the same temperatures, on. As the temperature rises, the quanthe water contains more heat than either tity of heat necessary to add to it another the brick or the iron. To prove this degree increases slightly; but not enough fact, make the following experiments :- to affect practically the law just stated.

Experiment 1.- Mix together a pint of We can calculate, then, that to raise the ice-cold water, the temperature of which temperature of our three ounces of water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit, and a pint of from 50 degrees to the boiling point water at the boiling point, or at a tem- would require nine times as much heat perature of 212 degrees. The tempera- as was given off by the iron in cooling ture of the mixture will be found to be from that temperature, while the same 122 degrees; that is, it will stand midway quantity of heat applied to the iron between the boiling and the freezing would raise its temperature to between points. There has been a transfer of 1400 and 1500 degrees Fahrenheit, or to heat from the hot to the cold water; and a red heat. From this experiment we the point to be noted is that the former may infer that a bottle of boiling-hot in falling in temperature so degrees has water contains as much heat as a red-hot given out heat sufficient to raise the tem- mass of iron of the same weight. perature of an equal quantity of water This fact is somewhat surprising, but the same number of degrees. Hence we we may test the correctness of our conmay infer that a body in cooling a cer- clusion roughly by heating a piece of tain number of degrees gives off as much iron to a cherry-red heat and cooling it in heat as is required to raise its tempera- ice-water, taking care to have the weight ture by the same amount, a point to be of the water the same as that of the iron. kept in mind in making the next experi- The temperature of the water will rise ment.

to somewhere about 120 degrees, or to Experiment 2.- Take a strip of sheet about the same point to which it would iron, weighing, say, three ounces, make be raised by mixing with it the same a loose roll of it, and suspend it by a weight of boiling water. thread in boiling water long enough to If, in making our second experiment, ensure its being heated to the same tem- we had used any other substance than perature as the water. Remove the roll iron for heating the water, we should from the hot water, and immerse it have reached a similar result, the figures quickly in the same weight of ice-cold only being different. Every substance, water, and introduce the bulb of a ther- whether solid, liquid or gaseous, has a mometer. Note the temperature of the special susceptibility to heat, no two water when it ceases to rise. It will be substances being affected by the applifound to be about 50 degrees. The iron cation of a given quantity of heat, when cools very much more than the water equal weights or masses of them are warms. The temperature of the water taken, to the same extent. To put this rises but 18 degrees, while that of the fact into every-day phraseology, some iron falls 162 degrees, or nine times as substances are harder to heat than othfar. This means that the quantity of ers. They are able to receive and to heat which will raise the temperature of stow away within themselves a great a given weight of iron 162 degrees, and quantity of heat without showing its which the iron will give off in cooling, effect so visibly by a rise of temperature will raise that of the same weight of as do other substances which are more water only 18 degrees, or one-ninth as sensitive to heat. Water is the hardest much. Experiment has shown that when of all substances to heat, with the single bodies are heated their rise in tempera- exception of hydrogen gas. The easiest ture is nearly proportional to the quan- two are mercury and lead, which stand


as regards their sensitiveness to heat on twice as fast as water, and this is true nearly the same footing. The same also of steam, approximately, its specific quantity of heat which will raise an heat being 0.4750. ounce of water from the freezing to the The great capacity of water and steam boiling point, will raise the temperature

for heat-the fact that a given quantity of about thirty ounces of mercury or of either will hold a much larger amount lead, nine ounces of iron, eleven ounces of heat at a conveniently low temperaof copper, sixteen ounces of silver, ture than will the same quantity of any through the same number of degrees. other substance – renders them pecu

This is one way of stating the facts in liarly fitted for the purpose of heating these cases. Scientists have a different buildings, not to speak of the ease with and, for the purpose of tab!ation, a which they can be conducted to the varimore convenient way of saying the same ous parts of a building. On a far grander thing. Taking as a unit for measuring scale we may see this same peculiarity of heat the quantity required for raising water utilized by nature for tempering the temperature of a given weight of ice- climate. The waters of the ocean abcold water, -as one poundor one gramme, corb during the summer a vast quantity - one degree, they have determined ex- of heat, without, however, showing any perimentally the fractional part of this great rise of temperature, and during the unit of heat required for raising the same winter this heat is given out slowly and weight of any other substance one degree, serves to warm the air. This is one and this fraction, written decimally, is cause of the absence of extremes in an known as the specific heat of that sub- island climate. stance. Below are given, for the pur

GEO. SENECA JONES. pose of illustration, the specific heats of

heit - its temperature ceases to rise. During a few of the most common substances:

the process of melting, though the ice and the Water (the Standard)..

resulting water continue to receive heat, the Aluminium..

temperature of both remains constant at 32 de Carbon..


grees. What becomes of the heat which at Copper.


this time is put into them? The answer is Ice.

that it remains in the water. This heat is re

.0.5040 Iron..


quired to counterbalance the mutual attractions Lead

of the molecules of ice — the attraction which

..0.0315 Mercury

the molecules of every solid have for one another

..0.0319 Silver...


- and thus give them that freedom of movement Zinc


which characterizes the liquid state of matter.

This heat which is necessary for maintaining One or two points in this short list are the liquid state of any substance, and without worth noting. Of the metals aluminium which it would become a solid, and which does is the hardest to heat. It requires about

not affect the temperature of the substance, is

called latent heat, that is, concealed heat. one-fifth as much heat -0.2122 — to

When a liquid passes into the gaseous state, a raise the temperature of a given weight like phenomenon is presented; heat is conof it one degree as to raise that of the sumed without any resulting rise of temperature. same weight of water to the same extent.

Gases, as well as liquids, contain latent heat

heat which does not affect their temperatures, Ice— below the freezing point * — heats

but serves only to keep them in the gaseous

state - which is surrendered when they pass, * When a mass of ice has been brought by the one from the gaseous to the liquid, the other heat to the melting point — 32 degrees Fahren- from the liquid to the solid state.

1.0000 ..0.2122

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Q.-If a hole passed through the centre

minutes after the ball, in the case supof the earth, and a cannon ball were posed, had disappeared down the hole, it dropped in at one end, would not the would return to the starting-point, havforce of inertia send it to the other end, ing twice traversed the diameter of the if not beyond, or would the law of gravi- earth. If left to follow its own inclina. tation make it return to the centre, tion, it would at once drop back into the and would it retain itself there without hole and would perform the feat again; support?

and it would continue thus to travel to CONSTANT READER.

and fro through the hole, from end to Ans. - In about one hour and twenty end, forever.

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