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him without waiting to be sent for. The the Cuban, Weyler has been able to take alcalde tremblingly informed the Captain- the field and continue his hide-and-seek General that he had been busily engaged game with the few armed patriots who in attending to the arrangements for his have remained in the field. Strange as reception. Scarcely heeding his apology, it may seem, the Spanish General-inWeyler demanded to know how many Chief has lacked determination, or milivolunteers he had in the place. The tary ability to crush any one band of alcalde replied that there were none, and insurgents, but has rather carried on his in reply to the next question “why?" warfare by the slow process of starvation, he endeavored to explain that none of which in a fertile island like Cuba, is the residents of the town desired to do extremely slow, while the Cubans have military duty, whereupon the chief thun- simply waited. I have known the Spanish dered that the place was a hot-bed of in- columns in the field to avoid meeting a surgent sympathizers, and that was the small band of armed insurgents, although, reason. Then he inquired the number of when properly officered, there is no disregulars doing garrison duty in the place. puting the fact that the Spanish soldier "Eighty men,” replied the alca
will fight. The operations of the columns “Too many to protect the property of consist chiefly of marching back and rebel sympathizers !” exclaimed Weyler, forth through the country, slaying cattle, and he gave orders to have all but eight digging up potato gardens, and cutting of the garrison incorporated into his own down banana plants, and even this work ranks, at the same time mulcting the is not done thoroughly. While on my alcalde in the sum of $100. As if to journey in search of Gomez, my attention show his further contempt for the place, was called to a plantation of bananas he refused the breakfast prepared in an- which the soldiers had attempted to ticipation of his arrival, but, calling for destroy. In that part of the field borsome country cheese, he ate it with some dering the road, they had swung their of the hard biscuit furnished for the machetes most successfully, clipping off soldiers.
the tops of the plants, but where the At the next town to which he came, field was bordered by dense forest, it was the alcalde showed him a list of twenty- not damaged, owing to the soldiers' five volunteers, whereupon the General fear of lurking insurgents. declared the town to be a loyal one, and Occasionally one of the columns is fired as a reward for the faithful disposition of upon by ten or a dozen rebels. The his subjects he added to its garrison, Spaniards will return their fire in comtwenty regular soldiers.
pany volleys, seldom making any deterAn example of Weyler's peculiar mined effort to capture their enemies, methods may be shown in another in- and after using a great deal of ammunistance. In certain districts of Cuba some tion in useless firing, they return to the fine brands of coffee are grown, which centre of operations and report an action are highly appreciated in the towns. As in which they have killed about twice as a war measure, the rebel government many men as were actually opposed to decreed that none of this coffee should be them. taken into any of the towns or villages Almost every one, who has attempted to under pain of death. As the insurgents explain Weyler's inability to put down allowed no one in the country where the the insurrection, has accounted for it by coffee was grown, and having hanged stating that the Spaniards do not desire those who had shown a disposition to to terminate the lamentable condition of violate their decrees, it was an easy affairs, owing to the opportunity prematter for them to have a monopoly, at sented to them for private gain. While least of the coffee. Almost immediately we listen to the reasons for this belief, that Weyler became aware of this fact we are told, almost in the same breath, he published his decree, prohibiting that Spain is bankrupt, the island of the planters from gathering their crops Cuba ruined, and the army unpaid for at all. That the planter, if a loyalist, months past. Although there is no was unable to gather his crop, while, if doubt that a Spanish officer will avail an insurgent, was unaffected by any of himself of an opportunity to put money Weyler's decrees, is apparent. .
in his pocket as quickly as will one of Owing to the irresolute character of our own politicians, it is a hard matter for him to do so when there is not money fore the wind. To prevent insurgent reenough to pay his own salary and that of occupation of the mountainous country, his subalterns. Judging from my own the Spaniards are busily engaged in conknowledge of the Spaniards in this war, structing little forts all through it, such I do not believe that there is a single as they maintained in the last war. Spanish officer in Cuba to-day, or soldier It is foolish for the Cuban, and his either, who would not throw up his hat sympathizing newspaper correspondent with joy upon hearing that the war was to say that in spite of Weyler's cruel at an end and that they were about to war upon the pacifico, he has not been go home. That Spain is bankrupt, that successful, and that the insurrection is she has not paid her troops for six stronger than ever. As has been conmonths, and that she or her officers are fessed to me in the field, since the death continuing the war for the money there of Maceo, the insurgents have steadily is in it, is a statement, the fallacy of lost strength; and, when it is too late, which even our newspaper correspond
the Cuban laborante in this country will ents should at once see.
wake up to the fact that he has been deThe situation in Cuba at present is ceived by the imbecile reports from Key this. The Island is divided in half by West, inventions of Havana correspondthe Jucaro-Moron Trocha. To the east ents who have never seen a real live of the Trocha, the cities and towns are rebel in their lives. in the hands of the Spaniards, while the Weyler has announced that the westcountry is practically under the control ern half of the island is now pacified, of the insurgents, just as the country and that as soon as the winter campaign west of the Trocha was before Weyler opens, he will move his troops to the took the field. My last information from other side of the Trocha, and then put the extreme western province, Pinar del into effect the same plan of campaign as Rio, was to the effect that the blockade he has carried out in the west. If the had been raised from the Spanish towns armed insurgents there, under General and that the pacificos were allowed once Carlixto Garcia, cannot make a better more to go into the fields and till the soil. showing for themselves than those under I am also told that there are no insurgents Maximo Gomez, the poor pacifico will there, save a few scattered bands, who be made, as he has felt it in the West, to remain in the hills and fly before the feel the brunt of the war, and eventually approaching columns. The great cen- Cubans and their sympathizers in this tral provinces, lying between Pinar del country will be convinced that battles canRio and the Trocha, are practically not be fought, and independence won, by uninhabited, except by wandering bands waiting for the enemy to get tired and of rebels, and wherever there may be go home. Surely if the independence is a suitable force of Spanish soldiers. worth having, it is worth fighting for. General Gomez is still roaming around We might ask those prophets who tell us between the bushes and the savannas, that they can foresee, and who predict in the vicinity of Sancti-Spiritus. When almost to a day when the Spaniards will I last saw him he had with him
130 have to withdraw, what will Gomez and armed men, and about an equal num
do when that great“ scuttling.” ber of servants. Although the Spanish takes place, upon finding themselves in troops were continually on the move possession of a city like Havana, after about him, they were unable either to their three years of bushwhacking. surround or to capture him. They were
THOMAS R. DAWLEY, JR. eminently successful, however, in breaking up the provisional government's sys
The magnitude of the sacrifices made by Spain tem of prefecturas, workshops, etc. The in her attempts to subdue her revolting colonies, famous Siguenea,” that supposedly im- remarks the London “Spectator," is seen in the pregnable stronghold, where the insur
official figures issued by the Spanish Minister of
War. The following forces were sent to Cuba gents had their hospitals, etc., and which
between Nov., 1895, and May, 1897: Thirteen it was inferred the Spanish soldiers never expeditions, comprising 181,738 men, 6,261 officould or never would try to enter, has been cers, and 40 Generals; and 91 guns and 12 quickrepeatedly invaded, while the Cubans firing guns. If this tragedy of a nation were there who were secure in their belief of
not so infinitely pathetic there would be some
thing comic in these 40 Generals utterly helpsafety have been scattered like chaff be
less before a mob of ragged insurgents.
COLLEGE EDUCATION, AND ITS ADVANTAGES *
have risen to prominence and efficiency
ing. This is a live question; number of well-known writers, statesfor if such training is not of high im- men, and philosophers who have not been portance, civilized communities are com- college-bred. It is impossible to argue mitting a great blunder in donating from persons of exceptional ability; the vast amounts to these institutions. It men and women of genius are so abunwould be another of those purposeless dantly endowed that they will make a wastes of labor and of money, of which way for themselves, in spite of all disadall ages have been guilty, while many vantage. The fact that a great man parents, who have exercised economies makes a mark in the world without colfor years to send their boys to college, lege training, is not to be accepted as a would have imposed those exacting and demonstration that the average person laborious self-denials upon themselves for does not need the college, nor even that nothing; and thousands of ambitious and the great man would not have been benimpecunious youths, who have struggled efited by such training. and are struggling to pay their way In the case of several of our Presithrough college, would have made a sad dents, who have been cited as instances misdirection of their efforts. This is a of success without college training, it serious matter.
has been overlooked that the West Point Is the college course necessary? Is school gives as thorough a drill as any it really valuable? Is it calculated to college, and that General Grant, for ingive a young man an advantage in life, stance, must be set down among the colto make him more capable of helping lege men, on that ground. This point himself, or benefiting the world, or doing of view would also include a large numwork of a high order? Two generations ber of the most celebrated generals on ago, the question was considered to have both sides in our Civil War; it would but one side; but in our time it has been also include the leaders in our war with raised anew and considered from various Mexico, and in the War of 1812. We aspects of the matter. It should be are also to notice that Thomas Jefferson, settled, in order that men who think of a President of the United States, was a giving their money to such institutions man who was so impressed by the value should know what they are doing; in or- of colleges, that he became the founder der that parents, who are considering of one. We are also to notice that the whether they will send or not send chief men of the Confederacy, Robert E. their children to college, should know Lee, and Stonewall Jackson, were advohow to decide; in order that young peo- cates of the higher learning, for the one ple who are being urged to enter upon a was a college president and the other a college course, or to stay at home when college professor. they have the opportunity for college Among our great statesmen Daniel education, should know what they are Webster was easily the greatest, for the doing. There ought to be such clear solidity of his thought and the valuable ideas as to matters of advantage and of body of work which he has left behind; disadvantage, in regard to this question, and he was a college man. It is imposthat no one need hesitate.
sible to imagine that Washington or LinTaking up the plea against the col- coln would have been injured in any way leges, we are told over and over again by a college training; and it is conceivof the many celebrated characters who able that, extraordinary and talented as * Though not designed in any way as a re
these men were, they might have been joinder to the article which appeared in the
profited in several respects. We are not August number of this magazine on “The Self- to overlook the fact that a large number Culture of the World's Workers,” the present of very successful men, who have been paper gives the arguments for the other side of the question, and aims to prove that the self
denied the privilege of college training, made man would benefit by a college education.
have frankly stated their feeling of -ED. S. C. loss on that account. One might have
thought that so successful an actor as many experiments and have had many Edwin Booth was quite eminent enough heresies; but before we give ear seriously without a regular education ; but fre- to the heresy of advocating the abolition quently, in his letters and conversations, or the belittling of college education, let he reproached his father for having de- us be sure of our lessons from experience. nied him, when he had ample means, Call the roll of the great English writers, the education which he himself had re- historians, poets, novelists and essayists, ceived. It is well known that Disraeli and we will find that most and the greatdrove John Bright to the study of his- est of them, have, with rare exceptions, tory, by his taunts in the House of Com- been college men. In the list are Bacon mons upon his ignorance of facts, which and Milton, Swift and Johnson, Wordsif he had been a University man, would worth and Byron, Shelley and Tennyson, have been a part of his education. Browning and Carlyle. Take the states
We are told that Herbert Spencer has men or the warriors of England, and the performed a gigantic task without hav- same fact appears. ing been a University man; but it is It goes without saying that Universireally no arrogance to claim, at this day, ties cannot make great men without the when Spencer's work has been examined materials. There were great men before and discussed for many years, that in there were Universities; that king of some respects it is conceivable that Spen- men, Agamemnon, no doubt was without cer would have avoided a number of a college course, and there were great rocks on which he has struck, if he had men even before him. But even so far been thoroughly trained as a youth in back as the times of Moses, we find that Cambridge or Oxford. Who will not the mighty law-giver had been trained agree that our wonderful Walt Whitman in the great University of Egypt. The would have been made less barbarous brightest minds of Athens and of Rome and no less poetic if he had been a col- enjoyed what was equivalent to our college-bred man? We are told that Shakes- lege training. The bright lights of the peare was not a University man; but let Middle Ages were generally University us remember that John Milton was, and men; a large per cent. of the bright so far as style is concerned Milton is, the lights of modern times are graduates of superior of any man who ever wrote Eng- our higher seats of learning. lish.
Nor must we overlook the fact that We have been told that colleges make the greatest of our American writers have people impractical ; that some employers been college men; Bryant and Longfeldo not want a college-bred man about. low, Lowell and Holmes and Emerson. It is conceivable that some employers are The most accomplished editor to-day in small enough to dislike the neighborhood our country, Charles A. Dana, is a colof any superiority. It is also possible lege-bred man. Over against him may that a college education, by fitting one for be cited the instance of Horace Greeley ; a higher class of work, unfits him for a but while Greeley's influence was vast, lower. That is in some measure well. and his knowledge prodigious, his work,
Is it not a good thing that in these for wisdom and sound-mindedness and utilitarian times influences are brought philosophical breadth, was by no means to bear, which give some of our citizens equal to that of Dana. And the “Tribideals that seem impractical to the wholly une at its best under Greeley, whatsordid? Yet Mr. C. A. Dana of the New ever it does now, never influenced in York “Sun,” says that he prefers to have the same way the intelligence of the a reporter who can scan Horace or read country as the New York “Sun” does Livy; that he will report a dog-fight bet- to-day. ter than a man without classical educa- The fact is pointed out that such action.
complished writers as Howells, Henry When we consider the large number of James, and Aldrich are not college men. successful lawyers and physicians, writ- The claim made for the colleges, is not ers, railroad presidents, politicians and that one can never be a great writer, or financiers who are college-bred, we need statesman, or leader in any department, not fret over-much about the impeach- without a college course ; such a claim ment of college training as impractical. would be nonsense. But the claim is,
We are a new country and have tried that the greatest and best will be helped in their work, and in its perfecting, by a and depth than he did. A University, regular education ; and that the average and then a great library, would have person will be made vastly more efficient helped him to this. The college training by a college course.
not only widens the horizon, and adds to It is not necessary to assert or claim, the range of the mind, but it gives a in order to justify the maintenance of soundness to the judgment, and a logicalcolleges and their patronage, that every ness to the mental operations which are one who has an ambition to excel must usually lacking in men who have not reforthwith go through a college curricu- ceived this training. lum. The college course, manifestly, is The novelist W. D. Howells is a shinnot for everybody; not for the people ing example of a littérateur without colwithout means to pursue the course; not lege training; he has undoubtedly been for those who are pressed with duties or a steadfast student of many subjects; and for the means of a livelihood that will on account of his native ability and his not allow an intermission for six years; acquirements, it goes without saying that it may not be for persons of extraordinary he can "give points” to the majority of genius, although Napoleon was drilled his college-bred fellow-citizens. Neverin a military school that was equivalent theless, one can conceive that a course at to a college, and although the rosters of Harvard or Yale would have given him the English, Irish, and Scotch Univer- something in his mental equipment that sities contain the names of the greater he does not possess. It is conceivable number of the celebrities of Great Britain. that his critical work and his literary
The college course comes in a period judgments would have been of a sounder of life when the mind is most capable of kind, if in youth he had sat at the feet of impressions and of training ; so that the experts in intellectual drill. To appreyears of study in a college drill and ciate what is lacking in him, one need strengthen the mind for future acquisi- but lay some of his work alongside that tion and reception of knowledge. If, of Matthew Arnold, or of James Russell during the same period the youth is left Lowell — both University men. In these to himself, he turns to books at all, he is latter great writers one finds on occasion likely to read in an unsystematic way, a quality that makes Howells, to speak and to cram a large amount of undi- the truth, seem crude. gested information. The college course So long as men need to learn from each gives the foundation for systematic other, and from the generations that are knowledge, teaches how to study, and gone; so long as one can learn painting indicates to the udent where to find better from the direct tuition of a painter knowledge.
than from books; so long as music needs We are of the opinion of Carlyle, that to be taught; just so long will youths “the true University nowadays, is a
learn best to think and study by sitting library of books;” but no inconsiderable at the feet of those who have themselves part of the library of books had better been long practiced in the art of thinking be studied under the tuition of masters and of studying. in a University. One may obtain the Instead of considering in these modern same knowledge of facts in his own times the question of less education, library, as in a college, but the amount there is a crying need that every man and of mental drill will not be the same. woman who thinks, and who appreciates
Let us consider, for a moment, the the wrong tendencies of the age, should work of some celebrated men who have exert all possible influences on behalf of not been college bred. We hold with the higher education. Against the floods many that such an uncommon man as of demoralizing literature ; against the Robert Burns could have been helped multitude of crude and dangerous ideas into a much broader and deeper kind of of the present day; against the halfwork than that which he performed, if he thinking which is captivating and mishad been educated at one of the great leading so many ; against the mental inUniversities. Instead of being one of the ertia which is upon many minds, and minor singers, instead of being a spring which indisposes them to anything more by the wayside, as Carlyle calls him, than indifferentism, we need to place the Burns undoubtedly had the capabilities bulwarks of the highest education. We of producing work of much greater range are proud of the fact that we live in a