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We, who have taught the world so much and a profound thinker, and during the of practical science, so much of commer- years he remained in Baltimore he gave cial enterprise, so much of political in- a great impetus to his special branch of dependence, should contribute an equal learning. Among other things, he esshare to the intellectual progress of man- tablished the American Journal of kind. The experience of the last ten Mathematics,' which has become an years should have convinced all thinking authority upon that branch of science. Americans that too much politics, and When Prof. Sylvester returned to Engnot enough statesmanship — too many land, he was succeeded by Prof. Craig in politicians, too few statesmen,- is the the chair of Mathematics, as well as in greatest danger that has yet menaced the editorship of the “ Journal of Matherepublican institutions, This present matics." peril can be averted if college men The Physical Laboratory and Seminary would devote more time to public ques- is under the general direction of Prof. tions and less to abstract science. In Henry A. Rowland, assisted by Profestheory our Government is the best in the sors J. S. Ames, Louis Duncan, and world; in practice it is fast sinking to a others. This department includes Aplevel with the worst. We want better plied Electricity, Steam and Hydraulic men in high and low places. If our Engineering Practice in Mechanical colleges cannot provide such men, then Drawing, etc. It is well supplied with they fail to that extent. Politics should all the necessary appliances, including a be a noble pursuit, and such it was when physical laboratory, power house, dynapoliticians were patriots, and senators mos, motors, valuable instruments for were statesmen. In the earlier and bet- elementary work and research, with a ter days of the Republic, patriotism was carefully selected library, in which are all its own reward, and did not seek the the leading physical journals published spoils of office — did not look to the Sen- in the United States, England, France, ate as a sure road to wealth.
Germany and Italy. In this, as well as Although pure patriotism ought to call in the other departments, a working forth the highest endeavor of college- knowledge of French and German is bred men, there is a grand and noble required. pursuit that should command the atten- The department of Chemistry is pretion of men of culture. Carlyle has said sided over by Prof. Ira Remsen, assisted that literature is the noblest field for by half-a-dozen associates. The course the truly ambitious man. He was right: of instruction includes analytical chemisthe greatest political fame, however bril- try, physical chemistry, inorganic chemliant, is but brief. A prime minister istry, and laboratory work. Much of sways a nation's destiny: he is the idol the work in the advanced courses is done of the hour-his speeches are in every in the laboratory, under the personal dijournal, his name in every mouth. He rection of Professors Remsen and Morse. dies or falls and soon his very name is Within the last quarter of a century, forgotten. Who was prime minister of Biology has become an important part of England when Samuel Johnson walked an university education. Johns Hopthe streets of London all night because kins provides for courses in this study. he had no place in which to sleep? Who 1, For students who wish to make Zoolwas prime minister of England when ogy or Animal Physiology or Botany a Oliver Goldsmith lived in a garret in subject of advanced study and research, Green Arbor Court? The statesmens' or the principal or a subordinate subject names are forgotten, but the names of for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy ; Johnson and Goldsmith will go down 2, for graduates in medicine who desire to the latest posterity.
a laboratory course in Physiology ; 3, for From the opening of the University, undergraduates who desire some knowlMathematics has been a leading branch edge of the biological sciences as a part of study. Professor Sylvester, the dis- of a liberal education; and 4, for undertinguished English mathematician, was graduates who desire to prepare theminduced, partly by an ample salary, to selves for the study of medicine. Prof. accept the head of this department in Wm. K. Brooks is at the head of this the new University. He brought with department, assisted by five other profeshim the reputation of a successful teacher sors. The building devoted to biological studies at Johns Hopkins was the in the English literature of the eightfirst of its kind constructed in this coun- eenth and nineteenth centuries — from try. The work carried on here is three- Dryden to Wordsworth. A class in fold: Physiology, Zoology, (including Rhetoric and Composition, under ProMorphology and Embryology), and Bot- fessor Greene, meets three times a week; any. An excellent collection of wo ctures are given by the Professor, on biological subjects, a museum, and a papers are written by the students, which herbarium have been added to the labo- are read and criticized in the presence of ratory, and every facility is offered for the the class, each member of which is prosecution of original investigation. obliged to make a careful study of one
Instruction in Geology and Mineralogy prose author, and submit the result of is under the direction of Dr. William B. his study in the form of a series of short Clarke, and consists of lectures, labora- papers. tory and field work and conferences upon Prof. A. Marshall Elliott is at the topics of current literature. The library head of the Seminary of the Romance in this department is well supplied with Languages. Advanced instruction in leading journals and works of reference this department covers a period of three upon geological subjects, including the years. The subjects of instruction comfine library of the late Prof. George H. prise three sections : a purely linguistic, Williams, whose memorial lectureship a purely literary, and a composite group was inaugurated during the past session intended to unite the first two. The by Sir Archibald Geikie, Director Gen- studies include Latin, Italian, Spanish eral of the Geological Survey of Great and French literature. Britain. The department of Astronomy A few years since there appeared in a was organized under the direction of the
contemporary an articie on
"The Develeminent scientist, Simon Newcomb, and opment of the American University," in it is now in charge of Associate-Professor which the writer said, that, up to that Charles Lane Poor. The classes include time (1888) “there has existed no form beginners and those who are prepared to of an educational institution which we carry on advanced work. Suitable in- can call an “American University," if, struments have been provided, and a by this term we intend to designate small observatory enables the students to something other and higher than an make and record observations.
American college." Yet, at the time The Latin and Greek Seminaries of when that article was published, the the University are under the direction, Johns Hopkins University was in the respectively, of Prof. Warren and Prof. full vigor of its youth, and splendidly Gildersleeve, and consists, each, of equipped with all the requirements of an undergraduate, advanced, and elective university. Harvard required two and courses. Lectures are given by the pro- a half centuries to grow from a college to fessors, and the students read the stand- an university ; but Johns Hopkins was a ard classical authors. The Oriental born university, if, by an university is Seminary is in charge of Prof. Paul meant an institution in which “ a higher Haupt, who instructs the students in education” is obtained. Hebrew, Assyrian and Arabic. Less President Gilman published in 1896 than a dozen students availed themselves what he called “ A Glance at the Past, of this course, while Prof. Bloomfield in which he said that Johns Hopkins had only half a dozen in Sanskrit. The University "was a place, where youth, well-equipped library of the Oriental properly trained by a long course of disSeminary has been recently enriched by cipline,
might be aided by the valuable collection of the late Prof. teachers, instruments and books to purAugust Dillmann, of Berlin. The English sue an advanced course of study and Seminary, under Professor James W. thus to be fitted for the traditional proBright and Dr. Wm. Hand Browne, pro- fessional life, for professorships of vides instruction in advanced and college science, literature, and other callings courses, including Anglo-Saxon and the
which are based on a high intellectual study of the early masters of English attainment." Among the “permanent poetry, Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare, subjects of instruction" at Johns Hopand Milton. Associate-Professor Her- kins, said Dr. Gilman, “have been the bert E. Greene gives an elective course ancient classics, the Semitic tongues,
etc.” He especially declared that the vative instincts, is no longer at liberty to ignore University was intended for those who differing tastes, abilities, and impulses. Col
lege and even high school curricula have lost had undergone a period of college train
much of their Mede and Persian unchangeing, whose intellectual habits
habits were ableness, and it is admitted that the learner formed, who had acquired exact knowl- may even early in life make a reasonably edge, who had learned how to study;">
wise choice as to how he shall develop. his
mind. In the good old days, the subjects thus assuming that the University is in
taught in the best equipped universities were tended as a training-school for professors, few in number and narrow in scope. Now and, as such, as already mentioned, it they cover the whole field of useful knowhas unsurpassed facilities. That the
ledge ; and that field is enlarging constantly Johns Hopkins is an "up-to-date" uni
as the years go by.” versity is shown by the freedom allowed Another journal said : students to choose their course of studies.
“The transformation of the plan of study Having selected his course, the student pursued at Harvard College has culminated in must adhere to it. The training he re- the regulations published for the next academceives is thorough and systematic; and
ical year. The abandonment of the time
honored principles of university instruction is when he receives his degree, he has
now complete, and, so far as this institution is earned it, and is well fitted to take his concerned, we must learn to attach an entirely place as a teacher of the special study to new meaning to the phrase, a liberal education; which he has devoted himself. When for henceforth it will be possible to obtain the Socrates taught his enthusiastic disciples degree of
Bachelor of Arts without having read
a line of Greek or Latin during the four years the wisdom of which he was master ; covered by the college course. when Plato walked the academic grove with his followers and announced those
Mr. Charles Francis Adams, Jr., dehigh truths which still charm the human
livered an address at Harvard, in which mind, the ancient world had no higher he took strong ground against Latin university than the school where these
and Greek forming a necessary portion illustrious philosophers lectured. So,
of the college course. He pronounced the Johns Hopkins University aims to
the retention of these in our college furnish the highest education to Ameri
curricula to-day, a “fetich - an absurd can youth.
anomaly, a senseless tradition."
In the midst of the discussion ArchA great advantage possessed by this university from the beginning, has been its
deacon Farrar visited the United States, elective system. It was only ten years
and, in an address before the students of ago that Harvard adopted this system, Johns Hopkins, he used the following after much opposition on the part of the striking language: conservative members of its faculty. “Fifty years ago no educational establishDuring the discussion, much talk and a ment, as comprehensive in its range as this great deal of nonsense was published in
university existed among the English-speaking
nations of the world. The old systems then in the public prints; at the same time the
vogue were, however, happily more honored in open discussion of the matter brought the breach than in the observance. While out a modicum of practical, common- some boys profited by the scheme, others of sense. From the various opinions, I
equal talent and merit, like Sir Walter Scott, have selected the following:
were sent forth dunces. In history they were
deficient, and I may say, that they were not Dial," of Chicago, said:
taught to write Latin and Greek. The Greek
they wrote would make an Athenian schoolboy “Slowly the world has come to the belief thåt laugh. Happily, that day is past, and I am children are to be educated, not merely that they happy to say that I have contributed my share may play the part of machines, or, rather, of toward giving the deathblow to that system of parts of machines, in the great social factory,
training. The fantastic folly of making every but that each one has a possible development, in boy write verses in languages he does not unand for himself, without reference to others; derstand has had its day. All that has been and that it is the duty of each generation to
changed, and honor now is given to every supply for its successor the requisite conditions
branch of human knowledge. My object was for this development. This mature thought of
not to disparage the classical studies, but only the world has had its influence, of course, upon
to destroy the autocracy of those ancient lanall educational systems wherever it has pre- guages. I only pleaded that they should not vailed. It has modified the popular notion as be exclusive, but I do not mean to say that I to what knowledge is of most worth. The
wish to have them excluded.” modern ideas in regard to elective courses have come out of a growing reverence for the individ
More than two hundred and fifty ual. The schoolmaster, with his too conser- years ago, the eminently practical phi
losopher, Bacon, spoke of the evil of an devoted at least one year to some branch exclusively classical education, and of science, including attendance in the grieved “because there was
scientific laboratory. legiate education which was free, where The cold enthusiasm which theoretical such as were disposed might give them- science inspires is not wanting at Johns selves to histories, modern languages, Hopkins. The pursuit of science domibooks of policy and civil discourse, and nates all other studies, and this is to be other like enablements unto causes of regretted if it is true, as Ernest Renan state.” Now, if this was an evil in the declares: “Between Christianity and sixteenth century, it must be a much science, there is an ineffable conflict, and greater evil in the nineteenth century. one of the two adversaries must suc
In the sixteenth century, a person who cumb.” The natural result of an excludid not read Greek and Latin had little or sive devotion to abstract science is a nothing to read. But all that has long deadly and fatal pessimism, ending in a been changed, and the books that have loss of faith, hope, love, everything that been written in the English language dur- makes life pleasant, earth tolerable, ing the last three centuries are of far death a curse, and causes the unhappy greater value than all the books which man of science to exclaim, with the were in existence previous to that time. sated King of the Jews, Vanitas vanitatis. Shakespeare possesses more sweetnessand Johns Hopkins University endeavors eloquence, more true philosophy, more to give a liberal education to every genius, in short, than all the classic student who “is in training for the dewriters put together. We can do with- gree of bachelor of arts." The Univerout Edipus and Media while we have sity can justly claim, as one of its most Lear and Hamlet; Falstaff and Dogberry important achievements, that 800 of its more than supply the place of Thraso students have become members of the and Pyrgopolinices. To affirm that text- academic staff of some of the leading books which were old in the days of the universities, colleges and other educaCæsars must be the text-books of Amer- tional institutions throughout the Uniican students in the last quarter of the ted States. Socrates wrote nothing, but nineteenth century is certainly an ab- he taught Plato and Xenophon; he left surd proposition; yet that is just what no philosophical writings, but through is maintained by the advocates of an the minds of his famous disciples his exclusively classical education. They ig- work went forth to the world, and still nore the magnificent progress which lit- lives to instruct mankind. But Johns erature has made during the two thous- Hopkins has done more than merely proand years that have passed since Plato vide instructors for other institutions of taught philosophy in the academic grove, learning; its professors have given to and Cicero's eloquent voice was heard in the world Studies in Historical and the Roman Forum. But this only en Political Science, Studies from the Biopassant, for, as has been said, Johns logical Laboratory, and Memoirs from Hopkins University has wisely adopted the same; it furnishes Contributions to the elective system. Starting out as Johns Assyriology and Comparative Semitic Hopkins University did with a splendid Philology; it sends forth monthly Modendowment, it adopted at the outset all ern Language Notes; it issues a Jourthe newer methods that have been de- nal of Experimental Medicine, an Amervised in modern times for the promotion ican Journal of Philology, besides the of a higher education. While the an- other journals already mentioned. So cient classics, the Semitic tongues, com- Johns Hopkins cannot be called parative philology, and history, have silent sister” among the universities of been prominent in the curriculum, the America. newer sciences have been cordially wel- The University will begin its twentycomed and encouraged. Modern lan- second academic year on the first of guages, especially English, French and October, 1897, with, it is believed, over German, have held a prominent place in 600 students and 110 professors and the studies, and every candidate for the associate professors. This is an excelbaccalaureate must have acquired some lent showing for an university that has proficiency in Latin, French and German, only just attained its majority. history and philosophy, and also have
EUGENE L. DIDIER.
SELF CULTURE AND THE SCIENTIST *
ELF CULTURE is the only our spiritual existence, facts are mere
real and noble aim of life. counters with which to play the game. The magnificence, beauty, A million of them are worth nothing, unand utility of a glacier, as less the player knows how to play well the
a perpetual reservoir of solid game; and when the game is over the moisture, is not gauged by the size, ar- worthless counters are swept back into the rangement, or the constitutional features drawer. The danger moreover pursues us of its moraines; neither is the great into higher and higher planes of science. ness and usefulness of the philosopher Not only the avarice of facts, but of measured by the amount of his knowledge their explanations also, may end in a of the physical fact and theory science wealthy poverty of intellect for which of the times.
there is no cure. Even the sacred fires Of all kinds of intellectual greatness, of research may be allowed to burn too the greatest is achieved by the philos- long, until, in fact, they turn the invesopher who stands before the thinking tigator into a mere miser of ideas. world as a model of scientific virtue: A certain temperance in science is obdeaf to flattery; insensible to paltry hos- ligatory from another point of view. As tile criticism; patient of opposition; dead mere wealth of possessions cannot guarto the temptations of self-interest; antee happiness, neither can a superfluity calmly superior to the misjudgments of of learning insure wisdom. When the the short-sighted; whom nothing diverts body from overfeeding grows plethoric, from the endeavor to live nobly, and to its vital energies subside and its life is whom noble means are as indispensable endangered. The intellect may be misas noble ends; in whom the most bril- chievously crammed with science. How liant successes foster neither vanity nor much we know is not the best question, arrogance; to whom fame is unimpor- but how we got what we know; and tant, and poverty a trivial circumstance; what we can do with it, and above all whose joys, like fragrant breezes from what it has made of us. The tendency
encircling landscape, come from of training now is to subordinate the soul the surrounding friendships of the gen- to that which should be only its endoweral world, to whose best interests the ment and adornment; to turn the thinker noble heart is forever loyal.
into a mere walking encyclopedia, textAnother subject for serious reflection is book, or circle of the mechanic arts, not the over-accumulation of scientific infor- to produce the highest type of man. mation. Certainly the feeling prevails What ridiculous and pitiable creations that the world cannot have too much are these ! - an authority in physics who science. But the science of learning and cannot speak the truth ? a leader in patthe science of knowledge are not quite ural history who is given over to the identical. Learning has too often, in the torments of envy ? a god in chemical recase of individuals, overwhelmed and search sick of some false quotation ? a smothered to death knowledge. The youthful prodigy of mathematical science average human mind, when overstocked tottering with unelastic steps and outwith information, acts like a general put stretched arms to grasp his future fame. in command of an army too large for him Yet no one will deny that the intemperto handle. Many a vaulting scientific ate pursuit of any branch of science has ambition has been thus disgraced. Nor a tendency to produce such characters, by is this the only danger that we run; elevating to undue importance the indifor the accumulation of facts in the vidual accumulation of scientific facts treasury of the human brain has a and scientific theories, to the neglect and natural tendency to breed an intellectual depreciation of that spirit of truth which avarice, a passion for the piling-up of alone can inspire and justify an earnest masses of facts old and new, regardless study of the material universe. of their uses. In the great game of We should reflect that it is as true of
science as of religion that the mere letter * Excerpt from a Presidential Address delivered before the American Association for the
of its code threatens its devotee with inAdvancement of Science, by Prof. J. P. Lesley,
tellectual death ; and that only by State Geologist of Pennsylvania.
breathing its purest spirit can the man of