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reservation on St. Michael Island, Alaska.... the falling of a New York Central railroad train Secretary of the Navy Long will urge Congress into the Hudson river, near Garrison's, N. Y. to increase the personnel of the navy by. 100 ...A British officer says that the territory of officers, 1,500 enlisted men, and 500 apprentices. Borguin, Africa, held by the French, belongs

. The Czar of Russia visited Emperor Wil. indisputably, to Great Britain; a collision beliam at Wiesbaden. ... The defense of the colo- tween the rival nations is not improbable.... nies is reported to be receiving unusual attention The rebel tribesmen in India are massing at from the British government in connection with Sempagha Pass and more serious fighting is ex. the increase in the British army The tribes. pected. men who had re-occupied the heights west of Chagru were dislodged by the British forces

Monday, October 25.-Attorney-General Mcafter a hard fight; the British losses were heavy.

Kenna has informed the Union Pacific reorgani....Lord Rosebery, the former premier and

zation committee that he will ask for a postleader of the Liberal party in Great Britain, is

ponement of the sale of the road until Decemvisiting Prince Bismarck.

ber 15.... The death list of the railroad wreck at

Garrison's remains nineteen ... The court of apThursday, October 21.

: - President McKinley peals declared that Seth Low's nomination for appointed W. K. Van Reypen surgeon-general

mayor by the Citizens' Union was valid ... The of the navy, to succeed the

late Newton L. Bates. second trial of Luetgert, for murdering his wife, .A mass meeting of Republicans to indorse

may begin immediately. ...Steps were taken by Seth Low was held at Carnegie Hall; speeches

the United States embassy in Paris to secure the were made by Mayor Strong, Mr. Low, Joseph

extradition of William R. Foster, who, in 1888, H. Choate, Elihu Root and Wager Swayne.

stole $193,000 from the gratuity fund of the The centennial of the launching of the frigate

New York produce exchange. ...General WeyConstitution was publicly celebrated in Boston.

ler was ordered to remain in Cuba until the ar.... The Marquis of Salisbury says, in reference

rival of Marshal Blanco, his successor. to the reopening of the Indian mints: “The

Tuesday, October 26.— The notice of motion government of India points out that they can

to postpone the sale of the Union Pacific railroad hardly be expected to give up a policy which has been withdrawn, the Government having acfor four years they have been endeavoring to cepted the new proposition of the reorganizamake effective, in the absence of substantial

tion committee to increase its bid to an amount security that the system to be substituted for

equalling the full claim of the United States it is practically certain to be stable"....The

against the Union Pacific main line, which is anniversary of the battle of Trafalgar was cele

over $58,000,000. ... The Conservatives in Habrated in London more generally than usual. vana have decided to energetically oppose auFriday, October 22. — Ex-President Grover

tonomy and the policy of the Sagasta cabinet in Cleveland, in an oration at the commemoration

that direction... The world's W.c. T. U., which day exercises of Princeton University, referred

has been meeting at_Toronto, Ontario, ad. forcibly to the dangers of blind partisanship in

journed; Miss Frances E. Willard was reëlected political affairs... In his annual report, General

president. Miles, commanding the army, recommends that

Wednesday, October 27. – Edison's congress authorize two more regiments of ar

method of extracting iron from low-grade ores tillery and five of infantry... The ordnance is now in successful operation at Dover, New bureau has completed 536 big guns for the navy

Jersey; the ore is pulverized and passed close to and has 169 in process of manufacture. ... The electro-magnets, which deflect the iron from the National Bank of Asheville, N. C., suspended non-metallic matter.... Paul Dana has been payment. ...Dr. Justin Winsor, librarian of

elected editor of the New York “Sun," to sucHarvard University, died at Cambridge, Mass.

ceed his father, the late Charles A. Dana... The .... The British columns under Generals Biggs

Mazozais protest against the occupation of the and Lockhart, operating against the insurgents Khyber pass, Samana range, and Swat valley on the Indian northwest frontier, have joined by the British forces, and declare their intention forces near Kharappa, where the insurgents

of opposing the British advance. ... In the Hunare massed; large drafts of soldiers have been garian parliament Herr Francis Kossuth, son of ordered to be got ready to reinforce the British the Hungarian patriot, urged the government to troops now in India.

take advantage of Austrian chaos to try for

Hungary's freedom." Saturday, October 23.— The sealing, conference, with delegates from the United States,

Thursday, October 28.— The Russian, JapaRussia, and Japan present, met and organized in

nese, and American delegates to the interna

tional seal conference have agreed upon a plan Washington. ... The monetary commission will not recommend that congress undertake any

for the protection of seals, which provides for radical changes in the currency system such as

the limitation or entire suspension of pelagic would produce fluctuations in prices or uncer

sealing. ... President McKinley regards Spain's tainties as to the future. ... Pierre Lorillard and

reply to the Woodford note as conciliatory Marshall Field declared in interviews abroad

The grand jury at Wilkesbarre, Pa., indicted that European capitalists are still too timid to

Sheriff Martin and his deputies for shooting

down the strikers at Lattimer... A son was born invest in America. .. A new cabinet for Servia

to ex-President and Mrs. Grover Cleveland at has been formed under the premiership of Dr. Wladan Georgevitch, until recently Servian

their home in Princeton, N. J. .. The commisminister at Constantinople.

sion appointed to discuss the territorial dispute

in West Africa between France and Great Sunday, October 24.- The total cost of main- Britain began their sessions... Baron Von Butaining the navy during the past fiscal year was low, recently German ambassador at Rome, has $17,514,213....Nineteen persons were killed by been appointed minister for foreign affairs.

new

Friday, October 29. — The President has ap- Sir Julian Pauncefote, the British ambassador, pointed Gen. James Longstreet, of Georgia, has been instructed to ascertain the views of commissioner of railroads, in place of Gen. the Government of the United States in regard Wade Hampton, resigned. ... President McKin- to a reciprocity treaty with the West Indies. ley issued a proclamation designating November Princess Kiaulani of Hawaii sailed from San 25 as Thanksgiving day.... Henry George, the Francisco for Honolulu. ... The Spanish premier candidate of the Democracy Thomas Jefferson and the minister of war are considering the for mayor, was stricken with apoplexy at his adoption of repressive measures against the rooms in the Union Square hotel, dying about 5 Carlists. ... Joseph Chamberlain was installed o'clock. ... The British forces under General Sir as lord rector of the Glasgow university. William Lockart captured Sempagha pass, in India.

Thursday, November 4. - The New York

chamber of commerce adopted resolutions sug. Saturday, October 30.— President McKinley gesting to the Federal Government the advisarrived in Cincinnati; he spoke at a reception

ability of increasing the army for the defense of given by the chamber of commerce in the after- cities on the sea-board. ... A line of first-class noon, and at a dinner given by the Commercial

steamships, to run to the Klondike, has been club in the evening... Herman Liebes, of Lon- organized in Philadelphia, with Charles H. don, made a statement on the sealing question,

Cramp, the shipbuilder, as president. ...It was in answer to Joseph Chamberlain ... The cruiser

announced in Madrid that the Spanish cabinet Baltimore sailed from San Francisco for Hono

has decided to say to the United States Governlulu....General Blanco arrived in Havana and

ment that Spain will do what she deems fit relieved the retiring governor-general, Weyler.

concerning the granting of autonomy to Cuba. Sunday, October 31.- At the close of business on Saturday, the last business day of the month,

Friday, November 5.-The State department the gold reserve in the United States treasury

has intimated that it would view with favor amounted to $153,551,811, which is by a few

negotiations for reciprocity between Canada thousand dollars the highest point recorded

and the United States. ... United States Consulsince November, 1890... Henry George, son,

General Lee returned to Washington to receive and successor of the late Henry George, issued

instructions before his departure for Havana a statement, pledging himself, if elected to Senator Wolcott and General Charles J. the mayoralty of Greater New York to ful- Paine, members of the monetary commission, fill every condition and promise made by his

arrived at New York on the steamer Campania father.... The British forces on the Afghan .An attempt was made to assassinate Presi. frontier captured Ardangha Pass, meeting with

dent Moraes, of Brazil.... It is said the Afridis slight resistance; the Ameer of Afghanistan has have made a fresh appeal to the Ameer of Affurnished proof of his friendship for the British ghanistan for assistance before making submis... The government of Norway is about to send

sion to the British. out an expedition to search for Herr Andrée,

Saturday, November 6.—Delegates to the inthe North Pole aeronaut.

ternational seal conference, representing RusMonday, November 1.- The Union Pacific sia, Japan, and the United States, signed a railroad was sold in Omaha, Nebraska, to the

treaty for the protection of seals. A delega. reorganization committee for $57,564,932.76....

tion of Hawaiians will shortly arrive in WashThe comparative statement of the receipts and ington to protest against the annexation of the expenditures of the United States shows that

islands by the United States. ... The Spanish the total receipts for the month of October were

cabinet council has approved the proposal of $24,391,415 and the expenditures $33,701,512, political amnesty for Cuba and the Philippine making the excess of expenditures over receipts

Islands. for the month $9,310,097 and for the four

Sunday, November 7.-It is said that the ad. months of the present fiscal year $38,009, 101...: ministration will give a fair trial to General A dispatch from Paris says that a British syndi

Blanco's policy before taking any further action cate has obtained sole control of the trade of the

on the Cuban question. ..., vein of Bessemer Soudan in exchange for the payment of an iron ore 77 feet deep and 40 feet wide has been annuity to the Egyptian government and the discovered on the Michigamme river, on the defrayal of the expenses of military occupation. Menomonee range, Michigan. ...Nineteen perTuesday, November 2.-It is reported from

sons were drowned from the steamer Idaho, Washington that the Carnegie and Bethlehem

which sank in Lake Erie. The Orakzais are iron companies have purchased the right to use treating with the British for peace; the Afridis the Krupp process in making armor plates; this have not yet given any sign of yielding. would prevent the Government using this process in its own armor plate factory if it should estab

Monday, November 8.—Premier Laurier and lish one. ...General Blanco thinks that the re

Minister Davies, of the Canadian government, forms for Cuba, which he is authorized to put

are on their way to Washington, prepared to in force, will be all that the autonomists could

negotiate for a settlement of all the questions in desire; he thinks the rebels will alter their atti

dispute between the United States and the tude toward reform. ... The elections in New

Dominion. ... The president is said to desire a foundland resulted in a sweeping victory for the

speedy ratification of the Hawaiian annexation opposition, led by Sir James Winter.

treaty, in view of a possible crisis in Cuban

affairs. ... Dr. W. Godfrey Hunter, of Kentucky, Wednesday, November 3.—The enemies of was appointed minister to Guatemala and Hon. the civil-service system are polling the Repub- duras. -.. Marshal Blanco issued an edict grant. lican members of the house of representatives ing full pardon to all Cuban rebels who have with a view to making a fight for its repeal.... been imprisoned for rebellion,

INQUIRIES ANSWERED

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JUDGE from your reply to opinion, it were profitless to discuss, and there-
my previous communication fore it was useless to take space in the magazine
that you do not consider that to set them forth. You propound now a new
there is antagonism between question, not the one you previously put to us,

Christianity and Evolution. though an expansion of it, viz., “If there is I have always supposed that I was fairly nothing anti-Christian in Evolution, why was familiar with the main tenets and teach- it denounced so bitterly by Christian people?”. ings of Christianity; but if those teach- That the hypothesis of Evolution when first ings are not directly opposed to those given to the world in what is termed "Darwinof Evolution, then I am all at sea, and ism,” was derided as atheistic and deemed I also venture to assert that I am not destructive of Christian Revelation, is undoubt alone in that position.

edly true; but this arose chiefly as the result of Why, if there is nothing anti-Chris- two things — (1) the lack of an intelligent untian in Evolution, did church dignitaries derstanding of the theory and of its limitations, from the highest to the lowest, and from and (2) a natural antagonism to a doctrine that every part of Christendom, vie with seemed at first blush wholly destructive of old each other in heaping vitriolic phrases and cherished religious beliefs, and which was upon those who first brought Evolution exultantly taken up and proclaimed as a new into prominence? Why did the Chris- gospel by materialists, sceptics, and the oppotian pulpit and press pour their vials nents of Christianity. of calumny on the heads of those who Since then, ecclesiastical censure has not propounded or held views favorable to only abated, but, under a fuller knowledge of Evolution ? Why have professors been Mr. Darwin's remarkable discovery, and the driven from their chairs for accepting limits of its application to the development and the theory of Evolution? Why did many transmutation, rather than to the origins of of the presidents of our colleges de- species, has given place to an attitude of acnounce Evolution in the most scathing ceptance and approval. Evolution, it was seen, terms? Why have hundreds of volumes was not destructive of faith, or antagonistic to been published under the auspices of the the theological idea of creation, where reasonChristian church, endeavoring and claim- ably propounded. It undoubtedly forced the ing to prove that Evolution was false in Church to take a less literal, and a more comevery particular? These and many more prehensive, view of the cosmogony, as set forth similar questions that arise in my mind in the Book of Genesis; but when this was show the attitude of Christians towards done, and when scientific men themselves adEvolution in the past; and if at the pres- mitted the limit to be placed on the sphere and ent time their views are being changed operations of organic Evolution, devout minds it is not because of any love they bear again breathed freely, and saw in the theory Evolution, but, rather, because the better only that which gave a wider and nobler view educated Christians have no longer the of the Creator's work. This altered view of hardihood to deny and denounce facts. Evolution was the more readily reached with

In my last letter I asked the question, the aid of those whom we termed “Christian Does a Christian Evolutionist believe Evolutionists,” that is, the scientists of note in the miraculous conception of Christ? who accepted Evolution on the evidence preCan a person who rejects that story be sented, endorsed by their own investigation justly designated a Christian? I repeat and research, and who, as we have said, see this question because it seems to me that nothing in the hypothesis to undermine or you ignored it, and as I believe an Evo- even lessen their faith in Revelation. The lutionist must reject the miraculous con- Bible, they well know, is not a scientific manception of Christ.

ual; but, considering its source and history, it is

obviously more fitted to deal with the origin of We are sorry to find you dissatisfied with things and with higher matters than are given the reply (published in the September number to the finite mind to know. of Self CULTURE) to the inquiry what was There are many mysteries in this world, to meant by the term “Christian Evolutionist.” which Science and even Revelation furnish no We nevertheless think that the matter was key. No scientist has yet divined what life is clearly elucidated, though it did not cover all and how it has originated; we can trace its the points of your letter, some of which, in our transmission, but cannot speak with pre

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3. It is kept under lock and key in a sealed case in the Bureau of Rolls and Library.

4. The Secretary of State is the nominal custodian, but it is actually in the custody of the Chief of the Bureau of Rolls and Library, Andrew H. Allen.

cision of its original forms; nor is there evidence of a conclusive kind tracing in primitive man the descent or ascent of the human race, as some hold, from the anthropoid ape. No one has seen one species change into another. Wallace, the co-worker with Darwin, maintains that man in his higher mental and moral faculties must have had another origin than Evolution. In this diversity of opinion among scientists, there is no room for dogmatism, nor is there evidence to overthrow Revelation on any material point. In the sphere of the Supernatural we are all gropers and cannot draw aside the curtain of the Infinite. The Miraculous Conception belongs to the domain of mystery, and only by faith can we apprehend it as a theological doctrine. While the believer accepts it, the doubter cannot disprove it.

We may add that we have given more than usual space to our correspondent's letter than its polemical character would justify. We do so, however, for the reason that our good faith, as well as the views we hold on the question discussed, seemed to be unnecessarily impeached. Evolution is a large question, and the theories concerning it advanced by those, like ourselves, who believe in it are varied and sometimes conAlicting. As it seems to us, there is sufficient in the subject to interest thoughtful inquirers without importing into it any attack upon Christianity or the religious consciousness of the race, or going outside the domain of physical phenomena, which Darwin himself was careful to avoid. We may surely study Evolution without stopping to inquire (certainly a needless question now) why the Christian Church at times has seemed antagonistic to the march of science, or seeing in the theory (which we do not see), one that accounts for everything, including the origin of man's spiritual and intellectual nature.

ED. S. C.

I write for some information on the Dark Ages, or suggestion where the subject is treated of in the Encyclopædia Britannica, or elsewhere.

The Dark Ages, or, as more usually referred to in history, the Middle Ages, you will find treated of in the Encyclopædia Britannica, in the article “The Renaissance ;'' see, also, article on Scholasticism; but especially the article on “ The Middle Ages,” in SELF CULTURE for November, 1896 (Vol. IV, page 153). If you have not the latter, which you will find most useful for your purpose, we can send it to you (price 200). Consult, also, Hallam's “View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages."

The term, the Dark Ages, is a somewhat indefinite one, but it nearly coincides in time with what the historians call the Middle Ages. It refers to the period of intellectual darkness from the decline of classical learning, after the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the barbarians in Europe, in the fifth century, till the Renaissance, or revival of letters, in the fifteenth century.

Oblige by informing me what language is usually spoken at the chief courts of Europe when audiences are given to people of different nationalities. Please also state what is known of the recent treaty or bond between Russia and France.

The language spoken at European courts and in diplomatic circles where personages of different nationalities are present, is usually French. The Czar, in replying to President Faure, would therefore be almost certain to use the French tongue.

It is not easy, as yet, to say what is the char. acter or scope of the relations that have been recently established between Russia and France. They are spoken of as an alliance;" but Russia is too guarded and too conservative of her own interests to commit herself publicly to any. thing more than a friendly amity, in her relations with the governments of other nations.

Will Self CULTURE kindly inform me where and in whose custody is the original copy of the Declaration of Independence ? I understand that it is in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, but is now so timeworn that it is not exposed to view or shown to visitors. Pray state if this is correct.

1. The original “Declaration of Independence" is the property of the Government and is kept in the Department of State at Washington.

2. It is in a fair condition of preservation, considering its age. The paper is yellow and time-worn, and some few of the lines cannot be read except with powerful glasses.

The signatures are all easily distinguishable.

Some time ago a quotation was given at a literary meeting and we all failed to find the author of it, nor has any one of us succeeded since in discovering its source. We therefore appeal to SELF CULTURE to be enlightened. The lines, if I correctly quote them, ran thus: “He is not worthy of the honey-comb Who shuns the hives because the bees have

stings." The source of the two lines you submit to us is Shakespeare. They appear in “Locrine" (Hubba), Act III., Sc. II., a play attributed to Shakespeare, and issued in the early (1664) edi. tion of the poet's works. The play does not usually appear in modern editions of Shakespeare's writings. “Locrine" was one of the early mythical kings of Britain.

Your quotation of the lines is correct.

In conversation recently with student acquaintances, a dispute arose as to the proper color of the seal and ribbon to be attached to the diplomas representing the various literary and scientific degrees granted by American colleges. Will you please state what color is proper for the degrees B.A., A.M., Ph.D., B.Sc., LL.D., D.D., M.D., and B.L.?

We think your acquaintances have confused the idea of the colors of the college caps and gowns, with the colors of the ribbon and seal of the diplomas. The colors designating the degrees are not used at the present time in the ribbon which is tied around the diploma, nor is the color shown in the seal. The question of the uniform adoption, by the chief American universities and colleges, of a distinctive code of colors and type of caps and gowns for the learned degrees, has been under consideration for some time by an intercollegiate committee, called the Intercollegiate Commission on Academic Costume. This movement was initiated by the Columbia and Princeton Universities and has been followed by Yale and other institutions. The purpose is to secure a uniform practice among the American universities and colleges, whereby the colors and pattern of the cap and gown and hood shall indicate not only the degree of the wearer and the faculty under which it was obtained, but also the institution by which the degree was conferred. A statute was drafted, and since May, 1895, has been adopted by a league of Eastern Colleges and may be followed by any of the chief collegiate institutions of the country.

The statute classifies the types of gowns, and the arrangement of pattern and coloring, so as to make the hood a plain badge of the degree, be it Bachelor, Master, or Doctor ; or the department of learning, be it Arts, Philosophy, Law, Theology or other; of the institution granting the degree or with which the holder was

then connected. The department or faculty of learning is shown by a trimming of color around the exterior edge of the hood, based somewhat on historic or emblematic grounds, as follows: Arts and Letters - white; Theol. ogy-scarlet; Law–purple; Philosophy – blue; Science - gold yellow; Fine Arts - brown; Music - pink; Medicine - green. The institution is shown by the color or colors of the lining. The Oxford cap is worn for all the degrees, but the Doctorate is entitled to a tassel of gold, and the cap of the Doctor alone may

be of velvet.

The American Intercollegiate System is already so well established by the official action of Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Johns Hopkins, the University of Pennsylvania and the Uni. versity of the City of New York, Lafayette, the Catholic University of America and others, that the holder of a degree from any institution whose colors are well settled is warranted in wearing a hood made according to it, as no other code is likely to be adopted by any insti. tution that has so far taken action.

The colors adopted by the institutions, and used in athletic games, college fraternities, ceremonial or ordinary wear, are of minor impor. tance to the official colors designating the degrees. The code of colors adopted by the various universities of the United States may be found in the College Year-book, kept in most reference libraries. Any information concerning colors, their use in colleges or degrees either of this country or Great Britain, may be learned by addressing a letter of inquiry to Cotrell and Leonard, 472–474 Broadway, Albany, New York. This firm, who issue a printed statement giving all particulars, are the official Cap and Gown makers for American colleges.

The uniform code is incomparably beyond the arbitrary codes of the British Universities, and of the earlier codes in this country, many of which it has already superseded by official enactment. It is difficult, as we know, for many an English University man to read the hoods of his own alma mater, to say nothing of those of the other universities of the British Isles or Colonies. Our system known for one institution is known for all, except as to the special college colors shown.

A question has arisen in my mind as to the use of the apostrophe in the following sentences, and being a member of the Home University League, I submit them to you for your opinion:

Mr. Watkins sells boys shoes.
Mr. Watkins sells boy's shoes.
Mr. Eckles has had years experience.
Mr. Eckles has had years' experience.

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