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Science, nowadays, is so specialized that we outdoor life, or has attainments for and a bent have in every branch of it separate departments towards scientific or professional work. and fields of research and work. Physical science, for instance, is subdivided into the

Will you please inform reader branches of Natural Philosophy or Physics, Me

through the valuable columns of your chanics and Hydrostatics, Acoustics, Optics,

SELF CULTURE, (1) What is meant by Light, Heat, Electricity and Magnetism. Allied

the term “ Preparing for College?" (2) with this is, usually, Mathematical Science. Me

Is it necessary for a young man to have chanical Science especially includes Applied

gone through a High School, to have a Mechanics, and, in addition, Civil Engineering,

successful career at a College or UniverSurveying, Architecture, etc. Other branches

sity? (3) I am a good stenographer and of science comprise Chemistry, Geology, Bot- have a knowledge of bookkeeping. Do any, Physiology, Biology, Anthropology, and

you think I can make my qualifications Zoölogy. All these demand special courses of

help me in paying my way through, study and most of them call for special gifts in

either by teaching shorthand, or doing the student. As to results, in he way of re

office work outside of the lecture hours? wards, that again depends upon ability and at

(4) Will you kindly name a few of the tainment, as well as upon the success of one's

best Colleges or Universities for taking research or achievement. A chair of any one of

a thorough law course? these departments at a university or school of science brings, usually, a good income to the in- “Preparing for college” means to get up the cumbent, and bright, clever, hard-working and work, a knowledge of which is exacted from enthusiastic men are always sure of good recog

candidates in the entrance examinations at a nition and a high status in the community.

university. Most of the higher colleges have a In the practical professions, perhaps few are

standard for entrance which those offering better paid where there is high ability, than in

themselves for matriculation must attain before surgery, or as a consulting electrician or engi- they are admitted. To take a satisfactory Arts neer. The cost of preparing oneself for any of course in a university, you would have either to these professions naturally varies, and especially be prepared by a tutor privately or to have so according as one may give to their study gone through a High School or other preparatory three or four, or five or six years, in a good uni

institution. You should have a good English versity, or under competent experts.

education, with a knowledge of Latin, if not of If you have not yet elected to follow any Greek, mathematics, and some science. In the special pursuit, you may find advantage in best colleges, these are essential requirements perusing Dr. Baldwin's “Guide to Systematic before you are matriculated. In entering a Readings in the Encyclopædia Britannica” and school of law, the standard of preliminary trainstudying the articles in that work to which the ing may not in all cases be so exacting, though Guide refers you. One gain in consulting the you should be able to do the work taught in the work is, that may help you to discover lower forms, at least in High Schools, and the bent of your inclination and tastes.

have acquaintance with Latin. There are admirable law schools in connection with the

great universities of Yale, Harvard, Columbia, Kindly inform me how best to judge Pennsylvania, etc., and you can learn what what a young man, aged nineteen, and

their fees are and the length of the course by having had a thorough English education,

applying to the registrar in each case and desiring has a talent for as an occupation in life.

a curriculum to be sent you. We do not doubt You can best judge what a boy has a talent

that at some, perhaps in all, of these institutions for by observing how he employs himself and you could pay your way by doing work as a noticing the bent of his tastes. Much can be stenographer or other clerical duty. determined, also, by the character of the educa- In our advertising pages you will find advertion he has had, and to what branch or depart

tised several good schools of law, apart from ment of study - whether the practical or the

universities, and of some near home. Ву literary – he has shown inclination for. Sound- writing to any of these, you can find out what ing him by catechizing is another mode of prospect there may be of giving your services learning what the lad would like to take to for

as a shorthand writer in part payment of the a life's occupation. By such means, as well as by

college fees, etc. other indications of his general inclinations and tastes, you can ascertain whether he would In my reading lately I have seen menmake a good business man, has a liking for

tion made of an American scientist,


named Count Rumford. Will Self CULTURE state who he was and when he lived, and say where I can learn anything about him? He was, I gather, a man of some distinction.

Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford (17531814), was a native of Massachusetts, who sympathized with the pre-Revolutionary movement, but the jealousy of his fellow-officers in the New Hampshire regiments alienated him from the patriotic cause and he afterwards served on the royal side. In the Encyclopædia Britannica, under Thompson, Sir Benjamin, Count Rumford (Vol. XXIII, page 309), you will find an account of his life. At the close of the war he went to Bavaria, and soon rose high in royal favor, exerting himself to bring about reforms in many directions, but continuing his investigations in physics, which he had early begun in America. In the meantime he was created a count, choosing his title from Rumford, near Concord, New Hampshire. In 1795 he visited England, where he was well received. Various economical appliances of heat engaged his attention; but he is especially remarkable for the experiments on which he founded the modern theory that heat is a mode of motion. Having observed the heat produced in the metal of a cannon while it was being bored, he found that by rotating rapidly a metal cylinder in water, sufficient heat was produced to boil the water. From the conditions of this experiment he inferred that heat is not matter but motion. (For details, see Ellis's Life, appended to the works of Count Rumford, in 5 volumes; also, see Appendix to Chap. II, of Tyndall's “Heat as a Mode of Motion.") This conclusion paved the way for one of the greatest discoveries of the nineteenth century—“The conservation of energy." Count Rumford founded a professorship at Harvard, and he was the founder and the first recipient of the Rumford medal of the London Royal Society. He died near Paris in 1814.

thies of George Eliot that they spread with a powerful and even flow in every direction. Her sketches of women, as one might expect, are especially interesting, and yet, on reviewing the male characters in her works, we find in them a like psychological profundity. In the portrayal of all her characters we find the sameglance, which divines all motives, which lays bare all feelings, and which would be more pitiless than remorse itself, if the author's penetration were not equalled by her tenderness for human weakness and human suffering. Her Tito is condemned, decreed to death, but he is understood far too truly to be disliked. Hetty, with her little butterfly soul, pleasure-loving but not passionate, luxurious, vain, hard of heart, is viewed with the sincerest and most intelligent sympathy. Hinda, who has no more soul than a pigeon, is still lovable, after her kind; and up from these through the hierarchy of human character to Romola and Fedalma, to Zarca and Savonarola, there is not one a grade too low, nor one too high, for love to reach. Poverty of nature and the stains of sin do not alienate the passionate attachment of this author's heart to all that is natural and human.

George Eliot has created a kind of character in fiction in which she will probably have no successor. Her's is the novel of moral analysis. Two of her strongest creations are those of Gwendolen and Grandcourt. Some inconsistencies may be detected in the outlining of these characters, but if she has elsewhere drawn fig. ures more thorough, stronger, and more remark. able for their moral unity, she has created none more constructively and of such depth. One can see Grandcourt, with his pale face, his placid and disdainful demeanor. Between his fingers is the eternal cigar, on his lips the oath of ill-temper or the yawn of ennui. A stranger to all moral life, he knows nothing of men but their foibles and their follies. A thorough blasé, he has no pleasure left but in oppressing others. His last enjoyment is in ill-treating his dogs, giving pain to his inferiors, tyrannizing over his wife, provoking rebellion in order to crush it. There is meanness under the elegant manners, and cruelty under the well-bred coldness - a monster inside the correct and polished gentleman.

The portrait of Gwendolen is still more carefully studied. She possesses the formidable power of beauty. She knows it, and she has early acquired the egotism which often accompanies the consciousness of recognized superiority. Accustomed from her infancy to see her mother and sisters the slaves of her caprice, she will carry with her into society the assurance of victory, which is one of its guarantees, the haughty

Will you do me the favor of giving me a few thoughts for an essay on George Eliot's more notable female characters ?

It has been said of George Eliot that it is in creating her characters that she especially shows her genius. There are some artists who, in their novels, concentrate the light of an intense intelligence and passionate sympathy upon two or three chief personages who move in an oppressive glare of consciousness, while towards the remainder they show themselves almost indifferent. But so varied, and full of reasonableness and oftentimes vigor, are the sympa

grace which is made more piquant by her spoilt- but in degree. It has been said that the “drachild's fancies, her impatience, her very impru- matic appropriateness of the humorous utterdence itself. She is wilful, but purposelessly so; ances of George Eliot's characters renders them ambitious, but with no passionate desires. She unpresentable by way of extract. Each is like asks nothing of life but excitement, brilliant suc- the expression of a face which cannot be decess, the intoxication of flattery, the exercise of tached from the face itself.” The tragic aspect despotic power. And, yet, Gwendolen's nature of life, as viewed by this great writer, is derived is not corrupt. Frivolous and worldly as she is, from the Titanic strife of egoistic desires, with she still possesses a kind of innocence. There duties which the conscience confesses, and those is in her the germ of a higher life, which only emotions which transcend the interest of the inwaits for the contact of some proper influence to dividual. It seems to her no easy thing to cast shoot forth.

away self. All the noblest characters she has It is this germination of the ideal in the heart conceived, the heroic feminine characters or of a woman given up to society that George those that might have been heroic, characters of Eliot has tried to paint. She represents her great sensibility, great imaginative power, great heroine as needing some attachment to abandon fervor of feeling, Maggie, Romola, Fedalma, her commonplace life, and a man to serve her Armgart - cling with passionate attachment to as a conscience. She marries Grandcourt to es- the joy which has to be renounced. The dying cape the mediocrity of her fortune, and becomes to self is the dying of young creatures full of the victim of a hateful tyrant. The picture of strength and the gladness of living. The docthis hidden agony of her heroine has been pow- trine of the necessity for self-renunciation, of erfully portrayed by the author. Even in the the obligation laid upon men to accept some work of George Eliot there are few things so other rule of conduct than the desire of pleaspowerful as this moral tragedy.

ure, is enforced in the destinies of the characters George Eliot, especially in her portrayal of of George Eliot with terrible emphasis. feminine character, does not aspire to paint ir- See “Studies in Literature, 1789–1877," by reproachable characters, but characters in which Prof. Edward Dowden; “Essays on English good and evil are mixed, which call for indul. Literature," by Edmund Scherer: Charles gence, for which we feel attachment, even while Scribner's Sons, New York; and Hutton's “Eswe condemn them. It is character in process of says on Some Modern Guides to English change that engages all her interest. We have Thought." soul speaking to soul — Dinah to Hetty; Felix to Esther; Dorothea to Ladislaw; Savonarola to


In your October issue of SELF CULTURE George Eliot shows in her characters some

your answer to an inquiry about the letters custerrible examples of the crippling of another's tomarily used in musical notation (page 74) is, to life by one's egoism, as in Rosamond Vincy

my mind, rather misleading. You say “ In the and Lydgate, to whom Casaubon and Dorothea

natural scale the order of these letters is as fol. form so fine a parallel and contrast. She also lows:' shows the strong claims of race and family love.

(or in German), • . Maggie Tulliver's action at the end of “The Mill on the Floss” is entirely based on the I think the number over the note h (in parclaims of family, as opposed to personal affec- enthesis) should be 7, because in the natural tion for Stephen Guest. This comes out still

scale, in German, we have no note called “ b.” more strongly in the characters of Romola and

Again, you say that the musical sounds consist of Daniel Deronda in the claims of race. Fe

of the seven letters a, b, c, d, e, f and g and in dalma, also, sacrifices everything to the claims German h, in addition. Now the difference lies of race.

Another example of ruin wrought by here, what we call "b flat” in our language, is egoism, is in the overthrow of the great schemes simply called "b" in German. It ought to be of Zarca by the egoistic loves of Silva and Fe- called “h flat," but instead the German calls it dalma.

simply “b." I hope I have made my idea plain. George Eliot has given us some charming

I want to add that I am more than pleased portraitures of religious natures, conspicuously

with Self CULTURE. Your articles are not that most noble one of the female Methodist

only highly instructive, but combine with them preacher. Dolly Winthrop's feeling of religious exceedingly interesting and entertaining read

. truth “in her inside” and the naïve anthropomor- ing matter. For its careful and painstaking phism of her Raveloe theology, contain the

preparation, I for one wish to thank you. essence of all religion and differ from the sub

G. FRED. STEIL. limest devotion of saint or mystic not in kind NEW YORK, Oct. 12.


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The new Chicago public library was opened $261,931,225 a year ago - an average increase of on October 9. The building was begun five $5.70 per acre, and a total increase of nearly years ago, and has cost nearly $2,000,000. While $40,000,000. In Indiana, forty-nine counties, or the structure itself is massive and plain, the in- more than one-half of the whole number, show terior decorations are costly and beautiful. a total farm acreage of 9,670,886, with a present The mosaic work is especially fine; its total valuation of $345,835,762, as compared with area covers 10,000 square feet more, it is said, $303,385,331 twelve months ago. The reports than is to be found in any building since the from other quarters are equally favorable. thirteenth century. The book capacity of the

Even the most ignorant, said the London library is 2,000,000 volumes; it now contains a trifle over 220,000. An annual expenditure on

"Times” the other day, will soon be ashamed books of $35,000 is authorized, a larger sum

to repeat the old cry that the rich are becoming

richer and the poor poorer. It was once necthan is expended by any library except the British Museum. Appointments in the library

cessary to refute this popular sophism. Now it will be made under civil-service rules.

is not; on all hands there is overwhelming evi

dence that the poor are steadily becoming richer, While climbing a staircase or ladder a man and that a smaller proportion of the produce of can exert about 2,000,000 foot-pounds in a day industry goes to the wealthy. In the report on of eight hours. An average military ration is changes in rates of wages and hours of work in the equivalent of about four pounds of meat, England, issued by the London Board of Trade, of which fully three-fourths are water, and one- there are striking signs of this transformation, half of the remaining fourth only is carbon, so which is going on, rarely with the intervention that half a pound of carbon, burnt in the human of strikes or unions, over almost the whole face furnace, will do as much work as four times the of industry. The figures are free from some of quantity in form of coal used through the me- the infirmities of earlier returns on this subject. dium of an engine and boiler. For the present, They claim to cover industries wherein are emat least, therefore, the most economical form ployed eight millions and a half of persons; and of stored energy which one can carry about they all testify to an improvement in the posiwith him is a good square meal, although its tion of the workers — an improvement probably conversion into effective work may not be so greater in the United Kingdom than in any other pleasant an operation as that of permitting the country. coal to expend its own latent energy.

For one fall in wages in 1896, adds the The Congress of San Salvador has passed a

authority we have quoted, there were about Bill putting the country on a gold basis, a crisis

ten rises. For one person disadvantageously having been caused by a slump" in silver. affected by changes, more than two-thirds were The President was authorized to negotiate a

benefited. In the four years 1893-96 there foreign loan of $2,500,000. The Bill will come

was a decrease in the hours of labor per week, into effect in two months, when the customs

and in the last of the four the changes affected duties will be payable in gold only.

a far larger number of persons than in

any of the three previous years. Lying outThe building of a railroad through Chilkoot side the world described in this report, is Pass, Alaska, will be undertaken by the Chil- a multitude of persons, who, it is pretty cer. koot Railroad and Transportation Company, of tain, have not shared in the rises in remunerTacoma. It will be eight miles long and will ation. For them there is no talk of a "fair connect Dyea at tidewater with the mouth of the

day's wage" or an eight hours' day. It is possiDyea Cañon. Transportation through this ble that in many cases their remuneration has cañon and across the pass to Crater Lake will be decreased just as their toil has increased. Their effected, says the “Scientific American,” by a

grievances are rarely heard of. They hare system of tramways, the contract for which has

no means of coercing their employers. They been awarded to the Trenton, N. J. Iron Coin- have no special Acts passed for their relief, pany, which agrees to have them in operation

no privilegia of any kind. There is a dark by June 15, 1898. The tramway will be of the

side to modern industry, but it is not so much Bleichert system. The first one will be four the fate of the manual worker or artisan as that miles in length, reaching from the cañon to

of the small employer, saddled with all the Sheep Camp, with a rise of 1,000 feet. A second

risks of a capitalist, the solitary worker whose tramway will extend from Sheep Camp to Sum- means are his brains and education, the poor mit, three and one-half miles, with a rise of

teacher or governess, the clerk with all his 2,500 feet, and thence to Crater Lake, with a

crushing load of respectability, the struggling fall of 500 feet. Iron supports will be put in

professional man whose remuneration is small, every 100 feet. The tramway will have a uncertain and deferred. capacity of 120 tons daily - sufficient for the outfits of 200 miners.

The New South Wales Government states that Providence, says a contemporary, has vouch

it has found such difficulty in placing in Eng safed to the American farmer this year crops

land an order for 2,000 tons of steel rails of high that are unusually gratifying. The unfortunate

carbon quality that it has been compelled to orcondition which bears so heavily upon other

der them in America, where the manufacturers great grain-producing countries is aiding in

readily undertook the contract at the price of 65 bringing to him splendid financial returns. Re

($25.00) a ton. cent statistics show that in twenty-six farming A quasi-official commission has reached this countries of Ohio the total acreage of 6,972,777 country from Japan charged with the duty of acres is worth to-day $300,774,636, as against giving publicity to the merits of Japanese teas,

and the best methods of preparing them as a beverage. The commission is planning to open tea bazaars in many of the chief cities in the United States and Canada, where ladies can enjoy a cup of fine Japanese tea made by experts, and at the same time receive instructions which will enable them to make it equally well at home. More than half the tea consumed in the United States and Canada is of Japanese growth, yet the majority of Americans apparently do not understand how to prepare it so as to develop the delicious qualities which it contains. It is believed by these gentlemen that, when Americans are in possession of the secret of making good tea, the consumption in this country will fully equal that of Europe in proportion. The Japanese Government has appropriated a large fund to aid the Japanese tea growers and tea merchants in prosecuting this educational work, and it is hoped that American ladies will be apt students. The main Bureau of the Japanese Tea Guild has issued an official recipe for making Japanese tea, the translation of which is as follows:

First.— Use a small, dry and thoroughly clean porcelain teapot.

Second. — Put in one teaspoonful of tea leaves for each cup of tea desired.

Third. — When using Japanese teas, pour on the required quantity of fresh boiled water, and let stand with closed lid from two to three minutes. Never boil the leaves. In order to retain the natural flavor, Japanese tea leaves should be kept in a tight can or jar, free from moisture.

To thoroughly enjoy the natural, delicate and sweet flavor of Japanese teas, neither sugar nor cream, it is said, should be used.

The shipments of iron ore through the Sault Ste. Marie canal this season to October I were about 9,750,000 tons. There is now no doubt that all records will be broken and that the tonnage for the year will exceed 11,000,000. Stocks on hand are also melting away and the coming winter promises to be a most busy one at the mines.

The gold production of the Witswatersrand (Transvaal) in August was 259,608 ounces, which was a great increase over that of the previous month, and is the largest for any single month in the history of the district. The production in 1896 was 2,281,875 crude ounces, and in the first eight months of 1897 it was 1,890,513. Other gold fields are doing much better than last year, especially in the United States. The outlook is for a large increase in the world's total supply of gold this year.

A French journal has recently expressed surprise at how little the telephone is used in France in comparison with neighboring countries like Germany and Switzerland, for while the number of communications” in France last year was only seventy-four millions, the total for Germany, excluding Bavaria and Würtemberg, was over four hundred and twenty-four millions. Switzerland, with a population barely the tenth of France, had, at the end of last year, over 1,000 miles of telephone lines, with 29,533 subscribers and about fifteen million communications. While the cost of the telephone in Switzerland is more than covered by the receipts, the contrary is the case in France, though the subscription is much higher than in any of

the other countries, being as much as $80 a year, and from $40 to $60 in provincial towns, to say nothing of each subscriber having to contribute towards the cost of laying down the wires.

What the man of to-day needs most is not athletics in a gymnasium, but plenty of fresh air in his lungs. Instead of a quantity of violent exercise that leaves him weak for several hours afterward, he needs to learn to breathe aright, stand aright and sit aright. And if the woman who spends so much time and strength getting out into the air would dress loosely and breathe deeply and so get the air into her, she would have new strength and vigor, and soon be freed from many aches and pains and miseries.

The recent recovery of some remains of the famous triremes (state-barges) of the Emperor Tiberius, which lie at the bottom of Lake Nemi, is of great interest both to artists and antiquaries. The lake of Nemi, which is situated about seventeen miles southeast of Rome, is formed by the crater of an extinct volcano. Upon its broad bosom once floated the magnificent pleasurehouse of the luxurious and licentious Emperor, Tiberius Claudius Nero, who, leaving his duties at Rome in the year A.D. 26, retired the year following to the island of Capreæ, where he indulged in the greatest sensuality. His love of luxury and display was exhibited in the two famous pleasure triremes which bear his name, and the remains of which now lie buried in the lake of Nemi. The discovery referred to consists of the finding of several massive metal mooring-rings and tops of stakes by which the vessels could be moored to the quay. The rings are fixed in the mouths of bronze heads of lions, wolves and Medusæ, by the teeth of which they are retained in their proper places. These bronze heads are marvellously modelled, and the faces are characterized by a life-like similarity to the animals represented. Despite their long immersion in the mud of Lake Nemi, they are all perfectly preserved.

An important subject to engineers and builders, about which very little experimental information is on record, is that of the supporting power of soils, but recently the city engineer of Vienna has taken up the investigation and designed an instrument for exact measurement, and also a practical apparatus for the use of builders and bridge builders. He has ascertained that up to a certain limit the depth to which a given loaded area sinks is directly proportional to the load which it bears, and this fimit should in no case be exceeded. His apparatus consists of a base plate and cylinder into which a plunger is fitted and upon which weight can be placed corresponding successively to uniform pressure per unit of area.

The corresponding sinking of the plunger into soil is then very precisely measured by a micrometer upon a multiplying column. For the practical use of builders this apparatus is replaced by a rod carrying a divided head, upon which a tube containing a spiral spring is fitted. The end of the rod is provided with a number of tips of various determined areas, in order that one adapted to the nature of the soil may be selected, and, by pressing this on various portions of the ground to be tested and taking readings from the spring scale, the relation between the pressure and the penetration may be obtained.

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