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there. In the midst of a year of distress, and neighbors from the Eastern Counties; when crops had failed owing to cold and the majority were people of substance wet summer, she wrote to her son in and well connected in the Old World. England :

Life, moreover, was stirring and pictur"When I thinke of the troublesome times

esque, and it centred round Margaret and manyfolde destractions that are in our na

Winthrop's home. French Catholics, tive Countrye, I thinke we doe not pryse oure such as the Sieurs d'Aulnay and La happinesse heare as we have cause, that we Tour, intrigued against each other in should be in peace when so many troubles are Winthrop's Hall chamber. Sojourners, in most places of the world.'

like Sir Harry Vane or Hugh Peter, The duties of a housekeeper, and those came and went. Daring adventurers, which belonged to her husband's office, such as Captain Underhill or Captain occupied her mind. The question of do

The question of do- Cromwell, relieved the sombreness of mestic service was already one which Puritanism by a dash of the wild and caused grave anxieties to the mistress of reckless buccaneer. a house. It does not appear that Win- Training-days on the Common, and still throp had in his family any Moors' or more the annual installation of magisnegroes; but he received in 1634 a license trates at Boston, were scenes which to entertain an Indian as a household glowed with some of the sunny richness servant.' Margaret Winthrop seems to of Elizabethan times. The processions have been more fortunate in her domestic through the street, and across the mararrangements than some of her neigh- ket-place, to the meeting-house, on these bors. Living as she did in a town, she festive occasions, were not without their had less difficulty in procuring English pomp and ceremony, while in appearance servants than those householders who the crowd of onlookers was far more inhabited country districts. Mary Dud- varied and picturesque than any gatherley, for instance, who lived ‘farre from ing in the Old World. The train-bands ye baye,' at Cambridge and Ipswich, was of colonial soldiers, whose burnished led a sad life by her maids.

armor, pikes, and muskets shimmered

in the sun, made a brave show, as they 'I thought it convenient,' she writes to her

marched to the sound of drum and mother, 'to acquaint you and my father what a great affliction I have met withal by my maide

clarion. Behind them came the group servant, and how I am like through God his of magistrates, large of build, and square mercie to be freed from it: at her first coming of countenance, wearing that demeanor of she carried herself dutifully as became a servant ;

natural authority, which in the New but since through mine and my husband's forbearance towards her for small faults she hath

World inspired the respect of men who got such a head, and is growen soe insolent that had placed the ocean between them and her carriage towards vs, especially myselfe is vn- their kings, princes, and all degrees of sufferable. If I bid her doe a thing shee will

artificial nobility. If the dark clothes of bid me doe it myselfe, and she says how she can give content as well as any servant but shee will English emigrants gave to the crowd a not, and sayes if I love not quietnes I was never prevailing tint of sombre hue, yet the so fitted in my life for shee would make me have black cloaks, starched bands, and steepleenough of it. If I should write to you of all the

crowned hats of the elders, were varied reviling speeches and filthie language shee hath vsed towards me I should but grieve you.'

with other and brighter figures. Here,

for example, stood apart a group of InApart from the difficulties and hard- dians in all their savage finery, their red ships which naturally fell to the lot of and yellow ochre, their feathers, their early emigrants, the life had many com- bows and arrows, their curiously empensations. There was, as yet, little broidered deerskin robes, surpassing in of the joyless gloom which, in the second impassive gravity the most sour-visaged generation, hung so heavily over New Puritan. There, again, rollicked a party England. Puritans though they were, of bearded, sun-blackened seamen, half the people were not morose, witch- traders, half buccaneers, puffing clouds haunted fanatics. Society was congenial, of smoke from under their broad brimmed for in tastes, interests, and religion, the hats of palm-leaf, and drinking from new settlers were united. Many grad their pocket flasks huge draughts of uates of Oxford or Cambridge lived in aqua vita, though both tobacco and the immediate neighborhood of Margaret brandy were forbidden to the townsfolk. Winthrop; many others were old friends Such were some of the aspects which

the New World presented to Margaret Southern States, with their ecclesiastical Winthrop. More important by far was hierarchies, their oligarchical society, the religious life of New England. At their huge landed estates, tilled by first the congregations were held in the slaves, their isolated life, and their open air under a tree; then they gathered, feudal administration of local governit is probable, in Governor Winthrop's ment and justice. It is as a representahouse ; finally, a mud-walled meeting- tive of this planter aristocracy that the house was built. Here were held the portrait of Mrs. Pinckney is painted. week-day lectures ; here also, at the Sab- And a charming picture, we may add, is bath services, John Wilson as pastor, and that which her descendant has drawn John Cotton as teacher, accompanied by and set against a background of the much doleful singing, ministered to the occupations, customs, manners, and spiritual wants of the community. Al- habits of thought of women of South ready those religious differences had Carolina in the eighteenth century. sprung up, which afterwards bore such

In 1738 Eliza Lucas, then a girl of bitter fruit in the colony ; Roger Wil. fifteen, the daughter of Colonel George liams was preaching against theocratic Lucas, an officer of the English army, government; Anne Hutchinson was busy who afterwards became Governor of with her revelations and prophesyings; Antigua, settled with her mother and and Samuel Gorton taught that there

younger sister in

sister in South Carolina. were no such places as heaven or hell. English by birth, and educated in EngSuch troubles scarcely disturbed the land, she threw herself with surprising serene faith of Margaret Winthrop. energy into the life by which she was Yet the close of her life was in other surrounded in her new home. Her ways full of anxiety. Her husband's father had barely had time to purchase estate had suffered by his devotion to the land and settle plantations, before he business of the State, and he was reduced was recalled to the West Indies. Mrs. to poverty. But he was not destined to Lucas was an invalid, and to the elder leave his wife a widow, and penniless. daughter fell the charge of all domestic On June 14th, 1647, when he was enter- affairs. At an age when most girls are ing on his eleventh term as Governor, still at school, she had on her shoulders Margaret Winthrop died. In his ‘Jour

In his 'Jour- the care of three plantations. nal,' Winthrop thus records his loss :- The management of a plantation was 'In this sickness the governour's wife,

in itself no light task. Miss Lucas bedaughter of Sir John Tindal, Knight, left this

gan her day at five o'clock in the mornworld for a better, being about fifty-six years ing. Her first visitor was the plantaof age; a woman of singular virtue, modesty tion nurse to ask for advice and medand piety, and specially beloved and honoured icine; then came the housekeeper and of the country."

the division of daily work to two hunWinthrop only survived his wife two dred men and maids. Letters had to be years; but, we regret to add, he lived written to the overseers, crowded with long enough to marry a fourth time. minute details of planting operations,

sheep-shearing, bacon-curing, soap-boilThe next volume in the series, ing, wood-cutting, salting of beef, or 'Eliza Pinckney,' carries us over a whole loading of vessels. Under the eye of the century and lands us in South Carolina, mistress the maids were set to their the most typical of the Slave states. The wool-carding,

The wool-carding, spinning, weaving, cutchange is one not merely of climate, ting and making of clothes. When once soil, and products; it is social, political, the machine was set in order for the religious, moral and industrial. We day, it probably ran with smoothness. leave behind the democratic commercial But Miss Lucas was not content to work group of Northern states, self-governing by routine. She was full of schemes. republics in all but the name, with their Now she tries an experiment of sending elective, representative, self-taxing as- eggs packed in salt to the West Indies. semblies, their independent congrega- At another time she cultivates plots of tions, their condensed population, their ginger, cotton, lucerne, or cassada, to small plots of land, townships, town see whether such crops were suited for meetings, and village politics. We the highlands of South Carolina. Her enter the colonial monarchies of the experiments in indigo proved a source

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of wealth to the colony. After many Mead's prescription could be made up. disappointments, she succeeded, for the At her own home she was an admirable first time, in establishing her crop, and specimen of the squire's wife. It was mastering the secret of its preparation. part of her daily life to visit the sick on Just before the Revolution, the annual her plantations. Fond of children, she value of the export of indigo was 1,107, not only taught her little sister, but 6601. — no slight boon for a girl to have held a school for a 'parcel of little nebestowed upon the province. "When,' groes.' Eager to be useful to those asks her biographer, with pardonable around her, she studied a law-book in pride, 'will any “New Woman” do order to make wills for her poor and unmore for her country?'

educated neighbors, 'who have a little In the midst of this busy life, Miss land, a few slaves and cattle to give Lucas made time to gratify other tastes. their children, that never think of makDevoted to music, she regularly set ing“ a will ” till they come upon a sick aside certain hours in the day to its bed, and find it too expensive to send to study, and writes to ask her father's town for a lawyer. permission to send to England for Can- Society in South Carolina had much tatas, Welden's anthems, Knolly's rules of the charm and many of the faults that for tuning.' She loved reading, and characterise the society of a territorial did not disdain novels. Her friend, aristocracy. It brought plenty of gaiety Colonel Pinckney, kept her supplied into the active life of Miss Lucas. Balls with books, though one of her neighbors at Charles Town, when the fleet came thought she would ‘spoil her marriage in were great events. Miss Lucas tells and make herself look old long before her father that she had danced a minuet she was so,' by her love of literature. with his

'I send herewith,' she writes, Col. Pinckney's books, and shall be much obliged to

'old acquaintance, Capt. Brodrick. A Mr. him for Virgil's works, notwithstanding this

Small (a very talkative man) desires his best same old Gentlewoman (who I think too

respects, and says many obliging things of you

for wch I think myself obliged to him, and has a great friendship for me) has a great

therefore punished myself to hear a great spite at my books, and had like to have thrown a volm of my Plutarch's Lives into the

deal of flashy nonsense from him for an hour fire the other day; she is sadly afraid, she

together.' says, I shall read myself mad.'

Then there was ' vizeting'among her Besides her interest in farming, her country neighbors. For the most part passion for music, her taste for liter- visits were paid by water. Rowed in ature, she had a genuine love of nature. long canoes by six or eight negroes, who She devotes a page of foolscap to a de- sang in perfect tune as they swung their scription of a nest of mocking-birds. paddles, she landed at one of the priShe spent hours in her garden, where vate wharves which were indispensable she tried to acclimatize new varieties of to a country house. If she drove, she plants. She delighted in trees, and went with her mother in a coach drawn speaks of them in stilted style indeed, by six horses, the gentlemen perhaps yet with genuine enthusiasm.

riding by the side on their spirited Nor was Miss Lucas in the least un- Chickasaws. The homes of the planter feminine. She is unaffected in her de- aristocracy were built on the English light when a box comes out from Eng- model, baronial mansions, with large land,containing materials for new clothes, rooms wainscoted in long narrow panels, books, and apples. The arrival of such with high carved mantels and deep winboxes was looked forward to with some- dow-seats. Hospitality was generous. thing more than curiosity when almost all Lavish dinners, where wine and food the luxuries, and many of the necessaries, were alike plentiful, served with fine of life came from the mother country. silver, damask, and Indian china, were Carriages, bedsteads, furniture, and bas- followed by the scraping of fiddles, and a kets were made in England. Even the dance in which, either indoors or out, materials for the fashionable fad of in the ballroom, the servants' hall, or on japanning tea-caddies were imported. the lawn, the whole household, white * Meddicines' also came from home, and and black, took part. Grave minuets, or Miss Lucas, who suffered from head- cheerful country-dances, were danced aches, had to wait six months before Dr. with gentlemen in powdered hair, square

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cut coats, long waistcoats, breeches, and The little girl and her present, the buckled shoes, by Miss Lucas and her father and mother and their two boys, girl friends, dressed in their best attire of were received by the Princess with the brocade or lute-string, with huge hoops, greatest cordiality, saw the whole family, and towering 'heads,' and high-heeled and apparently had an interview which shoes.

lasted considerably more than two hours. One other feature in the character of The Princess and her daughters asked a this South Carolinian gentlewoman re- number of questions, some of which were mains to be noticed. She was unaffect- of a domestic character, such as whether edly religious. In the pleasant fashion Mrs. Pinckney suckled her own children. of an elder sister she warns her brother Others related to the Colony, its constiagainst the sneers of Voltaire or the tution, its foundation, its manufactures; jibes of the Encyclopedists. Her simple others to the Indians, their color and piety stands out in her 'private devo- manners; others to the homes of South tions,' or in her ‘Resolutions.'

Carolinans, their food, their wine, their Miss Lucas was now twenty-three mode of eating and dressing turtle. years of age. Her father had already Among other observations which Mrs. proposed to her two eligible suitors. As Pinckney makes are these two. She to the first she knew him too slightly. notes the heartlessness of Londoners, and As to the other he was too old ; 'the comments on the very disagreeable habit riches of Chili and Peru, if he had them, of perpetual card-playing. could not purchase a sufficient esteem for The Pinckneys remained in England him to make him my husband. She till March, 1758, when troubles on the therefore begged to make her own choice. frontier, arising out of the Seven Years' It was not long in coming. In 1744 she War, made her husband's return necesmarried Colonel Charles Pinckney, a sary. They left behind them their two childless widower, twenty years her boys to be educated in England. Hardly senior, whose first wife had been her had they landed in South Carolina than dearest friend. He was a man holding a Mr. Pinckney was struck down by fever very distinguished position in the colony, and died. After the first agony of grief an eminent lawyer, Speaker of the House was over, his widow devoted herself to the of Assembly, and a wealthy planter. education of her daughter and the care of Their marriage proved a very happy one. her estates. She had also to choose a

As a married woman Mrs. Pinckney school for her sons. continued to live the same active life as In 1768 Mrs. Pinckney's daughter before, though her anxieties were in- married, and she was now a lonely wocreased by the birth of three children, man. Already the shadows of the comtwo sons and a daughter. In 1752 her ing Revolution were beginning to gather. husband accepted the position of Com- But South Carolina was firmly bound to missioner of the Colony in London. A the Mother Country, not only by comvoyage of twenty-five days from Charles merce, but by the tie of personal loyalty. Town brought them to England. It is Few of the natives of the province even curious to read that their first step was dreamed of cutting themselves adrift to hire a house at Richmond for innoc- from England, however strongly they ulation against the small-pox. This im- might sympathize with their brethren portant precaution taken, she desired, as at Boston. Up to 1775, few signs of a loyal subject, to see what there was of the approaching storm appear in Mrs. Royalty. A long and interesting ac- Pinckney's letters. With her sons it count is given of her visit with her hus- was otherwise. band and children to the widowed Prin- In 1769 the eldest, Charles Pinckney, cess of Wales at Kew. Carrying a pres- returned to South Carolina, after takent with them for their little girl to give, ing his degree at Oxford and being they sent in a card thus inscribed:

called to the Bar. Years of absence 'Miss Harriott Pinckney, daughter of Charles

in England had not weakened the atPinckney, Esq'. one of His Majesty's Council tachment which he and his brother of Sonth Carolina, pays her duty to Her High- Thomas felt for their native country. ness and humbly begs leave to present her with an Indigo bird, a Nonpareil, and a Yellow bird,

A picture had been painted of him, bewch she has brought from Carolina for her High

fore he left the Old World, which represents him in the attitude of declaim


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ing against the Stamp Act, while his From such a woman it would be vain brother was nicknamed by his English to expect those homely touches, which companions The Little Rebel.' How not only heighten tragedy by the force of deeply the latter felt the threatening contrast, but help us to realize how oraspect of affairs, is proved by the fact dinary women pursued the even tenor of that he had studied the art of war at their ways under the gathering blackthe Military Academy of Caen, and, as ness of the Revolutionary storm. For the following extract from a letter to these we must return to the letters of Mr. Ladson shows, had prepared him- Mrs. Pinckney, the main interest of self in other ways for the outbreak of whose life was still centred in the careers hostilities.

of her sons, the health of her daughter,

the growth of her grandchild, the en*At this period,' writes Thomas Pinckney, American politics occupied much of the pub grossing cares of household duties, or lic mind in London, and the young Americans the simple pleasures of society. Here attended a meeting of their countrymen con- we find in abundance those petty details vened by Dr. Franklin, Mr. Arthur Lee, Mr. which, by their juxtaposition with graver Ralph Izard, &c., for the purpose of framing subjects, bring out into fuller relief the petitions to the Legislature and the King, deprecating the Acts of Parliament, then passing,

tragic forces at work in America. Into coerce our Country. But the petitions not terwoven with tender messages, domestic having the desired effect, and foreseeing that anxieties, or local gossip, runs a crimson an appeal must probably be made to arms, we endeavored to qualify ourselves for the

web of allusions to political events, event and hired a sergeant of the Royal Guards which, though at first slender, gradually to drill us at your Father's lodgings. From widens till the whole texture is red with him we obtained the knowledge in military the horrors of war. Between Mercy service we could derive from a person of his

Warren and Eliza Pinckney there was rank.

little in common. Character, tastes, It is not our purpose to follow the early associations, interest, circumstances, course of the struggle which ended in were all unlike. Yet, under the pressure American independence. In the North- of the national struggle, the two women ern States matters 'advanced far more see eye to eye, and feel heart with heart, rapidly than in the South, as was only the same patriotic devotion to the cause to be expected from the social, religious, of American Independence. industrial, and political differences be- Mrs. Pinckney, at the beginning of tween the two great groups of colonies. the momentous year, 1775, was living at In the one case, separation was probably Charles Town. It is not altogether uninevitable; in the other, it might have characteristic of the woman that one of been at least postponed.

The life of the first hints of the gravity of the situaMercy Otis, who in 1754 had married tion comes through her difficulty in perJames Warren, illustrates the rapid forming a shopping commission for her growth of the desire for independence daughter in the country. In February, in Massachusetts, which was the hot- 1775, the decree of the Continental Conbed of revolutionary feeling. Mrs. gress had come into operation, and no Warren was from the first in the thick British goods were imported. of the fray. As the wife of James Warren, the sister of James Otis, the inti

'Jones sent me word,' writes Mrs. Pinckney,

'that the stores had been searched and he could mate friend of John and Samuel Adams,

not get a bit of fine washing Pavillion gauze the personal enemy of Governor Hutch- [mosquito net] anywhere. I afterwards sent inson, and a bitter political satirist, she old Mary, with directions not to miss a store, herself played no inconsiderable part in

and to let them know it was Cash. After two or the movement. She was, however, a

three days' search she got me some coarse stuff

for wch I payed ready money.' woman without a spark of humor, whose mind was always on stilts, never At the close of the same letter is an stooping to chronicle small beer, rarely allusion which brings before us the first addressing even her husband except in visible sign of resistance. 'I send,' she academic style and with measured de- says, '16 Cake knots for my dear Boy, corum. She begins one of her letters to whom remember me tenderly. Mrs. with the statement that she will for once Prideau, 'tis thought, will dye of a pleuignore politics, having so much to tell risy.' Mrs. Prideau did die, and, as her husband of domestic interests. mourning goods were all imported, she

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