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has three points above it, the Perfians give it the found of

guliftan a bed of rofes ; but thefe points گلستان g in the word gay, as


are very feldom written in the Perfian manufcripts; fo that the diftinction between Sk and g can be learned only by use: thus they often writerofe-water, and pronounce it gulab.

See the remark on These letters are the liquids l, m, n, r.

is a slight aspiration, and is often redundant, as


behár the Spring, which is pronounced almost like beár; Herat a city in the province of Corafan, which the Greeks call Aria: therefore is the h of the French in honnête, whence came our honeft without an aspiration. At the end of a word it frequently founds like a vowel, as &ke, which

has the same sense and pronunciation as the Italian che which.



THE long vowels are

and may be pronounced as a, o, ce, in the words call, stole, "feed; as khán a lord, 1 ora to him, neez alfo; but the short vowels are expressed by small marks, two of which are placed above the letter, and one below it, as as ba or be, ❤ be or bi, bo or bu; thus,

اور خان


اگر آن ترک شیرازی بدست آرد دل مارا.


بخال هندویش بخشم سمرقند و بخارارا

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Egher ân turki Shirázi bedest âred dili mára

Bekhali hinduish bakfhem Samarcand u Bokhárára.

placed above a confonant shows that the fyllable ends

with it, as

S Sa-mar-can-di a native of Samarcand; the first of which fyllables is fhort, the fecond and third long by pofition, and the last long by nature: but this belongs to the profody. These short vowels are very feldom written in the Perfian books; and the other orthographical marks are likewife ufually fuppreffed except Medda ~, Hamza, and Tefhdid "; the two firft of which are most common. aun: Hamza

Medda above an | gives it a very broad found, as it therefore fometimes re



supplies the place of in words that end in prefents the article, as a nameï a book, or denotes the former of two substantives, asali náfeï mushk a bag of musk; or, lastly, it marks the second perfon fingular in the compound preterite of a verb, as yʊlʊ dádéï, which would regularly be rolʊ dádeh i thou haft given. Teshdid shews a confonant to be doubled, as turreh a lock of hair.


The omiffion of the short vowels will at firft perplex the ftudent; fince many words that are compounded of the fame confonants, have. different fenfes according to the difference of the vowels omitted: but until he has learned the exact pronunciation of every word from a native, he may give every short vowel a kind of obfcure found very common in English, as in the words fun, bird, mother, which a Mahometan would write without any vowel, fn, brd, mthr; thus the Perfian word bd may be pronounced like our bud.

The mark

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and Ya are often used as confonants, like our v and y; thus,

یہ ;juvan juvenis, giornane, young جوان ; Van a toon in Armenia وان

Yemen, that province of Arabia which we call the happy; julas Khodayár, a proper name fignifying the friend of God. before 1 often loses its sound, as khán a table.


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I would not advise the learner to study the parts of speech until he can read the Perfian characters with tolerable fluency; which he will foon be able to do, if he will fpend a few hours in writing a page or two of Persian in English letters, and restoring them after a short interval to their proper characters by the help of the alphabet. I shall close this fection with a piece of Perfian poetry written both in the Afiatick and European characters: it is an ode by the poet Hafiz, the first couplet of which has been already quoted; and a tranflation of it shall be inferted in its proper place.

بده ساتي مي باقي که در جنت نخواهي يانت کنار آب رکناباد و گلگشت مصادرا

Bedéh fákée meï bákée ke der jennet nekháhi yaft,
Kunári âbi rucnabád va gulghshéti musellára.

فغان كين لولیان شوخ شیرینگار شهر آشوب چنان بردند صبر از دل که ترکان خوان یغہارا

Fugán keïn lulián fhokhi fhiringári fhehrâshob
Chunán berdendi fabr az dil ke turkan khani yagmára.



ز عشق ناتمام ما جمال یار مستغنیست

بآب و رنگ و خال و خط حاجت روي زيبارا

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Ze eshki nátemámi má jemáli yári mustagnist
Beâb u reng u khál u khatt che hájet ruyi zibára.

حدیث از مطرب و مي گو و راز دهر كتر ج کس فکشود و نکشاید بحکمت این معمارا


Hadís az mutreb u mei gú va rázi dehri kemter jú
Ke kes nekshud u nekshaied behikmet ein moammára.
Ci fe

مین از آن حسن روزافزون که یوسف داشت دانستم که عشق از پرده عصمت قرون ارد زلیخارا

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Men az ân husni ruzafzún ke yufuf dashti danestem
Ke eshk ez perdéï ifmet berún ared zuleikhára

نصیحت گوش کن جانا که از جان دوستتر دارند جوانان سعادتمند پند پیر دانارا

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غزل گفتي و در سفتی بیا و خوش بخوان حافظ که بر نظم تو افشاند فلک عقد ثریارا

Gazel gufti va durr fufti beá va khosh bukhán Hafiz
Ke ber názmi to affháned felek ikdi furiára.

In this fpecimen of Persian writing the learner will obferve a few combinations of letters, which he must by no means forget; as lamelif, compounded of land I a, in the word mofella: but the most usual

combinations are formed with

which have the fingular property of caufing all the preceding letters to rife above the line, as nakchéer, nakhára, tas-héeh. The letters that precede m are alfo fometimes raised.

The Arabick characters, like those of the Europeans, are written in a variety of different hands; but the most common of them are the Niskhi, the Tâlik, or hanging, and the Shekefteh, or broken. Our books are printed in the Niskhi hand, and all Arabick manuscripts, as well as most Persian and Turkish histories, are written in it; but the Perfians write their poetical works in the Tâlik, which answers to the most elegant of our Italick hands. As to the Shekesteh, it is very irregular and inelegant, and is chiefly used by the idle Indians, who will not take time to form their letters perfectly, or even to infert the diacritical points; but this hand, however difficult



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