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WOMAN IN ARCHITECTURE
HE influence of woman upon raised over the forms of those noble, the art of building has been beautiful and worthy Roman matrons greater and has extended and maidens who have passed into an farther back in history, than almost immortal memory in these records
perhaps most of us are aware. of grief in stone. In fact, the sentiment which enters into Many, also, are the queens and women art in all its ramifications is an irrefuta- of rank, whose piety and religious fervor ble argument for that suggestion of grace have caused to be erected churches, and harmony which arises from admiring chapels, monuments and homes for the love and the feeling of protection which indigent, hospitals and libraries, besides man entertains for woman. Even in palaces, mansions and castles, in which very ancient times the habitations of work, although they may not have been almost barbarous peoples partook some- recorded as the architect, there is no what of that sentiment of beauty with doubt that their brains planned, and which man would ever surround the their tongues suggested, even if their woman of his choice, and doubtless the hands did not actually hold the trowel growth of grace and harmony of propor- or brush. Witness the schools of the tion, the delicacy of curves and lines, Empress Eugenie, the Albert Memorial found in the most splendid structures of of Victoria, and, in America, the superb the world resolve themselves to the residence of Mrs. Mark Hopkins. unconscious rendering of his thought The name of Queen Anne has latterly into material, as he remembers the beauty been associated with a revolution in style of his beloved. The curve of the hip to in architecture, effected largely under the the knee, is, in a perfect form, nothing influence of the literary sentiment of her less than that chaste line of beauty time, while the architect who completed which enters into all good art,- the firm for the Duchess Margarite the Church of and rounded breast may well have sug- Brou, and the sculptor who carved the gested the dome. The column of the tomb therein, may be said to have been throat, the well-poised head, as its capi- but the workmen who held the tools, tal, and the graceful slope of the shoul- under the direction of the famous lady. ders, all suggest lines of grace which we As much may be said of the wonderful constantly see duplicated in architecture, “Little Trianon" of the ill-fated Marie sculpture and ceramics.
Antoinette, who in an almost childish For actual designers and builders of fever of delight ordered first one thing ancient times, we may turn to Zenobia, and then another built, and watched Queen of the East, who built up the them grow like magic beneath her critigreat city of Palmyra, and died B. C. 280. No less famous was Semiramis, Of our present and immediate AmerQueen of Assyria, who built cities with ican women architects, we find Mrs. the same virile grace with which she Louise Bethune, who has the honor of subdued armies. She flourished 1215 being the first recognized woman archB. C. There was also Aspasia, the in- itect in this country and is now the only timate friend of Pericles, and said to be woman member of the American Instimore learned than most of the philos- tute of Architects. Eminently successophers of Athens. During the whole time ful as a teacher of her art, she refused that Pericles was building and decorating to compete for the construction of the the city she aided him by her counsels and Woman's Building at the Columbia Expoexquisite taste. He himself paid a most sition, as the competition was not conglowing tribute to her influence.
ducted on the principle of “equal pay for Again, monumental architecture has equal service, the remuneration offered been the outcome of grief and passion being less than half that given for similar for the love of woman, she being still the service to the men who designed the other inspiration, even when death has con- buildings. Had this article been written cealed her from the wistful eyes of her a decade ago the statement could safely lover. The Appian way, leading from have been made that there were not a Rome, is bordered on both sides with the half dozen women architects in the most exquisite monumental architecture, country, - but at this date their number
has so notably increased that the pro- ble a work of human hands, as one which fession for women is no longer looked was inspired by reverent love and grief upon as novel, or in any way surprising for a woman, — and it stands to-day the since those who have adopted it have despair of all other artists, the acme of quietly made such success as to stand beauty, the gem of the world. I refer to well in the front ranks aniong their that magnificent structure at Agra, the brothers in the art.
Taj Mahal, which was raised by the The planning of the household arch- great Mogul of India, Shah Jehan, to his itecture of this country is one of those royal spouse and adored mate, Moomtaza. silent influences that have been desig- Built for a queen, it seems to immortalize nated “the power behind the throne." in marble the exalted love of man for It is rarely that a man who thinks
woman, and in a beauty which is unienough of the comfort and well-being of versal in its ideality, it appeals to the his wife and family to invest his money spirit of the present century quite as in a new dwelling house will not listen keenly as to that in which its graceful to the suggestions and desires of the columns rose to adorn the earth. One of woman who is to spend the most of her our eloquent Americans thus expressed time within its walls. If the first plan himself after gazing in awe upon its seems quite satisfactory to him, her quick sculptured beauty. “There are four or eye will soon discern where it could be im- five Taj Mahals! It has one appearance proved, and by frequent consultation, at sunrise, another at noon, another at the original design is often so distinctly sunset and another by moonlight. Inmodified as to become practically a new deed the silver trowel of the moon and idea. The various schemes for con- the golden trowel of the sunlight and the venience and beauty which are orig- leaden trowel of the storm build and reinated by women, the filling of a nook build the glory, so that it never seems or corner with a closet or the ornamenta- twice alike. It has all moods, all comtion of a hall or archway, the suggestion plexions, all grandeurs. From the top as to color and harmony, so often ema- of the Taj, which is 250 feet high, springs nate from the mind of the wife, that a spire thirty feet higher and that is of one may compare the home-building to enamelled gold! What an anthem in the feathering of the nest of a bird, with eternal rhythm! Lyrics and elegies tiny soft plumes from her own warm in marble! Sculptured hosannas! Mabreast.
sonry of supernatural hands! Mighty Perhaps in all the occupations chosen doxology in stone! I shall see nothing by women for self-support, none is more to equal it till I see the great white elegant or refined than architecture. throne.” The magnificence of the models which The greatest woman architect that the are brought before the eye in beautiful world has ever known and whose glory drawings or other reproductions, — the will ever stand first in the annals of great delicacy and yet strength of hand re- works produced by women, whether now quired in the copying and designing or in ages to come, was Queen Artemisia of lines and curves, - the uplifting of of Caria. When Mausolus, the king, the spirit into an atmosphere of calm died, his widow seemed henceforth almost and steadfast beauty, the poetry which wholly absorbed in the memory of him. accompanies the very rudiments of this She built in his honor, at Halicarnassuperb art, are alike elevating and har- sus, that magnificent monument or maumonizing, while the actual labor is of soleum, which was known as one of the the most attractive kind. It is not to be seven wonders of the world,” and wondered at that the successful women which became the generic name for all who have accumulated small fortunes in superb sepulchres. She employed the this profession should speak of it with most renowned orators of the age to imenthusiasm, and it is a great encourage- mortalize the glory of her husband by ment to those who have a soul for art writing and reciting his praises. At the and natural talent for design.
consecration of the wondrous fabric To return to the historical story of which she had reared in his honor, she the influence of women upon architecture, offered a prize for the most eloquent it may be said that never in the world eulogy on Mausolus. All the orators of has been builded so supreme and admira- Greece were invited to the contest, but Theopompus bore off the prize. She lasting form, - a form which has often daily mixed some of her husband's ashes won the undying admiration and wonder with her drink, so that, e'er their spirits of the world. She is, and has ever met in Hades, her body was the tomb of proved herself, capable of carrying origihis.
nal designs to a triumphant issue, and in Thus in all ages, as in the present, architecture, as in all the other useful or woman has proved herself capable of ornamental arts, she is certain to attain large, noble and lofty ideas, and, when distinction and achieve fame. given the means, has been able to put her magnificent conceptions into solid and
CORA LINN DANIELS.
THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY,
N the 15th of June, 1897, the came into possession of $3,000,000, in
The special was fully equipped for the place it was feature of the occasion was the gradua- to take among American institutions of tion of the first group of fifteen students learning. It is a genuine product of our who have completed their four years' rich and varied soil. Unlike the old unicourse in the Medical School, which was versities of Europe and America, it has opened four years since. Forty advanced not been the product of centuries of students received degrees of Doctors of growth. A clever American poet once Philosophy, thirty-six completed their said of the wonderful growth of the college work and received their A. B. de- United States: grees, and four were awarded certificates “Not like old Rome, slow waxing into state, of proficiency as electrical engineers. The century that freed beholds us great." is a significant fact, that while six of the In less than a quarter of a century, fifteen graduates in medicine were from the Johns Hopkins University has beBaltimore, only three of the forty Doc- come recognized as one of the world's tors of Philosophy were from the home great institutions of learning. of the University. The requirements The University was fortunate in securof the Medical School are as high as in ing for its first and only President, Dr. any similar institution in the world, be- Daniel C. Gilman, who was elected Deing the usual A. B. degree, a working cember 30th, 1874. Since receiving his knowledge of French and German, and a A. B. degree at Yale in 1852, his life has good foundation in Biology and Chemis- been crowned with academic honors. try. One hundred and twenty-three .
and twenty-three His alma mater conferred on him the deyoung men and women have been stu- gree of master of arts in 1855; Harvard dents of the Medical School of the Uni- made him a LL. D. in 1876, Columbia versity during 1896–97, and among those College in 1887, Yale in 1889, and the who received diplomas in medicine was University of North Carolina, the same one woman.
year. From 1856 to 1872, Dr. Gilman Johns Hopkins, the wealthiest citizen was Librarian, Secretary of the Sheffield of Baltimore, toward the close of his long Scientific School, and Professor of Physilife, conceived the idea of endowing an cal and Political Geography in Yale; university and hospital, and on the 24th from 1872–75, President of the Univer
, of August, 1867, the Johns Hopkins sity of California. University was incorporated. Three The inauguration of President Gilman years later, on June 13th, 1870, the took place in the Academy of Music, Board of Trustees was organized. Noth- Baltimore, on the 22d of February, 1876, ing more was done from that time until in the midst of a distinguished assemthe death of Mr. Hopkins, when, by the blage, including the Governor of Maryprovisions of his will, the University land, the Mayor of Baltimore, the
Trustees of the University, the President must ever be a matter of regret that the of the Baltimore City College, the Presi- Johns Hopkins University, splendid as dent of Harvard University, and many its work has been and will be, is deprived well-known residents of Baltimore. Dr. of one of the chief attractions of college Charles W. Eliot, in his congratulatory life which belongs to an university town, address, said: “The oldest university such as for centuries have made Oxford of America cordially congratulates the and Cambridge in England, and Camyoungest, and welcomes it as a worthy bridge in America the homes of great ally; he commended the new university Universities. ''
universities. Such would have been the on being "unsectarian;" adding that it charm of the Johns Hopkins University was most appropriately so in a city named had the intention of its founder been carafter the founder of a colony to which all ried out, and the University been estabChristian sects were welcomed, and in the lished at Clifton, instead of in the heart State in which religious toleration was of a great city, with no campus, no expressly declared in the name of the grounds, no distinct college life, no pecuGovernment for the first time in the his- liar social attractions, no brilliant gathertory of the world. In the course of his ings, such as Max Müller has formed at remarks, Dr. Eliot reminded President Oxford, and which has made the seat of Gilman that “to build an university Harvard University the most cultured needs not years only, but generations," town in the United States. But it is and that “it was a service which would useless to regret what cannot be changed ; tax every power of the mind."
and wise to accept the inevitable. Dr. Gilman, in his inaugural, said that When the Johns Hopkins University the buildings should be, temporarily, in the opened, on the 3d of October, 1876, heart of the city and, at length, on the site eighty-nine students were enrolled. The at Clifton (the home of Johns Hopkins, number has been steadily increasing, near Baltimore), adding that measures year after year, during the twenty-one had been taken for the improvement of years of the existence of the University, Clifton as
university site. The until it reached 596 in the year 1896. President further hinted that that Of this number, 123 were from Marysite, beautiful in itself, and already land; the remainder came from every part well-planted, would become an academic of the United States, and a sprinkling grove, with temples of learning so appro- from Europe and the Orient. Up to priate, so true and so well built, that no 1896, 3,142 students have been instructed other ornaments will be essential for at the University. Of these, 800 have beauty, and yet in that entire neighbor- been engaged as instructors, either at the hood no work of art will be out of place. parent university, or in other universiIn his first Report, President Gilman ob- ties and colleges. This single fact shows served that: “ The Trustees have not for- the high character of the education gotten the importance of developing Clif- acquired at Johns Hopkins. ton with reference to the purposes to From the beginning, Dr. Gilman and which it will be devoted. In addition to the Trustees of the University have enthe constant care of thegrounds, much con- deavored to engage the foremost professideration has been given to the various sors for the various departments. The requirements of the University, for result has been that the several chairs public buildings, residences, botanical have been acceptably filled by some of gardens, play-grounds, etc.”
the leading educationists of the time. manifestly the intention of Johns Hop- In addition to the regular academic staff kins that the University should be at of 106 professors and associates, distinClifton, and such was the original pur- guished lecturers, at home and abroad, pose of the Trustees, as mentioned by have been invited from time to time to President Gilman.
deliver special courses during each schoThe traveller who has been abroad
Among these eminent men and visited Oxford, the nursing mother were James Russell Lowell, Dr. John S. of so many illustrious Englishmen, must Billings (recently appointed Chief Lihave been impressed, as he walked down brarian of New York), James Bryce, EdHigh Street, with the noble display of ward A. Freeman, Matthew Arnold, Dean college buildings (twenty-seven in all), Stanley, Canon Farrar, Sidney Lanier, many of them taken in at a glance. It James A. Harrison, Woodrow Wilson,
James Schouler, Sir Archibald Geikie liam Wirt, John P. Kennedy, Chief Jus(the celebrated Geologist), Andrew D. tice Taney, Jefferson Davis, and Robert White (formerly President of Cornell E. Lee. University), Alexander Graham Bell (of A few words may be said here of the telephone fame), Frederic Brunetière, general Library of the University, which and many others.
occupies the upper floor of McCoy Hall. The college courses are divided into The number of bound volumes in the seven groups: Classical, Mathematical- main library, and in the various seminaphysical, Chemical-biological, Physical- ries and laboratories, is 80,000, which have chemical, Latin-mathematical, Histor- been carefully collected by the advice of ical-political, and Modern languages; the leading instructors of the University. and these are sub-divided into appropri- The books are admirably supplemented by ate seminaries, the whole forming a com- 1,200 periodicals, comprising all the leadplete university curriculum. In addition ing literary and scientific publications of to the seven courses just enumerated, the world, in all languages. Important special mention should be made of the new books are added as soon as published, Medical School, which was opened in
and thus the collection is always kept up 1893, and promises to become an impor- to date. It should be mentioned that, in tant department of the University. It the main library, as well as in the special already numbers 125 students, with a libraries and laboratories of the Universtaff of 38 professors and associates. sity, are found students representing all The students enjoy the privilege of at- classes and conditions of life. It should tending the clinics at the Johns Hopkins also be remembered that, in the republic Hospital.
of letters, as in the American Republic, all One of the most interesting and valu- men are equal. In both, men of the humable departments of the University is blest birth have reached the highest stathat of History and Politics, under the tions. Homer, the blind beggar, has filled direction of Dr. Herbert B. Adams, Pro- the throne of poetry for nearly 3,000 years; fessor of American and International Æsop, the slave, enchanted courts by his History. This department occupies wit; Socrates, the son of a stonecutter, seven rooms on the third floor of McCoy drew the noblest youths of Athens to his Hall. Its most precious possession is a feet by his wisdom; Petrarch, by his dilibrary of 18,000 books, and 50,000 vine gift of poetry, became the companion pamphlets, including the Bluntschli Li- of princes and cardinals. When Lorenzo brary, belonging to the late Professor the Magnificent escaped from the fatigues Bluntschli, of Heidelberg. This valu- of business to his favorite retreat on the able collection was purchased by German Arno, the sharers of his studious retirecitizens of Baltimore, and presented to ment were not the young patricians of the University in 1881. In this depart- Florence, but the accomplished poet, Polment the student devotes his time to his- itiano, the mirthful Pulci, the learned torical investigation, and is encouraged Scala, the thrice-gifted Michael Angelo, in his studies by the portrait busts of whose early genius Lorenzo had discoveminent historians and statesmen which ered and encouraged. . Some of these line the walls of the library. Next to raised themselves, by their supreme talthis department is one devoted to the ents, far above the accidental distinctions study of European history. This is also of birth and fortune. well supplied with appropriate books, Indifference to literature, and neglect and embellished with portraits of great of literary men, form the “unfinished men. The department of Southern His- window" of our otherwise almost perfect tory is an interesting room on the same republic. Let us never forget that great floor, in which are collected books and as Athens was in her Miltiades, Aristides, material relating to the history and lit- and Themistocles, she was more glorious erature of the Southern States, including in her Socrates, Plato and Sophocles. Colonial and Revolutionary manuscripts, Let us never forget that Rome, when at pamphlets and books about the Civil the height of her power and splendor, War, documents, autographs, etc. From most generously encouraged and richly the walls look down such distinguished rewarded her literary men. As our GovSouthern statesmen, scholars and soldiers ernment is modelled upon Rome, so let as the Calverts, John C. Calhoun, Wil- us imitate her appreciation of genius.